John Mueller

John Mueller
The University of Calgary | HBI · Werklund School of Education

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103
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Introduction
Skills and Expertise

Publications

Publications (103)
Article
Full-text available
Subjects differing in test anxiety had four free recall trials with a list of words that could be organized by associates or rhymes. The words were presented in a simultaneous display, with related items either grouped together spatially or separated. Anxiety deficits in organization previously observed with single-item presentation were reduced, b...
Article
Subjects studied pictures of faces while making judgments of honesty (“deep” processing) or sexual identification (“shallow” processing). In each case, half of the subjects were informed that there would be a subsequent test, while half were not so informed. Deep processing led to superior recognition memory, independent of test expectancy.
Article
Full-text available
Subjects made self-reference judgments about the same trait adjectives from two perspectives, once in terms of the real self and once in terms of the ideal self. Traits could then be partitioned into four categories: those descriptive of both real- and ideal-self concepts, descriptive of real self only (not in the ideal-self concept), descriptive o...
Article
High and low scorers on the Hidden Figures Test were compared on a free recall task that involved word triads having both an associative and a rhyming relationship. The words were presented either one at a time or in a simultaneous display, with the triad members either blocked or randomly arranged in the input sequence. Field independence had litt...
Article
Full-text available
Subjects made self- and other-descriptiveness decisions about various trait adjectives, as well as self- and other-possession decisions for a series of concrete nouns. The self-other difference was significant only for adjectives, and appeared for both decision speed and recognition. For adjectives, the self-other latency difference was more pronou...
Article
Forty-five rats were given 20, 50, or 100 training trials in a runway at 90%, 80%, or 70% of base weight. Acquisition running speed was a monotonie increasing function of both training and drive levels. Alley speed over 25 extinction trials was nonmonotonically related to amount of training, with the 50-trial groups more resistant to extinction tha...
Article
Subjects were instructed to use either different mnemonics (compound images or verbal combinations) on List 1 and List 2 in an A-B, A-Br transfer paradigm, or to use the same type of nmemonic strategy for both tasks. Compared to A-B, C-B control subjects who were similarly instructed, there was no evidence that switching the type of elaborative enc...
Article
Two experiments, one with lists containing items of mixed meaningfulness and the other with lists of unmixed meaningfulness, related response familiarization, via free recall learning, to subsequent paired-associate learning. Both relevant and irrelevant familiarization were superior to no familiarization, but the advantage of relevant over irrelev...
Article
In three experiments, subjects made judgments about the descriptiveness of likable or unlikable trait adjectives for themselves or some other person. The manipulation of interest was whether the target person was identified before or after the trait, which determined whether the person schema was accessed before or after the semantic content of the...
Article
Full-text available
Subjects of high or low test anxiety learned a free recall list composed of either concrete or abstract nouns, under instructions to think of images, phrases, or with no special strategy. Anxiety had no significant effect on total recall or subjective organization. High-anxiety subjects seemed to utilize a strategy of recall from short-term memory,...
Article
Subjects studied facial photographs while comparing them with their actual self, ideal self, or some other person. A subsequent recognition task showed no memory differences due to the study tasks, although in each case photos judged similar were remembered better than those judged dissimilar. There were no apparent face memory differences due to s...
Article
Full-text available
In two experiments, children were compared on recall following orienting tasks that involved attention to semantic or nonsemantic features of words. In Experiment 1, young children benefited from a semantic task as much as older children, compared to a nonsemantic task, but younger children still recalled fewer words after either task. In Experimen...
Article
Full-text available
Clustering in free recall following verbal-discrimination learning was assessed for two possible classifications: pairs vs right-wrong functions. There was considerable pairwise clustering in free recall in two different studies. This outcome does not follow directly from frequency theory or other explanations of verbal-discrimination learning whic...
Article
Full-text available
Subjects differing in test anxiety participated in a free recall experiment using a list of words that could be organized by associates or rhymes. The words were presented at either a 1-sec or a 6-sec rate, with related words presented consecutively in input. Compared to low-anxiety subjects, high-anxiety subjects recalled fewer rhyming words and h...
