John W. McManus

John W. McManus
University of Miami | UM · Marine Biology and Ecology (RSMAS)

PhD

About

117
Publications
51,242
Reads
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4,890
Citations
Introduction
Developing: - ways to determine if coral reefs will be able to keep up with sea level rise, and implications for island nations - modelling tools for assessing mitigation requirements for damage to marine benthos, by estimating losses/gains in ecosystem functions annually - shallow water sensing instruments for unmanned multicopters Also assisting with efforts to establish an International Spratly Island Peace Park, and teaching Java, agent based modelling, conservation and ecology.
Additional affiliations
May 2000 - present
University of Miami
Position
  • Professor (Full)
January 2000 - March 2000
WorldFish
Position
  • Aquatic Environments Program Leader
July 1993 - December 1999
International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management ICLARM
Position
  • Senior Scientist and Program Leader
Description
  • Founded and led ReefBase for seven years. Founded International Coral Reef Action Network -- ICRAN. Assisted with development of the International Coral Reef Initiative and Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network.

Publications

Publications (117)
Article
Full-text available
By definition, marine protected areas (MPAs) and other effective area-based conservation measures (OECMs) address spatial aspects of the ecological processes and marine features. Such a requirement is especially challenging in areas where there is no clearly defined jurisdiction. However, in these areas, assigning sovereignty and rights can be achi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Dredging often occurs near sensitive habitat. Risk characterization is an integral part of dredging regulatory approval and sound dredging practice. This paper describes a risk characterization framework for evaluating risk associated with sediment released during dredging operations. Sediment release risk assessment is required to balance dredging...
Article
Full-text available
We introduced a laser-based noncontact shallow water depth measurement technique from a flying unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The water depth is measured by imaging two laser beam spots scattered from the surface and bottom of the water. The effect of water surface waves and UAV tilt angles to the depth measurement has been studied for practical ap...
Article
Full-text available
Offshore coral reefs of the South China Sea are subject to complex overlapping sovereignty claims by up to six regional nations. Escalating tensions have led to widespread structural reinforcement of military outposts on many reefs via dredging and filling. Satellite images indicated at least 160 km² of coral reef damage, including 17 km² of essent...
Chapter
Full-text available
Introduction: International tensions over disputed coral reef areas of the South China Sea (SCS) have been increasing rapidly within the last decade. Most of the media attention has focused on the aspects of political one-upmanship, military strategy, threats to the globally vital shipping routes through the area, and the apparently mistaken predic...
Article
Full-text available
Coral reefs on remote islands and atolls are less exposed to direct human stressors but are becoming increasingly vulnerable because of their development for geopolitical and military purposes. Here we document dredging and filling activities by countries in the South China Sea, where building new islands and channels on atolls is leading to consid...
Article
Full-text available
Coral reefs are in decline worldwide due to anthropogenic stressors including reductions in water and substratum quality. Dredging results in the mobilization of sediments, which can stress and kill corals via increasing turbidity, tissue damage and burial. The Particle Tracking Model (PTM) was applied to predict the potential impacts of dredging-a...
Article
Full-text available
The development of insecticide resistance and the increased outdoor-biting behaviour of malaria vectors reduce the efficiency of indoor vector control methods. Attractive toxic sugar baits (ATSBs), a method targeting the sugar-feeding behaviours of vectors both indoors and outdoors, is a promising supplement to indoor tools. The number and configur...
Article
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Background Agent-based modelling (ABM) has been used to simulate mosquito life cycles and to evaluate vector control applications. However, most models lack sugar-feeding and resting behaviours or are based on mathematical equations lacking individual level randomness and spatial components of mosquito life. Here, a spatial individual-based model (...
Article
In his In Depth News story “Warming may not swamp islands” (1 August, p. [496][1]), C. Pala argues that “coral reefs supporting sandy atoll islands will grow and rise in tandem with the sea,” based largely on studies that showed stable Pacific-island area over recent decades ([ 1 ][2]–[ 4
Article
Full-text available
