John Lydon

John Lydon
McGill University | McGill

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111
Publications
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Publications

Publications (111)
Article
Is what is beautiful good and more accurately understood? Lorenzo et al. (2010) explored this question and found that more attractive targets (as per consensus) were judged more positively and accurately. Perceivers’ specific (idiosyncratic) ratings of targets’ attractiveness were also related to more positive and accurate impressions, but the latt...
Article
Negative emotionality (NE) was evaluated as a candidate mechanism linking prenatal maternal affective symptoms and offspring internalizing problems during the preschool/early school age period. The participants were 335 mother-infant dyads from the Maternal Adversity, Vulnerability and Neurodevelopment project. A Confirmatory Bifactor Analysis (CFA...
Article
Introduction: Do people (i.e., metaperceivers) know their romantic partners' (i.e., perceivers') impressions, displaying meta-accuracy? Is it related to relationship well-being? We explored two components of meta-accuracy: 1) positive meta-accuracy (i.e., knowing the perceiver's positive impressions of the metaperceiver), and 2) distinctive meta-a...
Article
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Background : Few studies have explored the complex gene-by-prenatal environment-by-early postnatal environment interactions that underlie the development of attentional competence. Here, we examined if variation in dopamine-related genes interacts with prenatal adversity to influence toddler attentional competence and whether this influence is buff...
Article
Are perceivers’ impressions of target’s commitment associated with the target’s relationship experience? Could target’s metaperceptions (i.e., target’s beliefs about the perceiver’s impressions of the target) help explain why? In the present dyadic study (N = 206; Ncouples = 103), we found that perceiver’s impressions of target’s commitment was pos...
Preprint
Background: Maternal distress influences her own wellbeing and shapes her offspring’s psychosocial adjustment and neurodevelopment across childhood. The aim of this study was to analyze multivariate trajectories of maternal postpartum distress using a latent class modeling approach and to find genetic and psychosocial factors that predict membershi...
Article
Viewing other people with distinctive accuracy—the degree to which personality impressions correspond with targets’ unique characteristics—often predicts positive interpersonal experiences, including liking and relationship satisfaction. Does this hold in the context of first dates, or might distinctive accuracy have negative links with romantic in...
Article
Objective: Major life transitions, such as the arrival of a new baby, can be stressful, and therefore, costly to one's health. Being in a satisfying romantic relationship has been previously linked with better health, perhaps because it provides access to a bank of psychosocial resources. The objective of the present research was two-fold. First,...
Article
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Objective Few studies have attempted to identify how distinct dimensions of maternal prenatal affective symptoms relate to offspring psychopathology. We defined latent dimensions of women’s prenatal affective symptoms and pregnancy-specific worries to examined their association with early offspring psychopathology in three prenatal cohorts. Method...
Article
Concerns about what to say or do can compromise first impressions. In previous research, the anxiously attached—desperate to connect but preoccupied with potential rejection—had first impressions tainted with manifest anxiety (MAnx) and social disengagement (SDis). But which communication channels—content, sound, or visual—are most problematic? Dis...
Article
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Animal and human studies suggest that parenting style is transmitted from one generation to the next. The hypotheses of this study were that (1) a mother’s rearing experiences (G1) would predict her own parenting resources (G2) and (2) current maternal mood, motivation to care for her offspring, and relationship with her parents would underlie this...
Article
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Parental care has a strong impact on neurodevelopment and mental health in the offspring. While a multitude of animal studies has revealed that the parental brain is a highly complex system involving many brain structures and neuroendocrine systems, human maternal parenting as a multi‐dimensional construct with cognitive, emotional, and behavioral...
Article
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Intrinsic goals fulfill fundamental psychological needs for relatedness, competence, and autonomy. They tend to be self-determined, effectively pursued, and contribute to well-being. But even need-satisfying goals are pursued in the context of finite resources: How do we prioritize amongst multiple need-satisfying goals? Integrating self-determinat...