Article
Full-text available
Subjects made self-descriptiveness and other-descriptiveness ratings for the same set of 120 trait adjectives representing three levels of likability. Uniquely descriptive items took longer for self-descriptiveness decisions than did items that were descriptive of both self and other. Although unique features may be spontaneously generated as descr...
Article
Full-text available
Subjects had a single immediate test on each of six successive free recall lists, under instructions to think of either rhymes or synonyms during input. This was followed by final free recall and a final recognition test, the latter involving homonyms and synonyms of words in the primacy, middle, or recency positions of the free recall lists. The r...
Article
Full-text available
College students and elderly adults made both self-descriptiveness and other-descriptiveness decisions for the same set of 80 trait adjectives. Half of the adjectives were appropriate descriptors of young adults rather than elderly adults, whereas the remainder were more appropriate as descriptors for elderly adults. Rating each trait twice made it...
Article
College students and elderly subjects made self-descriptiveness and other-descriptiveness ratings for the same set of 120 trait adjectives representing three levels of likability. Elderly subjects attributed a greater number of likable traits uniquely to their best friend than to themselves alone, whereas young adults judged themselves more favorab...
Article
Subjects differing in test anxiety had a single immediate free recall test on each of eight unrelated 12-item lists, followed by final free recall for all items from all lists. There were no main effects due to test anxiety, but Anxiety by Sex interactions indicated that, while high anxiety was generally associated with worse performance than low a...
Article
Rats were given 50 direct placements in the goalbox following 50 acquisition trials in the complete runway. Extinction performance was found related to reward levels in both placement and acquisition, with the larger reward less resistant.
Article
Full-text available
The encoding variability of the right (R) and wrong (W) terms was manipulated in a verbal-discrimination task. When the number of different associates defined variability, pairs with low-encoding variability for both R and W terms were learned fastest, followed by pairs with high-encoding variability in both R and W terms. When the number of dictio...
Article
Subjects made decisions about a series of faces, then had a recognition test. The study tasks required a decision about self-reference (does it look like you), an abstract trait (e.g., friendliness), a single physical feature (e.g., thickness of lips), or multiple physical features (which is the person’s most distinctive feature). As in past resear...
Article
Balanced and polarized homographs were used to define high and low encoding variability right and wrong terms in verbal discrimination learning. The nature of the homograph made little difference for the right terms, but balanced homographs were better than polarized homographs as wrong terms, especially when the right terms were polarized homograp...
Article
Full-text available
Subjects classified as high or low test-anxious received a standard free recall test as a direct test (explicit memory) following a stem-completion indirect test (implicit memory). As usual, anxious subjects recalled less on the direct test, but were equivalent to low-anxiety subjects on the indirect test. This seemed to be general across anxious-n...
Article
Full-text available
Subjects selected on the basis of test anxiety scores made a judgment about landscape photographs during the study phase of a recognition experiment. The orienting tasks required attention to features that involved either deep (geographic location) or shallow (colorfulness) processing. Test performance was better for subjects who had made the deep...
Article
Trigrams varying in association value were paired with numeral responses in paired-associate lists with 1:1 S-R assignments. When the pairings systematically correlated the stimulus and response dimensions, performance was facilitated relative to list pairings that were random with regard to positions on the dimensions. Second lists were presented...
Article
Full-text available
Moderately depressed and nondepressed subjects rated positive- and negative-trait adjectives in terms of self-descriptiveness or other-descriptiveness across three presentations of the words. For both the self- and other-referenced tasks, moderately depressed subjects rated negative words more inconsistently across the three presentations than did...
Article
Full-text available
In two experiments, subjects were required to make various decisions about photographs of faces and were then given an unannounced recognition test. The deep processing decision involved a personality trait (e.g., generosity), another task involved an attribute solely deter- mined by some physical feature of the face (e.g., height of forehead), whi...
Article
The response learning and associative hookup stages of paired-associate learning were studied in 8-year-old children as a function of intralist conceptual similarity. Response learning, as measured by response recall, was facilitated by the presence of similar items, while the associative stage, as measured by a matching test, was somewhat impeded...
Article
Full-text available
Each of 16 Ss was required to learn four of 16 PA lists differing in the number of stimuli and response alternatives, An effect on the parameters of a duoprocess learning model was found for the number of stimuli, but not for response alternatives, or for successive lists.