For degraded coral reef systems with limited larval supply, active restoration techniques may provide a means of replenishing adult coral populations. Settling or seeding large numbers of sexually-produced larvae directly onto denuded substrate is a potential restoration tool that can eliminate the costs associated with rearing coral spat in cultur...
Technical Report
Full-text available
MASON is an open source multiagent simulation library geared towards simulating very large numbers of relatively lightweight interacting agents. MASON has been used for a wide variety of simulation tasks in robotics, the social sciences, biology, and animation. On June 15 and 16, 2013, approximately two dozen invitees convened at George Mason Unive...
Data
Full-text available
MASON is an open source multiagent simulation library geared towards simulating very large numbers of relatively lightweight interacting agents. MASON has been used for a wide variety of simulation tasks in robotics, the social sciences, biology, and animation. On June 15 and 16, 2013, approximately two dozen invitees convened at George Mason Univ...
Article
African Americans and Hispanics in the United States have much higher rates of HIV than non-minorities. There is now strong evidence that a range of behavioral interventions are efficacious in reducing sexual risk behavior in these populations. Although a handful of these programs are just beginning to be disseminated widely, we still have not impl...
Article
Full-text available
African Americans and Hispanics in the United States have much higher rates of HIV than non-minorities. There is now strong evidence that a range of behavioral interventions are efficacious in reducing sexual risk behavior in these populations. Although a handful of these programs are just beginning to be disseminated widely, we still have not impl...
Article
Full-text available
What progress prevention research has made comes through strategic partnerships with communities and institutions that host this research, as well as professional and practice networks that facilitate the diffusion of knowledge about prevention. We discuss partnership issues related to the design, analysis, and implementation of prevention research...
Data
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Macroalgae are modular organisms that can express different morphologies depending on the environment to which they are exposed. Their growth under varying light, temperature, and nutrient regimes, interacting with disturbance factors such as herbivory and hydrodynamics, leads to particular morphological types. The present study illustrates the pot...
Article
Full-text available
The Spratly Islands constitute one of the earth's most ecologically significant areas, hosting a high diversity of marine species, providing critical habitats for endangered species, and providing marine larvae to reestablish depleted stocks among the heavily overfished and degraded coastal ecosystems of the South China Sea. Territorial disputes ha...
Article
Full-text available
Coral disease is playing a significant role in structuring today's coral reef communities. While monitoring programs document declines associated with coral disease, there is a lack of tools that can test hypotheses of disease incidence and control. Here, we describe a modeling tool developed to test hypotheses about the spread and impact of white...
Article
Full-text available
Recent outbreaks of coral bleaching and disease have contributed to substantial declines in the abundance of reef-building coral. Significant attention has been paid to both phenomena in order to determine their effect on reef trajectories. Although each is positively correlated with high temperatures, few studies have explored the potential links...
Article
Full-text available
The growth patterns of macroalgae in three-dimensional space can provide important information regarding the environments in which they live, and insights into changes that may occur when those environments change due to anthropogenic and/or natural causes. To decipher these patterns and their attendant mechanisms and influencing factors, a spatial...
Article
Full-text available
(VNTRs), heteroplasmy, and sequence variation of the mitochondrial control region in the three-spot Dascyllus, Dascyllus trimaculatus (Perciformes: Pomacentridae). Zoological Studies 43(4): 803-812. The primary struc- ture of the Dascyllus trimaculatus mitochondrial (mt) control region was determined, and conserved features were identified based on...
Article
Full-text available
The genetic relationships among northern South China Sea populations of the six bar wrasse (Thallasoma hardwicki) were investigated. Fish collected from the Solomon Islands were used for geographic comparison. In 1998 and 1999, a total of 100 fish were sampled from 6 localities of the northern South China Sea and 3 localities of the Solomon Islands...
Article
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This paper briefly reviews coral–algal phase shifts on coral reefs, with particular regard to summarizing the exogenous and endogenous factors in support of a proposed conceptual model, and to identifying critical information gaps. A phase shift occurs on a coral reef when the cover of a substrate by scleractinian corals is reduced in favor of macr...
