John Mardaljevic

John Mardaljevic
Loughborough University | Lough · School of Civil and Building Engineering

About

94
Publications
49,259
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
3,994
Citations
Introduction
John Mardaljevic is Professor of Building Daylight Modelling at the School of Architecture, Building and Civil Engineering, Loughborough University, UK. See: http://climate-based-daylighting.com
Additional affiliations
September 2012 - present
Loughborough University
Position
  • Professor of Building Daylight Modelling
Description
  • http://www.lboro.ac.uk/departments/civil-building/staff/mardaljevicjohn Personal daylighting website: http://climate-based-daylighting.com

Publications

Publications (94)
Article
Climate-Based Daylight Modelling (CBDM) methods have been validated against long-term measurements in laboratory settings and found to exhibit errors small enough to make such assessments useful for daylight performance prediction. However, real occupied spaces are affected by a higher number of uncertainties than laboratory or controlled condition...
Article
Full-text available
A novel high-dynamic range camera-based approach to measure the cumulative daylight dose in historic/conservation spaces has been devised and tested in a real-world setting under normal viewing conditions. The technique derives illuminance from the high-dynamic range-acquired luminance at numerous patches of the wall surfaces visible in the high-dy...
Article
This paper describes a pioneering in situ study of the daylight characteristics of a historic house interior. A combination of lux measurements inside and outside a historic showroom and recording of sunshine hours have been used together with a log of the room blind operation to understand the daylight characteristics of the room under different w...
Article
Full-text available
A new set of CIBSE weather files for building performance simulation was recently developed to address the need for better quality solar data. These are essential for most building performance simulation applications, particularly for daylighting studies and low-energy building design, which requires detailed irradiation data for passive solar desi...
Article
Full-text available
The latest advancements in glazing technology are driving facade design towards complex and adaptive fenestration systems. Accurate simulation of their optical properties and operational controls for building daylight performance evaluation requires advanced modelling techniques, such as climate-based daylight modelling (CBDM). At the same time, co...
Article
Full-text available
Climate-Based Daylight Modelling (CBDM) gives designers the possibility to evaluate complex, long-term luminous environment dynamics. This complexity can be challenging to simulate, and even more challenging to communicate effectively through the use of performance metrics. A multiplicity of CBDM techniques and metrics has been developed over the l...
Conference Paper
The CIE illuminant D65 is widely adopted as defining the standard spectral power distribution (SPD) for 'average' daylight. Thus daylight indoors is generally assumed to approximate the SPD for D65. The weight of research on the non-visual effects of light now suggests that a key consideration for the long-term health and well-being of occupants sh...
Article
Full-text available
Despite widespread research on daylighting, there are insufficient data to justify a definitive statement on daylighting design criteria. This paper reviews the requirements for daylighting codes and guidelines, doing so from two different viewpoints. The first considers standards and regulations, the second is focused on development and the scope...
Conference Paper
This paper reports on an investigation into daylight exposure in National Trust (England, Wales and Northern Ireland) interiors. Developing a study of a top lit staircase at Mount Stewart, the focus of this research is the daylight performance of side lit rooms. The multistrand methodology involved: conventional use of light data loggers with a nov...
Article
Full-text available
The insertion of climate-based daylight metrics as a requirement in several design guidelines calls for a better understanding of their effectiveness. This paper draws attention to the sensitivity of annual daylight metrics to changes in input reflectance values. The uncertainties related to the choice of guidelines and of simulation techniques wer...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The evolution of building facades towards increasingly smarter and more complex fenestration systems required an evolution in simulation capabilities too. While simulation software can reliably reproduce the system's optical behaviour, the climate-based daylight evaluation of entire buildings needs to efficiently combine accuracy and computation sp...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper analyses two main renovations of a University building façade retrofit from the viewpoint of annual daylighting improvement. Currently, this building consists of some teaching rooms connected by a hall but it is expected that this arrangement will change in order to accommodate two open-plan spaces for architecture students. The renovate...
Article
Full-text available
This paper describes a project to reduce the excessive daylight exposure of an oil painting, Hambletonian, Rubbing Down, displayed at Mount Stewart, Northern Ireland. Climate-based daylight modelling (CBDM) was used to understand the light exposure of Hambletonian and to assess the impact of control measures on the annual light exposure and viewing...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Daylight is a non-depleting energy source with the potential to reduce building energy consumption and contribute to the health and wellbeing of building occupants. The increased reliance on daylight simulation tools, for the prediction of indoor daylighting performance, calls for sound benchmarking based on data from actual spaces in-use. However,...