Article
Full-text available
The encoding variability (EV) of the B terms (mediators) was varied in an attempt to contrast the mechanisms of unlearning and mediation in the three-stage chaining paradigm, i.e., A-B, B-C, A-C, and the corresponding pseudomediation groups. It was thought that the pseudomediation hypothesis might apply only for low-EV B terms, where unlearning mig...
Article
Full-text available
The effect of the worry and emotionality components of test anxiety was examined in a picture recognition task. Subjects performed orienting tasks that required a forced-choice decision concerning some physical attribute (e.g., colorfulness) or some abstract attribute (e.g., geographic locale). The abstract-feature decisions led to better recogniti...
Article
Over three tasks, subjects decided whether members of word pairs were spelled alike, were pronounced the same, or represented the same taxonomic category. Subjects in different response mode conditions indicated their decisions by (1) responding “same” or “different” for each pair, (2) responding only when the pair called for a “different” response...
Article
Informative feedback to the performer was varied in a study of observational learning. The task required Ss to learn to discriminate the correct member of each of a number of groups of three line-tilt designs. One group was always shown the correct design in the event of an error (SC), another was allowed to continue responding until the correct de...
Article
Subjects studied photographs of faces preselected as likable or unlikable, one at a time, and then they were presented four-face arrays in which the target faces were either present or absent. The subjects were also identified in terms of their tendencies to analyze other people according to personality traits. Face memory was not related to either...
Article
Full-text available
Feedback in A-Br transfer was varied, with Ss given specific correction (SC) on error trials by getting the correct pairing or given outcome correction (OC) on error trials by being given outcome information only (“right”/“wrong”). Error elimination was considered more likely with OC than with SC. Relative to A-B, C-D, there was more negative trans...
Article
Subjects made decisions about facial photographs and were tested later for recognition memory of the pictures. The study decisions involved judgments about abstract personality traits (e.g., friendliness) or physical features (e.g., lip thickness) relative to either self-comparisons or some nonself standard. The expected abstract-physical feature d...
Article
This paper will be posted at http://www.acs.ucalgary.ca/~mueller/MRC.pdf Introductory Psychology at the University of Calgary is one of the most heavily enrolled courses on campus, as it is on nearly every campus. Because of the numbers, it is taught in the large auditorium format, with nearly 400 bodies squeezed into close contact for enlightenmen...
Chapter
This chapter describes the advantages and disadvantages of the computing experience, using a case study in online research. In the educational domain, computing experiences have long been justified in other terms, in terms of benefits to the individual, warm and fuzzy things compared to the bottom line. In academe, computing experience is viewed as...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
General perceived self-efficacy pertains to optimistic beliefs about being able to cope with a large variety of stressors. It is measured with a ten-item scale that has proven useful in cross-cultural research. Previous findings suggest that the construct is universal and that it applies to the majority of cultures worldwide. Those findings were up...
Article
Full-text available
Developmental studies have demonstrated the utility of select executive function (EF) tasks for the early diagnosis of specific learning-related problems (e.g., Snow, 1998). However, previous data demonstrating schooling effects on EF measures suggests potential pitfalls in clinical interpretation. In the present study three common EF measures, (Wi...
Article
Full-text available
General perceived self-efficacy pertains to optimistic beliefs about being able to cope with a large variety of stressors. It is measured with a ten-item scale that has proven useful in cross-cultural research. Previous findings suggest that the construct is universal and that it applies to the majority of cultures worldwide. The present investigat...
Article
Full-text available
Introductory Psychology at the University of Calgary is one of the most heavily enrolled courses on campus, as it is on nearly every campus. Because of the numbers, it is taught in the large auditorium format, with nearly 400 bodies squeezed into close contact for enlightenment. All of the usual weapons of mass instruction are applied, such as mult...
Article
This paper discusses the design and outcomes of an undergraduate education course that used current communication technology. A collaborative, electronic community was developed by pre-service teachers studying educational technology in order to publish, exchange and consider emerging ideas about the use of computers for teaching and learning. In r...
