John Lippmann

John Lippmann
Australasian Diving Safety Foundation

About

58
Publications
7,055
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498
Citations
Citations since 2017
22 Research Items
343 Citations
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20172018201920202021202220230204060
20172018201920202021202220230204060

Publications

Publications (58)
Article
Introduction: This study examined all known diving-related fatalities in Queensland, Australia, from 2000 to 2019 to determine likely causes and potential countermeasures. Methods: Data were extracted from the Australasian Diving Safety Foundation fatality database, including previously published reports. The National Coronial Information System...
Article
Aim: Reports of fatal incidents in recreational scuba divers from carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning are rare. This study aimed to identify scuba fatalities in the Asia-Pacific region caused by breathing-gas contamination to better understand the likely sources of contamination and reduce such preventable deaths. Methods: A hand search of Project St...
Article
Introduction: New Zealand (NZ) diving-related fatalities have been reported since the 1960s. The aim is to identify contributing risk factors, including medical, and to inform appropriate preventative strategies. Methods: NZ scuba diving fatalities from 2007 to 2016 were searched from multiple sources - the National Coronial Information System (...
Article
Introduction: The aim of this study was to describe the nature of regular medications taken by active comorbid scuba divers (having a declared medical comorbidity) and scuba divers and snorkellers who died following a diving incident. Methods: We undertook a retrospective, observational study from July to October, 2020. Data on 268 active comorb...
Article
Full-text available
Aim Snorkelling is a popular aquatic activity which may result in fatal and non-fatal drowning. However, little is known about the scale of injury, factors impacting risk and strategies for prevention. This review assesses the current literature on snorkelling-related drowning with the aim of assessing available data, improving safety recommendatio...
Article
Introduction: New Zealand's (NZ) long coastline offers a diverse underwater environment with abundant opportunities for harvesting seafood and for recreation. Fatalities from snorkelling/breath-hold diving have been reported from the 1960s through to 2006. Those from 2007 to 2016 are reported here. Methods: The National Coronial Information Syst...
Article
Introduction: This study identified characteristics and diving practices of victims of fatal surface supplied breathing apparatus (SSBA) incidents in Australia from 1965-2019 to determine underlying factors and risks associated with these activities, better educate the diving community and prevent such deaths. Methods: A hand search was made of...
Article
Introduction: The presence of a persistent (patent) foramen ovale (PFO) increases the risk of decompression sickness (DCS) whilst diving with pressurised air. After the diagnosis of a PFO, divers will be offered a number of options for risk mitigation. The aim of this study was to review the management choices and modifications to diving practices...
Article
Introduction: We aimed to identify the possible chain of events leading to fatal scuba diving incidents in Australia from 2001-2013 to inform appropriate countermeasures. Methods: The National Coronial Information System was searched to identify scuba diving-related deaths from 2001-2013, inclusive. Coronial findings, witness and police reports,...
Article
Introduction: This study identified pre-existing medical conditions among scuba diving fatalities in Australia from 2001 to 2013, inclusive, and assessed whether these conditions likely contributed to the deaths. Methods: The National Coronial Information System (NCIS) was searched for scuba diving-related cases during 2001-2013, inclusive. Coro...
Article
Introduction: This study identified characteristics of victims of fatal scuba diving incidents to determine contributing factors and inform appropriate countermeasures. Methods: The National Coronial Information System (NCIS) was searched to identify scuba diving deaths for 2001-2013, inclusive. Data were extracted from witness and police report...
Article
Cerebral arterial gas embolism (CAGE) from breath-holding or inadequate exhalation during ascent is a well-recognised complication of scuba diving. It does not usually occur with breath-hold (BH) diving in those with normal lungs, as the volume of gas in the lungs on surfacing cannot exceed what it was on leaving the surface. However, a BH diver wh...
Article
Introduction: The aim of this study was to identify characteristics of victims of fatal snorkelling and breath-hold diving accidents in Australia from 2001-2013, inclusive, to determine underlying factors and risks associated with such activities and inform appropriate countermeasures. Methods: The National Coronial Information System (NCIS) was...
Article
Introduction: We aimed to document identified cases of immersion pulmonary edema (IPE) in divers from Oceania (the Indo-Pacific region) from January 2002 to May 2018, inclusive. Method: Cases were identified using various sources, including searches of the Divers Alert Network Asia-Pacific (DAN AP) Fatality Database, published case reports, and...
Article
Aim: To review incidents of immersion pulmonary edema (IPE) from Oceania, to determine the demographics, diving parameters, and comorbidities that may be related to this disorder. Method: Incidents of IPE, most of which were documented by Divers Alert Network Asia-Pacific (DAN AP) or reported in our medical literature, were analyzed. They includ...
Article