Article
Evolutionary psychologists propose that humans evolved a first line of defense against pathogens: the behavioral immune system (BIS). The BIS is thought to be functionally flexible such that the likelihood and magnitude of BIS activation depends on the individual’s perceived vulnerability to disease (PVD). Because conspecifics are sources of infect...
Article
Introduction Animal and human studies suggest that individual differences in maternal parenting behaviour are transmitted from one generation to the next. Objective This study aimed to examine potential psychosocial mechanisms underlying an intergenerational transmission of conceptualization of parenting, including affect, cognition, and parental...
Article
Introduction Maternal mental well being influences offspring development. Research suggests that an interplay between genetic and environmental factors underlies this familial transmission of mental disorders. Objectives To explore an interaction between genetic and environmental factors to predict trajectories of maternal mental well being, and t...
Article
Objective: Even couples in healthy romantic relationships experience conflict at times. We examine whether relationship identification (the extent to which the relationship is incorporated into the self) predicts immediate reactivity to partner transgressions and also promotes global resilience over time. Method: Sixty-three couples participated...
Article
Background: We examined the interactive effects of maternal childhood adversity and later adulthood depression on subsequent socioeconomic status (SES). Methods: Our community sample ranged from 230 to 243 mothers (across measures) drawn from a prospective, longitudinal cohort study. Maternal childhood adversity scores were derived using an inte...
Article
Prenatal maternal depression and a multilocus genetic profile of two susceptibility genes implicated in the stress response were examined in an interaction model predicting negative emotionality in the first 3 years. In 179 mother–infant dyads from the Maternal Adversity, Vulnerability, and Neurodevelopment cohort, prenatal depression (Center for E...
Article
Full-text available
The goal of this study was to test whether insecure attachment, in combination with a misallocated attention toward one’s partner, would influence trust in one’s partner. Forty-five couples were recruited during their visit to a bridal salon. The 2-stage study first consisted of participants completing a demographic questionnaire, measures of relat...
Article
The motivation-management model suggests that people are equipped with a variety of motivated strategies to mitigate against relationship threats such as conflicts of interests and partner transgressions. We propose that such strategies are more likely to be enacted when the nature of the threat is calibrated with the motivational basis for relatio...
Article
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Disorganized attachment is an important early risk factor for socioemotional problems throughout childhood and into adulthood. Prevailing models of the etiology of disorganized attachment emphasize the role of highly dysfunctional parenting, to the exclusion of complex models examining the interplay of child and parental factors. Decades of researc...
Article
Preterm children have been reported to be at higher risk to develop attachment insecurity. The present study aimed to investigate potential differences in attachment security between newborns who were sent to Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) and those who were not, in a population of full-term children. Participants (162 mother-child dyads) were...
Article
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Oxytocin promotes prosocial behavior, especially in those individuals who are low in affiliation (e.g., avoidantly attached individuals), but can exacerbate interpersonal insecurities in those preoccupied with closeness (e.g., anxiously attached individuals). One explanation for these opposing observations is that oxytocin induces a communal, other...
Poster
Introduction: Poorer maternal mental health was often shown in association with infant's sleep disturbances. However, little is known about the link between maternal mental health and parasomnias in children. The present study aimed to investigate the potential association between the presence of parasomnias in children and maternal depression or a...
Article
The ability to maintain a satisfying and stable romantic relationship may promote health and well-being, yet, the stability of an ongoing relationship may sometimes be challenged by the availability of attractive alternative partners. We review recent findings demonstrating that people — deliberatively and automatically — display a number of strate...
Article
Attachment working models provide the cognitive structure by which individuals seek to satisfy attachment-relevant goals. In this chapter, we examine working models, drawing on social cognitive principles and an expectancy-value framework of motivation to better understand the normative processes involved in the formation and maintenance of adult a...
Article
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Infants born with medical problems are at risk for less optimal developmental outcomes. This may be, in part, because neonatal medical problems are associated with maternal distress, which may adversely impact infants. However, the reserve capacity model suggests that an individual's bank of psychosocial resources buffers the adverse effects of lat...