Article
Full-text available
Examined differences in test anxiety in left- and right-handed Ss. Four different samples wih a total of 1,556 Ss revealed no consistent handedness differences for either the worry or the emotionality component of test anxiety, and this was true for men and for women. There was little indication that high test anxiety was more detrimental for left-...
Article
provide a summary of some of the evidence [on the effects of anxiety on performance] . . . , and review some of the theoretical mechanisms that have been invoked to explain the effects (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
In six experiments, subjects were induced into happy or sad moods prior to studying a list of words, and then induced into either the same or different mood prior to freely recalling the list. In addition, subjects were administered various individual difference measures of mood states. The hypothesis was that subjects who profess to be most aware...
Article
This research examined how perceived honesty affects face memory. Photographs of college men and women were rated for honesty, and then selected exemplars of honest and dishonest faces were shown singly for study as targets. In the test phase, four types of four-face arrays were shown: (a) honest targets with honest distracters, (b) dishonest targe...
Article
Full-text available
College students and elderly subjects made self- and other-descriptiveness judgments about trait adjectives that were age-specific descriptors. The young adults favored endorsement of traits that had been judged descriptive of young adults, compared to traits that had been judged descriptive of elderly adults. However, elderly adults endorsed an eq...
Article
Full-text available
The distinctiveness of trait adjectives as self-descriptors was assessed in two ways. One method focused on how many people the trait described (self only, or self and others), whereas the other focused on how much it describes the self When distinctiveness is defined in terms of how many people the trait characterizes, distinctive traits yield slo...
Chapter
Full-text available
We often hear it said that “I never forget a face,” but those involved in face memory research know that there is variation in subjects’ performance. Is there a way to identify people who are good face recognizers? This question has pragmatic significance to people sifting through eyewitness reports, for example, but it would be of theoretical valu...
Article
In order to examine Eysenck's (1967) hypothesis concerning the relationship between extraversion and arousal, autonomic measures were taken from introverts and extraverts immediately before sleep and during 6 hr of sleep. Introverts and extraverts did not differ in heart rate (HR) or skin-potential response rate (SPR) during the pre-sleep period. A...
Article
Subjects differing in body consciousness were compared on face memory. Compared to subjects low in body awareness, subjects with a highly developed body image showed enhanced retention of faces judged for similarity to self-appearance. Although the imaginal component of the self-concept may not be effective in general, subjects who are schematic on...
Article
Subjects made arousing or nonarousing judgments about photographs of strangers, then had an unannounced recognition test over the photographs. Emotional orienting tasks led to better retention than nonemotional tasks. Assuming emotionality is predominantly a right-hemisphere activity, then this result is consistent with other research showing a rig...
Article
Target and distractor likability were examined in two studies of face memory. Subjects studied faces that had been rated by others as likable or unlikable . The test required subjects to identify the previously studied face in an array of four faces, where the distractor faces were either likable or unlikable . Overall, unlikable targets were more...
Article
Depressed individuals may filter or distort environmental information in direct relationship to their self perceptions. To investigate the degree of uncertainty about oneself and others, as measured by consistent/inconsistent responses, 72 college students (32 depressed and 40 nondepressed) rated selected adjectives from the Derry and Kuiper Depres...
Article
The effects of emotionality of study tasks on face recognition were examined. Subjects made either personality decisions or self-comparisons about the people shown in a series of photographs. The personality traits judged during the encoding tasks had been selected to be either arousing or relatively nonarousing. Face recognition performance was be...
Article
Full-text available
High and low test-anxious subjects evaluated positively and negatively toned statements as either self-descriptive or other-descriptive. The endorsement results were in accord with the existence of different self-schemas. Specifically, anxious subjects accepted more negative material as self-descriptive. Because the self-concept provides a highly e...
Article
Subjects selected by test-anxiety level were presented pairs of words and asked to make judgments of physical identity, acoustic matching, or taxonomic category membership. Experiment 1 varied type of judgment between subjects; in Experiments 2 and 3, each subject made all three decisions. There was no consistent support for the hypothesis that, re...
Article
32 college students scoring high or low on the Self-Consciousness Questionnaire rated trait adjectives for self-descriptiveness, meaningfulness, and familiarity, and then were given an unannounced recall test. High self-aware Ss were faster at making self-descriptiveness judgments than low self-aware Ss, a difference that was not significant for me...