Article
Full-text available
Local communities and local government units are recognized as the primary stakeholders and participants in the management of coral reef resources and the primary beneficiaries of small-scale fishing activities in the nearshore areas of the coastal zone. The issues relating to the management of the coastal zone are multi-faceted and some issues are...
Chapter
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Article
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Coral reef fisheries support tens of millions of people, mostly in developing countries. Fishing on reefs can be classified into three stages: manageable, ecosystem-overfished, and Malthusian-overfished. Fishing with blasting devices and poisons is often associated with the third stage. Reductions in herbivory caused by overfishing may enhance the...
Article
Full-text available
The paper analyses variables hypothesized to affect the health of coral reefs. These variables include fishing pressure as measured by fisher density and land-based human activities as indicated by population, relative wealth, waste disposal and aspects of land use. Findings indicating that the healthiest coral reef areas are characterized by highe...
Article
Full-text available
SYNOPSIS. Understanding how reefs vary over the present ranges of environmental conditions is key to understanding how coral reefs will adapt to a changing environment. Global environmental data of temperature, salinity, light, carbonate saturation state, and nutrients were recently compiled for nearly 1,000 reef locations. These data were statisti...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding how reefs vary over the present ranges of environmental conditions is key to understanding how coral reefs will adapt to a changing environment. Global environmental data of temperature, salinity, light, carbonate saturation state, and nutrients were recently compiled for nearly 1,000 reef locations. These data were statistically anal...
Article
Full-text available
Rapidly growing human population and economic inequities are placing increasing demands on tropical marine fisheries. Coral reef fisheries constitute an important source of food and livelihood on a global scale. However, destructive fishing is a major cause of coral reef degradation and is often associated with Malthusian overfishing, a condition r...
Article
Full-text available
/ Effects of fishing with explosives (blastfishing) and sodium cyanide and of anchor damage on live coral were investigated on a heavily exploited fringing reef in Boli-nao, Philippines from 1987 to 1990. A simple balance-sheet model indicated that approximately 1.4%/yr of the hermatypic coral cover may have been lost to blasting, 0.4%/yr to cyanid...
Article
Full-text available
Effects of fishing with explosives (blastfishing) and sodium cyanide and of anchor damage on live coral were investigated on a heavily exploited fringing reef in Bolinao, Philippines from 1987 to 1990. A simple balance- sheet model indicated that approximately 1.4%/yr of the hermatypic coral cover may have been lost to blasting, 0 4%/yr to cyanide,...
Article
Full-text available
THE IMPORTANCE OF coral reef ecosystems may be seen in their numerous ecological, aesthetic, economic, and cultural functions. Atoll and barrier reef islanders recognize that healthy reefs are es-sential for the support, creation, and repair of the coral islands on which they live. Coral reefs also protect coastlines from shoreline erosion and serv...
Chapter
Full-text available
Because fisheries management involves the regulation of human activities, it should properly be considered a social science. Unfortunately, social aspects of management have been largely neglected compared with natural science investigations of the population biology of harvested organisms. Tropical reef fisheries suffer from the ‘tragedy of the co...
Chapter
Full-text available
Effects of fishing with explosives (blastfishing) and sodium cyanide and of anchor damage on live coral were investigated on a heavily exploited fringing reef in Boli-nao, Philippines from 1987 to 1990. A simple balance-sheet model indicated that approximately 1.4%/yr of the her-matypic coral cover may have been lost to blasting, 0.4%/yr to cyanide...
Chapter
Full-text available
This contribution presents the rationale for and some details on the creation of a database for the results of trawl surveys conducted from 1974 to 1981 by five research vessels (R/V Mutiara 4, Jurong, Dr. Fridtjof Nansen, Bawal Putih 2 and Lemu), using the NAN-SIS software for the catch data, and the FiSAT software for the length-frequency data. T...
Chapter
Full-text available
Coral reef fisheries represent approximately 20 to 25% of the potential fish harvests available to developing countries (McManus and Arida, 1988). Recent work indicates that harvests of invertebrates and seaweeds can potentially exceed those of finfish. The total number of commercially valuable species involved can reach into the hundreds. The fish...