Article
Full-text available
This paper describes a proposal for a daylight standard for CEN countries. It is now widely accepted in the research community, and increasingly so amongst practitioners, that the standards/guidelines for daylight in buildings are in need of upgrading. The essence of the proposal is that the ‘target’ for daylight provision should be founded on the...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Climate-based daylight modelling (CBDM) is providing the basis for yearlong indoor daylighting performance predictions. However, evidence of long-term actual daylighting performance of indoor spaces in use is limited. Since 2013, CBDM has been a mandatory requirement for the approval of school designs that fall under the UK’s £6 billion Priority Sc...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
One of the criticisms of metrics founded on climate-based daylight modelling (CBDM) is that they are unverifiable in practice. This criticism received some attention follow- ing the decision in 2013 by the Education Funding Agency to make CBDM and the useful daylight illuminance (UDI) metric a mandatory requirement for the evaluation of designs sub...
Article
Full-text available
Energy-efficient building performance requires sophisticated control systems that are based on realistic occupant behaviour models. To provide robust data for the development of these models, research studies in real-world settings are needed. Yet, such studies are challenging and necessitate careful design in terms of data collection methods and p...
Article
Full-text available
This paper describes a fundamental rethinking of the basis for the evaluation of the sunlight potential of spaces. It provides a robust methodology to answer the question: how much sunlight can enter a room? The measure proposed is the cross-sectional area of beam sunlight that passes through a window. The new measure -- called the sunlight beam in...
Article
Full-text available
The dynamic control of daylight is seen as key for the effective exploitation of natural illumination in buildings. Traditional control solutions are invariably used in a sub-optimal manner: blinds/shades are left down for long periods and lights are left switched on. A glazing with a transmissivity that varies continuously between clear and dark e...
Conference Paper
We introduce an innovative approach to producing annual solar irradiation data for complex geometries in urban settings. The method uses advanced ray-tracing and ambient sampling approaches with cumulative sky models derived from hourly climate data. In contrast to earlier approaches that have produced annual irradiation maps in the form of images...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We introduce an innovative approach to producing annual solar irradiation data for complex geometries in urban settings. The method uses advanced ray-tracing and ambient sampling approaches with cumulative sky models derived from hourly climate data. In contrast to earlier approaches that have produced annual irradiation maps in the form of images...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The recent development of climate-based daylight modelling (CBDM) and its application in various com- mercial tools, as well as its introduction in building simulation guidelines, created the need of more com- mon procedures and quality checks on input values. Between these, the optical properties to be assigned to the modelled building can be very...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In 2013, in an effort to improve the visual environment in future schools, a UK regulation specified mandatory daylight evaluations using, for the first time, climate-based metrics. Existing research on the daylighting performance of classrooms is limited and challenged by poor light measurement instrumentation, as well as the practicalities of the...
Chapter
A major application area for electrochromic devices is architectural glazing, particularly that for office buildings which are often highly glazed. This chapter begins with an overview of daylighting in non-residential buildings and explains why the traditional control solutions, for example, blinds, often lead to the under-exploitation of the dayl...
Conference Paper
The use and control of daylight illumination is a major factor in the environmental management of collections in museums, galleries and historic buildings. In the National Trust, monitoring of light levels is carried out at ‘spot locations’ using small wireless sensors and dyed textile samplers called blue wool dosimeters. However, light levels in...
Conference Paper
The recent development of climate-based daylight modelling (CBDM) practice led to various methodologies to perform daylighting evaluations, while its insertion in new guidelines created the need of common procedures and verified frameworks. This paper aims to give an insight into the relation between the analysis grid and time-step settings and the...
Poster
Full-text available
The poster was created in conjunction with the full paper and with a short oral presentation. The work described in the poster is about the effect that different settings on the analysis grid when performing annual daylight simulations have on the final CBDM results.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A technique to measure arbitrarily complex patterns of diffuse surface reflectance under real-world illumination conditions is presented. The technique is founded on high dynamic range (HDR) imaging whereby the luminance values in an HDR image are used to derive average and/or per-pixel values of surface reflectance. Two variants of the method are...