Article
Examined the effect of facial distinctiveness on recognition to determine whether memory for common (unusual) target faces is affected by the distinctiveness of the other choices during a test phase. 96 male and 96 female undergraduates studied photographs of 5 male and 5 female faces that had been selected from the extremes of a set of 160 faces p...
Article
During an incidental learning phase, high and low test-anxious subjects made judgments about people in facial photographs, comparing the person to either themselves (self-reference) or absolute (nonself) standards with regard to intelligence or dependability. On a subsequent unannounced recognition test, feedback emphasized either correct or incorr...
Article
Subjects made three ratings for each of 30 words, then had an unannounced immediate free recall test and a second test after 1 week. There was no evidence to indicate significantly better retention on either test when the dimensions rated were unrelated as opposed to related. Subjects low on test anxiety performed better overall than subjects who s...
Article
Full-text available
Compared 13 elderly adults (average age 70.5 yrs) with 13 high and 13 low test-anxious (Test Anxiety Questionnaire) undergraduates on a task that required deciding whether a word could be considered an instance of the category name shown with it. The words were either typical or atypical members of the category. The elderly Ss showed the slowest RT...
Article
Pairs of words were presented to young and elderly subjects for matching decisions on one of three bases: physical, acoustic or taxonomic indentity. Elderly subjects took longer for all types of decisions, especially for acoustic decisions. The only indication that the elderly were disproportionally slower for semantic decisions was for pairs requi...
Article
Following a study phase which involved an orienting task that required processing of either a physical feature of a face or an abstract trait of a person, subjects had a recognition test under special instructions to concentrate on either physical features, abstract qualities, or no special instructions. For hit rate and d', abstract study tasks le...
Article
Subjects rated words for self-descriptiveness, meaningfulness, and familiarity, then had an unexpected recall test. Anxious subjects recalled more self-descriptive words than low-anxiety subjects, but there was no difference in recall of nondescriptive words. This pattern held for words with negative connotations as well as positive words. The resu...
Article
Subjects selected on the basis of test anxiety scores made a judgement about each face in a series of slides. These orienting tasks involved either abstract traits (e.g. dependability) or physical features (e.g. weight), and decisions were made relative to either an absolute criterion or self-reference. A subsequent recognition test revealed superi...
Article
Immediate and delayed recall of pictures and words was examined as a function of semantic or nonsemantic orienting tasks and the type of test (written or oral). As expected, semantic tasks generally led to greater final recall than nonsemantic tasks, with semantic tasks even producing positive recency on the delayed test. The evidence for a picture...
Article
This paper examines the effect of anxiety on encoding processes in memory. It is argued that the levels of processing model of memory provides a useful approach to the study of anxiety effects on encoding. In particular, relative to low-anxiety subjects, high-anxiety subjects can be characterized as encoding fewer semantic features, encoding less e...
Article
To examine age-related differences in the discovery of intralist relationships, young and elderly adults were presented a free-recall list in either the conventional successive single-item format or in a wholelist display. A list that could be organized by associative or rhyming intralist relationships was used to test the levels-of-processing mode...
Article
Subjects had a single immediate test for each of six unrelated free recall lists, followed by a final free recall test. Subjects performed either a deep or a shallow classification task during the study phase for each list, and over lists the classification involved either the same or a different feature. Deep tasks were superior to shallow tasks o...
Article
In Experiment 1, high and low test-anxious subjects recalled a list composed of words that could be organized either by taxonomic categories or first letters. High-anxiety subjects showed less recall and conceptual clustering. There was no anxiety difference in alphabetic clustering, but low-anxiety subjects used alphabetic clusters to bridge trans...
Article
Subjects were presented either single items over trials for free recall, constant groupings of two words each over trials, increasingly larger groupings over trials, or progressively smaller groupings over trials. The nature of the grouped presentations had no effect on recall or organization; grouped presentation generally led to more organization...
Article
The effect of the repeated presentation of some items in a free-recall list was examined as a function of instructions to recall repeated or unrepeated items first on tests. Instructions to delay the recall of unrepeated items further suppressed their recall, presumably because of increased output interference from the repeated items. However, inst...