Article
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To describe the theory and methodology of the multi-wave, prospective Maternal Adversity, Vulnerability and Neurodevelopment (MAVAN) study. The goal of MAVAN is to examine the pre- and postnatal influences, and their interaction, in determining individual differences in mental health. MAVAN is a community-based, birth cohort study of pregnant Canad...
Poster
Cette recherche exploratoire vise à approfondir les facteurs associés à la fidélité de la perception maternelle du sommeil de leur enfant âgé de deux ans. La méthodologie consiste en une comparaison de mesures objectives, (actigraphie) et de mesure subjectives (agenda du sommeil rempli par les mères et questionnaires), chez 12 dyades de mères et d'...
Article
Although research has shown that attachment anxiety is detrimental to ongoing relationships, less is known about whether and how it affects the earliest stages of relationship initiation. How does attachment anxiety affect an initial interaction with a potential relationship partner? The present investigation explored the interpersonal outcomes ass...
Article
This study examined whether people can be insecurely attached to figures who are actively sought out (and not just desired) to fulfill attachment functions and whether this has negative consequences for psychological well-being. A total of 122 participants rated 3–15 relational targets on measures including the extent to which the target fulfills i...
Article
The nature of sexual intimacy using lay conceptions (i.e., prototypes) of intimacy and sexual intimacy has been explored. In Study 1, participants listed the features of sexual intimacy and intimacy. In Study 2, centrality ratings of these features were obtained. Although the 2 prototypes were very similar, they each had unique central attributes....
Article
Full-text available
Although second-trimester blood corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) levels are robustly associated with preterm birth, the findings with respect to cortisol have been inconsistent, as have been those relating stress hormones to measured stressors and maternal distress. We measured plasma CRH, adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, cortis...
Article
Humans face an enduring conflict between desires to affiliate with others but to protect the self; effective social functioning often requires reconciling the resulting ambivalence between these motives. Attachment anxiety is characterized by chronically heightened concerns about affiliation and self-protection; we investigated how anxious individu...
Article
Research on self-determination theory has established that the amount of autonomy support and control in a given situation can enhance or thwart intrinsic motivation. Meanwhile, research in social cognition has shown that people form relational schemas and that having schemas characterised by insecurity can compromise normative functioning. The pre...
Conference Paper
Introduction and Objectives: Maternal well-being associates with children temperament. For instance, children of women who suffer from depression and/or anxiety tend to display behavioural, social, and emotional impairments such as increased negative emotionality. Children with difficult temperament also show an increased prevalence of parasomnias...
Article
Attractive alternative partners pose a relational threat to people in romantic relationships. Given that people are often limited in their time and energy, having the capacity to effortlessly respond to such relational threats is extremely useful. In 4 studies, we explored how people's identity in terms of their romantic relationship--their relatio...
Article
When faced with a partner transgression, what causes an individual to avoid the temptation to respond in kind? We theorized that for those who incorporate their close relationships into their sense of self, priming a mental representation of their romantic partner would activate relationship-relevant cognitive–affective associations that would prom...
Article
Full-text available
Although the infant-caregiver attachment bond is critical to survival, little is known about the biological mechanisms supporting attachment representations in humans. Oxytocin plays a key role in attachment bond formation and maintenance in animals and thus could be expected to affect attachment representations in humans. To investigate this possi...
Article
All major theories of relationship commitment specify that the availability of attractive alternatives should be a negative factor undermining relationship commitment and relationship survival. However, most empirical evidence is correlational. In recent years, experimental research has examined how commitment influences attention, perception, and...
Article
Full-text available
Initiating a romantic relationship invokes an approach-avoidance conflict between the desire for affiliation and the fear of rejection; optimally, people should selectively approach potential partners who reciprocate their interest. This may be difficult for anxiously attached people: They may be unpopular, and their ambivalence could lead to eithe...
Article
During pregnancy, most maternal corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) is secreted by the placenta, not the hypothalamus. Second trimester maternal CRH concentration is robustly associated with the subsequent risk of preterm birth, and it is often assumed that physiological and/or psychological stress stimulates placental CRH release. Evidence supp...