Conference Paper
This paper describes a landmark daylight injury study whereby measures predicted using climate- based daylight modelling formed part of the legal agreement for the development of a skyscraper building in New York. Now known as the Nordstrom Tower, when completed in 2018 it will become the world’s tallest residential building. The evaluation was car...
Book
The predecessor to this Applications Manual, Building Energy and Environment Modelling (BEEM) was first published in 1998. Much has happened over the last two decades in the modelling fields, including computer power and software advances but, more significantly, those in the optimisation of building and system performance for energy reductions and...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The energy demands of food retail buildings account for approximately 3% of the UK’s energy consumption and resultant carbon emissions. Previous studies demonstrate that the greatest component of the electricity demand of food retail buildings is the cooling demand of the food refrigeration systems (ranging from 30 to 50%). Therefore a better under...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper describes a proposal for a daylight standard for CEN countries. It is now widely accepted in the research community, and increasingly so amongst practitioners, that the standards/guidelines for daylight in buildings are in need of upgrading. The essence of the proposal is that the 'target' for daylight provision should be founded on the...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this document is to promote the use of dynamic daylight performance measures for sustainable building design. The paper initially explores the shortcomings of conventional, static daylight performance metrics which concentrate on individual sky conditions, such as the common daylight factor. It then provides a review of previously...
Article
Full-text available
This paper describes a climate-based simulation framework devised to investigate the potential for the non-visual effects of daylight in buildings. It is part 2 of a study where the first paper focused on the formulation of the photobiological underpinnings of a threshold-based model configured for lighting simulation from the perspective of the hu...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
It is now widely accepted in the research community, and increasingly so amongst practitioners, that the standards/guidelines for daylight in buildings are in need of upgrading. The basis for the majority of EU guidelines is the half-century-old daylight factor. The daylight factor (DF) considers relative illumination under a single overcast sky. T...
Article
Introduction Background Visualizing the urban solar microclimate The ASL building: a solar access study Daylighting the New York Times building Summary Acknowledgments Bibliography
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The establishment of climate-based daylight mod-elling within research and practice has led to a funda-mental reassessment of both the basis and purpose of daylight metrics. Whilst there is no consensus yet on the precise nature of the metric(s) that should replace the daylight factor, it is generally agreed that these should be founded on climate-...
Article
Full-text available
This paper investigates the formulation of a modelling framework for the non-visual effects of daylight, such as entrainment of the circadian system and maintenance of alertness. The body of empirical data from photobiology studies is now sufficient to start developing preliminary non-visual lighting evaluation methods for lighting design. Eventual...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This study uses a domestic dwelling as the setting to investigate and explore the applicability of daylighting metrics for residential buildings, including the formulation of metrics for non-visual effects. The simulation approach used to generate the performance data from which the metrics are derived is called climate-based daylight modelling (CB...
Article
The role that daylight evaluation plays in the design process has acquired a new impetus as the need to demonstrate compliance with various ‘performance indicators’ becomes ever more pressing. Two of the most used rating systems are BREEAM and LEED which originated in the UK and US respectively, though they are both used world-wide. Until recently,...
Article
Full-text available
It is now widely accepted that the standard method for daylighting evaluation - the daylight factor – is due for replacement with metrics founded on absolute values for luminous quantities predicted over the course of a full year using sun and sky conditions derived from standardised climate files. The move to more realistic measures of daylighting...
Article
Daylight distribution and the associated heat gain of a commercial building with curtain wall fagade under different degrees of obstruction are studied. A new metric 'useful daylight illuminance' (UDI) is applied to analyze the time varying illuminance distribution on a work plane. The solar irradiance obtained from the daylighting simulation is in...
Article
Full-text available
The drive towards sustainable, low-energy buildings has increased the need for simple, yet accurate methods to evaluate whether a daylit building meets minimum standards for energy and human comfort performance. Current metrics do not account for the temporal and spatial aspects of daylight, nor of occupants comfort or interventions. This paper rev...
Article
Full-text available
A technique to measure arbitrarily complex luminous fluxes across large areas is presented. The technique is founded on high-dynamic range (HDR) imaging technology and can be achieved using a standard consumer digital camera and everyday materials such as printer-grade white paper. The same approach can also be used to determine the direct and diff...
Article
Full-text available
With the current development towards increased daylighting in buildings and the related progress in daylight evaluation methods, real life monitoring data becomes an urgent need to better support our understanding of the link between daylight and visual comfort. A data collection methodology is presented that links the physical measurements, using...