Article
Full-text available
Tested the hypothesis that when presented with a list containing rhyming word pairs and word-associate pairs, high anxiety Ss would show a deficit in terms of associative organization but no deficit should be observed for acoustic organization. Ss performed for 5 trials on a free recall list with either visual or auditory presentation. After the 5t...
Article
The subjects with word groupings of constant size on study trials or with single-item presentation over trials recalled as much as the subjects with increasingly larger groupings each trial. Progressively smaller groupings over trials led to less recall than all other conditions in one experiment, but not in two others. Organization of recall was g...
Article
Investigated the effect of homograph stimuli in paired-associate transfer paradigms in 2 experiments with a total of 120 undergraduates. Exp I involved A-D transfer and compared pairs having responses that cued the alternative meanings on Lists 1 and 2 to pairs having responses that cued the same meaning on both lists; other pairs had homograph sti...
Article
Four experiments examined the effects of various instructions on the rate of false recognitions of synonyms, antonyms, nonsemantic associates, and homonyms. The instructions encouraged subjects to think of associates, usages (features), images, or rhymes. The only differences among the experiments were presentation rate and the specific instruction...
Article
Conducted 2 experiments with a total of 128 undergraduates to test various encoding strategies with double-function lists. A double-function verbal discrimination list uses each word as a correct term and an incorrect term in different pairs. Frequency and single-image cues were expected to be of limited utility, whereas other strategies that empha...
Article
Studied A-Br transfer in 3 experiments with a total of 120 undergraduates, using groups which differed in their inducements to change functional stimuli. The nominal stimuli were double-solution 5-letter anagrams. In Exp I, Group 1 received 1 solution in parentheses during List 1 and the other solution in parentheses during List 2. Group 2 had eith...
Article
The subjects in two experiments learned either two successive unrelated verbal-discrimination or paired-associate tasks, with anticipation and feedback durations factorially combined (2 or 4 sec). Practice eliminated the effect of anticipation but not of feedback duration in the verbal-discrimination tasks, and of feedback duration in the paired-as...
Article
The strength of implicit associative responses was manipulated in the right and wrong terms of verbal-discrimination lists. The frequency-theory predictions for these manipulations were not supported, despite the presence of false recognitions in a subsequent recognition test. In view of these and earlier equivocal results, it is suggested that imp...
Article
Full-text available
Gave preliminary serial or free recall to 80 undergraduates in an experiment testing the position hypothesis in serial to paired-associate transfer. Ss with paired-associate lists that had pairings related to the serial list positions did better than all other groups, indicating that such differences are not completely attributable to interference...
Article
Mnemonics (standard free-recall, pictorial, or verbal instructions) did not differentially affect recall and had no simple effect in transfer. Item imagery (high or low) did affect recall, but the direction of its effect in transfer depended on the mnemonic. The transfer results suggest a methodological problem that may make the part/whole paradigm...
Article
Conducted 2 experiments in which 127 undergraduates learned either a single-function (SF) verbal discrimination list or a double-function (DF) list, followed by either an unrelated SF or DF list. While the 1st experiment found that prior experience with a DF list produced somewhat superior performance on the 2nd list, regardless of the 2nd-list con...
Article
60 undergraduates learned a free recall list composed of either the subsequent anagram solution set or words related or completely unrelated to the solution set, with the anagram set composed of words dichotomized on the basis of imagery. Information about the relationship between the priming task and the solution set facilitated the performance of...
Article
Data extracted from two independent experiments are reported to support the proposition that the probability of repetition of incorrect responses in human learning often increases as a positive function of the number of successive prior repetitions.
Article
Anticipation and feedback intervals were factorially lengthened or shortened over trials so that all groups had the same total learning time. The performance of those groups at the end of that time was equivalent, thus generally confirming the total-time hypothesis. Displaced rehearsal and learning to learn are discussed as possible factors in the...
Article
Exp. I varied instructional sets in free recall, with Ss instructed to combine words into sentences, mental pictures, both, or left to their own strategy. The Pictures group was superior on both high- and low-imagery items. There was no evidence for summadon of availability for Ss with both, or for superiority of the Sentences group on low-imagery...