Article
Vaginal douching and bacterial vaginosis (BV) are independently associated with spontaneous preterm birth. Because the interrelationships among these variables remain unclear, we sought to examine the associations in a prospective study. We conducted a nested case-control study within a prospectively recruited cohort of pregnant women. We prospecti...
Article
Background: Neither macro- nor micronutrient supplements have been clearly demonstrated to reduce the risk of preterm birth. However, there has been little attention to carotenoids, tocopherols, and long-chain fatty acids other than n-3 polyunsaturates. Methods: We conducted a case-control study nested in a large (n = 5337) prospective, multicenter...
Article
Most previous studies of maternal cytokines and preterm birth have analyzed immunologic biomarkers after the onset of labor or membrane rupture; fewer have examined the systemic (blood) immune response prior to labor onset. We carried out a case-control study nested in a large (n=5337) prospective, multi-center cohort. Cohort women had an interview...
Article
Selective study participation can theoretically lead to selection bias. We explored this issue in the context of a multicentre cohort study of socio-economic disparities in preterm birth. Women with singleton pregnancies were recruited from four large Montreal maternity hospitals and invited to return for an interview, vaginal examination and venep...
Article
Research investigating homeless youth or, as they prefer, “street kids,” has primarily described their dysfunction. In order to more thoroughly document their psychological reality and account for variability in their functioning, this study explored the close relationships and personal projects of 50 street kids. Self-determination theory provides...
Article
Full-text available
The authors investigated a large number of stressors and measures of psychological distress in a multicenter, prospective cohort study of spontaneous preterm birth among 5,337 Montreal (Canada)-area women who delivered from October 1999 to April 2004. In addition, a nested case-control analysis (207 cases, 444 controls) was used to explore potentia...
Article
Full-text available
Mothers who give birth to preterm infants are at increased risk of mortality from coronary heart disease and stroke, but the biological pathways underlying these associations have not been explored. We carried out a case-control study nested in a large (n = 5337) prospective, multicentre cohort. All cohort women had an interview, examination and ve...
Article
Do avoidantly attached individuals, with fears of closeness and dependency, expect their relationships to fail? Moreover, do they expect specific events that will lead to failure? Canadian students outlined their expectations for a new romantic relationship by ordering a series of dating events using a card sorting procedure. Avoidance was associat...
Article
We sought to evaluate the association between inherited thrombophilia and preeclampsia. From a multicenter cohort of 5337 pregnant women, we prospectively identified 113 women who developed preeclampsia and selected 443 control subjects who did not have preeclampsia or nonproteinuric gestational hypertension. Blood samples were tested for DNA polym...
Article
Full-text available
In 7 experiments, the causal effects of the availability of an attractive alternative (AA) relationship partner on current relationship thoughts and intentions were tested using confederates, mental simulations, and virtual reality. Men behaved consistent with traditional relationship-commitment theories, showing decreased willingness to tolerate t...
Article
Close relationships characterized by attachment anxiety can result in an approach-avoidance conflict, making it difficult to follow the communal script. This research investigated relationship-specific attachment and adherence to communal norms in established close relationships. Participants were randomly assigned to think about a secure, avoidant...
Article
Full-text available
Intimates can rely on a number of strategies to protect their relationships from potential threats. In the present article, the authors investigate a new strategy: to discount flattering comments received from an attractive alternative to a dating partner by making a situational attribution. However, the authors did not expect everyone to adopt thi...
Article
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Self-determination theory research has demonstrated that intrinsic and identified self-regulations are associated with successful adaptation. However, few distinctions are typically made between these regulations and their outcomes. In the present studies, the associations between intrinsic and identified motivations and outcomes of psychological w...
Article
Full-text available
Four studies investigated attachment in the context of new relationship development. Anxiously attached individuals overwhelmingly used communal norms and avoided using exchange norms when interacting with a potential close other; however, when a potential close other used communal norms, anxious individuals experienced increased interpersonal anxi...
Article
The current investigation examines the hypothesis that commitment predicts increasingly benign appraisals of partner transgressions and that this may in turn lead to greater accommodation. A survey of 226 students in heterosexual dating relationships was conducted. Commitment, the perceived severity of partner transgressions, and accommodation were...