Introduction: This study reviews diving deaths that occurred in Tasmanian waters over a 20-year period. Methods: Detailed analysis was undertaken of deaths that occurred from 01 January 1995 to 31 December 2014. The cases were collated from numerous sources. Utilising a chain of events analysis, factors were identified and assigned to predisposi...
Article
Aim: The aim of this study was to identify the number, location and characteristics associated with fatal shark attacks on divers in Australian waters from 1960 to 2017, inclusive. Methods: Searches were made of the Divers Alert Network Asia-Pacific Diving Mortality Database; the International Shark Attack File website; the Australian Shark Atta...
Article
Introduction: An individual case review of known diving-related deaths that occurred in Australia in 2012 was conducted. Method: The case studies were compiled using statements from witnesses and reports of the police and coroners. In each case, the particular circumstances of the accident and details from the post-mortem examination, where avai...
Article
Introduction: This study aimed to compare the results from three Australian scuba diver surveys. As the surveys differed in recruitment methods, the expectation was that respondents would differ in some important characteristics. Methodology: Anonymous, online, cross-sectional surveys of the demographics, health, diving practices and outcomes we...
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Full-text available
Introduction: A scuba diving fatality usually involves a series of related events culminating in death. Several studies have utilised a chain of events-type analysis (CEA) to isolate and better understand the accident sequence in order to facilitate the creation of relevant countermeasures. The aim of this research was to further develop and bette...
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Introduction: This is the second report based on a survey of Divers Alert Network Asia-Pacific (DAN AP) members who dive with cardiovascular and respiratory conditions and diabetes. It examines the medical management of the divers' conditions, any diving modifications used to mitigate the risk and outcomes. Methodology: An online cross-sectional...
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The physiologic response of the human body to different environments is a complex phenomenon to ensure survival. Immersion and compressed gas diving, together trigger a set of responses. Monitoring those responses in real-time may increase our understanding of these and help to develop safety procedures and equipment. This review outlines diving ph...
Article
INTRODUCTION: There are few data available on which to estimate the risk of death for Australian divers. This report estimates the risk of a scuba diving fatality for Australian residents, international tourists diving in Queensland, and clients of a large Victorian dive operator. METHODOLOGY: Numerators for the estimates were obtained from the D...
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Full-text available
Introduction: This report examines Diver Alert Network Asia-Pacific (DAN AP) members with and without cardiac or respiratory conditions, diabetes or hypertension and compares their demographics, health and diving activities. Methodology: Two online cross-sectional surveys of DAN AP members were conducted. The first sought information from 833 di...
Article
Introduction: An individual case review of diving-related deaths reported as occurring in Australia in 2011 was conducted as part of the DAN Asia-Pacific dive fatality reporting project. Method: The case studies were compiled using reports from witnesses, the police and coroners. In each case, the particular circumstances of the accident and, wh...
Article
INTRODUCTION: An individual case review was conducted of known diving-related deaths that occurred in Australia in 2010. METHOD: The case studies were compiled using statements from witnesses and reports of the police and coroners. In each case, the particular circumstances of the accident and details from the post-mortem examination, where avail...
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Full-text available
High-concentration normobaric oxygen (O₂) administration is the first-aid priority in treating divers with suspected decompression illness. The best O₂ delivery device and flow rate are yet to be determined. To determine whether administering O₂ with a non-rebreather mask (NRB) at a flow rate of 10 or 15 L·min ⁻¹ or with a demand valve with oronasa...
Article
Introduction: An individual case review of diving-related deaths, reported as occurring in Australia in 2008, was conducted as part of the DAN Asia-Pacific dive fatality reporting project. Method: The case studies were compiled using reports from witnesses, the police and coroners. In each case, the particular circumstances of the accident and d...
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Full-text available
There is ongoing debate about the safety of scuba diving for individuals with a history of epilepsy. An in-water seizure is highly likely to be fatal. Recommendations for fitness to dive vary with some regarding epilepsy as an absolute contraindication to diving (South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society) and others permitting diving under strict c...
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Full-text available
In order to investigate causative factors, root cause analysis (RCA) was applied to 351 Australian compressed-gas diving fatalities from 1972-2005. Each case was described by four sequential events (trigger, disabling agent, disabling injury, cause of death) that were assessed for frequency, trends, and dive and diver characteristics. The average a...
Article