Article
Full-text available
The BRE-IDMP validation dataset contains simultaneous measurements of sky luminance patterns and internal illuminances in two full-size office spaces. This benchmark dataset has been applied previously to test the illuminance predictions from a lighting simulation program under real sky conditions. Sky luminance patterns were mapped into the lighti...
Article
Full-text available
This article describes a methodology to compare the energy benefit that may result from the adoption of two very different facade technologies in non-domestic buildings. A comparison is made of the energy benefit that might result from: (a) replacing conventional glass with electrochromic (EC) glazing; and, (b) installing PV panels across the opaqu...
Article
This paper describes the application of a new paradigm, called useful daylight illuminance (UDI), to assess daylight in buildings. The UDI paradigm is designed to aid the interpretation of climate-based analyses of daylight illuminance levels that are founded on hourly meteorological data for a period of a full year. Unlike the conventional dayligh...
Article
Full-text available
This paper introduces a new paradigm to assess daylight in buildings called ‘useful daylight illuminance’, or UDI. The UDI paradigm preserves much of the interpretive simplicity of the conventional daylight factor approach. In contrast to daylight factors however, UDI is founded on an annual time-series of absolute values for illuminance predicted...
Article
Full-text available
,!This paper examines the role of assumptions commonly made in validation studies for lighting simulation programs and quantifies the sensitivity of results to uncertainties in key model parameters such as sky conditions and surface reflectivity. Actually occurring overcast skies are often taken to approximate the CIE standard overcast sky for the...
Article
The evaluation of shading devices is generally carried out using a sequence of shadow-pattern images showing the progression of solar penetration for particular times of the day or year. This approach can reveal when solar penetration may occur, say at the summer solstice, but it cannot give a quantitative measure of the degree and likelihood of so...
Article
This paper describes a novel approach for evaluating the total annual/monthly irradiation incident on building facades in urban settings. The analysis is founded on a physically-based rendering approach and uses data-visualisation techniques to generate ‘maps’ (i.e. false-colour images) of annual/monthly irradiation. The irradiation ‘maps’ are deri...
Article
Full-text available
Stadium Australia is to be the centrepiece of the year 2000 Sydney Olympics. The architects aimed to minimise energy consumption by incorporating passive design measures which would provide ventilation, natural cooling and warming and daylight. This paper describes the simulations undertaken to guide the design of one space in the stadium - a banqu...
Article
Scale model illuminance measurements in sky simulator domes are inherently subject to parallax errors. The magnitude of these errors under a number of Commission Internationale de l’É clairage (CIE) clear sky configurations is quantified using computer simulation techniques. In practical operation of a sky simulator dome, a second parallax error in...
Article
Full-text available
Scale models are generally believed to be a reliable tool for illumination modelling and are often used to predict daylight factors. Recent work however has revealed that scale models generally over-predict illuminance by a significant margin for overcast skies. For nonovercast skies the divergence between model and real building performance is gre...
Article
Full-text available
A true measure of the long-term daylighting performance of a building must account for the illumination that results from a wide range of sky and sun conditions. This paper describes how to predict hourly internal daylight illuminances for a period of a full year using sky and sun conditions derived from meteorological time-series data. The techniq...
Article
This paper discusses the discrepancies between vehicle emissions calculated from conventional analysis and those derived by considering actual road speed data. Conventional methods use the average speed to ascertain vehicle emissions. This paper describes the use of an instrumented electric vehicle to acquire instantaneous speed and energy consumpt...
Article
A particle tracking model was used to investigate the annual spring invasion of the North Sea by Calanus finmarchicus copepodites which overwinter in deep water off the Scottish continental shelf. Flow fields generated by a hydrodynamic model (HDM) were used to simulate the advection of zero drag particles representing the copepods. Particles were...
Thesis
Full-text available
The application of lighting simulation techniques for daylight illuminance modelling in architectural spaces is described in this thesis. The prediction tool used for all the work described here is the Radiance lighting simulation system. An overview of the features and capabilities of the Radiance system is presented. Daylight simulation using the...
Article
The population of Calanus finmarchicus in the North Sea is replenished each spring by invasion from an overwintering stock located beyond the shelf edge. A combination of field observations, statistical analysis of Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) data, and particle tracking model simulations, was used to investigate the processes involved in the...