Article
Commitment is the motivation to maintain and sustain a relationship even in the face of adversity. For some time now researchers have recognized the inextricable link between motivation and cognition. Consequently, in this chapter, we focus on how commitment promotes relationship survival and devote special attention to commitment's motivational ef...
Article
The word ‘silk’ brings to the mind a kaleidoscope of images: silkworm culture in the villages of China, camel trains on the ancient silk road of Asia, the finery of the mediaeval courts, the workshops of Huguenot refugees in Spitalfields and Macclesfield, Victorian velvet and chiffon mills, the parachutes of Spitfire pilots (and the linings of thei...
Article
Full-text available
Two studies investigated how contextually activating attachment relationships influences the working self-concept in terms of agency and communion. In Study 1, 245 participants were primed with a secure, avoidant, or anxious-ambivalent relationship and the implicit accessibility of agency and communion was assessed using word fragments. Activating...
Article
Full-text available
Intimates typically are positively biased in their relationship evaluations. Given this fact, how can intimates regulate their esteem needs about their relationships and still function effectively, without risking later regret and disappointment? We address this issue by first reviewing work showing that because bias and accuracy are independent, t...
Article
The focus of the present research was the daily behaviours and goals of a sample of urban homeless youth, or, as they prefer, "street kids." The challenge of choosing an appropriate control sample was resolved by comparing street kids to two separate samples: University students and young people from a community club in a poor neighbourhood. A stan...
Article
Full-text available
The authors investigated the effects of deliberative versus implemental mindsets on the predictive validity of relationship constructs. Dating students anticipating the transition from university to work deliberated about increasing their commitment or thought about how to maintain their relationships after graduation. As hypothesized, this mindset...
Article
Full-text available
Previous work revealed gender differences in relationship illusions. Women, and not men, perceived their dating partners more favorably than their partners' self-perceptions. In two studies, the authors replicated these findings and showed they are moderated by relationship commitment but not by relationship satisfaction. Dating men low in commitme...
Article
Full-text available
The calibration paradigm was used to test the competing hypotheses that (a) commitment motivates unduly negative evaluations of attractive alternatives (devaluation) versus (b) low commitment motivates exaggerated positive evaluations of attractive alternatives (enhancement). Single participants and dating participants low and high in relationship...
Article
Full-text available
The personal/group discrimination discrepancy involves disadvantaged group members rating discrimination directed at their group considerably higher than ratings of discrimination aimed at themselves personally as members of that group. This robust phenomenon has been found in samples of women, African Americans, and aboriginal people. In the prese...
Article
Full-text available
Two studies integrated and advanced mindset and relationship illusions research. In Study 1, mindset influenced perceived partner superiority and goal domain moderated this effect. When focusing on a nonrelationship goal, an implemental mindset increased idealistic partner perceptions. When focusing on a relationship goal, a deliberative mindset in...
Article
Preterm birth is the leading cause of infant mortality in industrialised societies. Its incidence is greatly increased among the socially disadvantaged, but the reasons for this excess are unclear and have been relatively unexplored. We hypothesise two distinct sets of causal pathways and mechanisms that may explain social disparities in preterm bi...
Article
Full-text available
The authors investigated whether mind-set influences the accuracy of relationship predictions. Because people are more biased in their information processing when thinking about implementing an important goal, relationship predictions made in an implemental mind-set were expected to be less accurate than those made in a more impartial deliberative...
Article
Preterm birth is the leading cause of infant mortality in industrialised societies. Its incidence is greatly increased among the socially disadvantaged, but the reasons for this excess are unclear and have been relatively unexplored. We hypothesise two distinct sets of causal pathways and mechanisms that may explain social disparities in preterm bi...
Article
The authors investigated whether mind-set influences the accuracy of relationship predictions. Because people are more biased in their information processing when thinking about implementing an important goal, relationship predictions made in an implemental mind-set were expected to be less accurate than those made in a more impartial deliberative...