Objective: Anterior chest thrusts (with the subject sitting or standing and thrusts applied to the lower sternum) are recommended by the Australian Resuscitation Council as part of the sequence for clearing upper airway obstruction by a foreign body. Lateral chest thrusts (with the victim lying on their side) are no longer recommended due to a lac...
Article
Diving is a popular recreational activity in Hong Kong, and there is an associated incidence of mortality. This individual case review of reported diving-related deaths occurring in Hong Kong waters between 2006-2009 inclusive, was conducted as part of the ongoing DAN Asia-Pacific dive fatality reporting project. The eight reported deaths involved...
Article
An individual case review of diving-related deaths reported as occurring in Australia in 2007 was conducted as part of the on-going Divers Alert Network (DAN) Asia-Pacific dive fatality reporting project. The case studies were compiled using reports from witnesses, the police and coroners. In each case, the particular circumstances of the accident...
Article
Scuba divers' pulmonary oedema (SDPE) is an increasingly recognised disorder in divers. We report three fatal cases of SDPE, demonstrating its potential serious nature even in the absence of underlying cardiac disease demonstrable clinically or at autopsy. This, together with the frequency of recurrences, has implications on assessing fitness for s...
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b>Aims: Flexible-learning first aid courses are increasingly common due to reduced classroom contact time. This study compared retention of first aid knowledge and basic life support (BLS) skills three months after a two-day, classroom-based first aid course (STD) to one utilizing on-line theory learning at home followed by one day of classroom tra...
Article
(Lippmann J, Walker D, Lawrence CL, Fock A, Wodak T, Jamieson S. Provisional report on diving-related fatalities in Australian waters 2006. Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine. 2011;41(2):70-84.) Introduction: An individual case review of diving-related deaths reported as occurring in Australia in 2006 was conducted as part of the Divers Alert Network A...
Article
An individual case review of diving-related deaths reported as occurring in Australia in 2006 was conducted as part of the Divers Alert Network Asia-Pacific (DAN AP) dive fatality reporting project. The case studies were compiled using reports from witnesses, the police and coroners. In each case, the particular circumstances of the accident and de...
Article
In today's recreational diving climate, diving fitness examinations are not mandatory, and even divers who go for these examinations may not have routine chest X-rays (CXR) done in the absence of respiratory symptoms or a past history of respiratory problems. We present a case of an ultimately fatal cerebral arterial gas embolism in a 14-year-old b...
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Full-text available
An individual case review of diving-related deaths reported as occurring in Australia in 2005 was conducted as part of the DAN Asia-Pacific dive fatality reporting project. The case studies were compiled using reports from witnesses, the police and coroners. In each case, the particular circumstances of the accident and details from the post-mortem...
Article
Full-text available
An individual case review of diving-related deaths reported to have occurred in Australia in 2004 was conducted as part of the DAN Asia-Pacific dive fatality reporting project. The case studies were compiled using reports from witnesses, the police and coroners. In each case, the particular circumstances of the accident are provided, and also detai...
Article
An individual case review of the diving-related deaths that were reported to have occurred in Australia in 2003 was conducted as part of the combined Project Stickybeak/DAN Asia-Pacific dive fatality reporting project. The case studies were compiled using reports from witnesses, the police and coroners. In each case, the particular circumstances of...
Article
Dear Editor, I am writing to clarify some points made in my recent article on Australian scuba diving fatalities and decompression sickness in Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine.¹ First, I wish to point out a publishing error in Table 4. The rate for DAN America Members was 11-18 deaths per 100,000 Members and not per 100,000 dives as shown in Table 4....
Article
Recreational scuba diving is a popular activity in Australia, especially around the Great Barrier Reef. Despite efforts by the industry and various governments to reduce the risk, there remains substantial morbidity and mortality as a result of diving. The aim of this study was to estimate the historical and current risk of death and decompression...
Article
We undertook a retrospective cohort study of 16 experienced recreational scuba divers and 16 matched non-diver controls to determine the prevalence of hearing loss and, if present, the likely causes of this loss. Each subject was required to be aged 55 years or less and to have no history or likelihood of hearing loss. An audiologist, blinded to ea...
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Full-text available
Lippmann L, Wellard M. Comparing dive computers. SPUMS J. 2004; 34: 124-9.) Introduction: There are few comparative data on dive computers. This study aimed to observe differences in allowed dive profiles for five models of computer. Methods: Computers were subjected to pressure–time exposures in a small, water-filled compression chamber to compare...
Article
Hypoxia in divers can result from a variety of causes, including decompression illness (DCI). The benefits of oxygen first aid in DCI are increased denitrogenation and improved oxygenation, and the sooner oxygen is provided the better the outcome. When oxygen is provided prior to recompression, symptoms may be relieved earlier, and there is a sligh...

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