John Kinuthia

John Kinuthia
University of South Wales · Centre for Engineering, Research and Environmental Applications (CEREA)

About

87
Publications
46,113
Reads
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1,649
Citations
Citations since 2017
37 Research Items
976 Citations
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200

Publications

Publications (87)
Article
Full-text available
The use of silica fume and ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS) as a precursor to lime has been proven to be an effective sulfate soil stabilisation technique. However, which precursor is superior, in terms of both strength and swelling, is still questionable. Accordingly, the binary blends of lime–silica fume and lime–GGBS were separately a...
Article
The incorporation of recycled aggregate (RA) from the construction and demolition waste (C&DW) in civil engineering applications has become a hot research topic worldwide due to the associated environmental benefits of its application. Nonetheless, the poor quality of RA reduced its attraction to be utilized widely in the construction industry. Thi...
Article
Recycled aggregate (RA) from construction and demolition waste can readily be used to replace natural aggregate in concrete. Nonetheless, the poor quality of RA adversely affects the properties of recycled aggregate concrete, limiting its use to only non-structural applications. This study examined the effects of various treatment methods by testin...
Article
Full-text available
The role of gypsum level on the long-term strength and expansion of soil stabilised with different lime contents is not well understood. This research, therefore, studied the effect of varying gypsum concentrations of 0, 3, 6, and 9 wt% (equivalent to the sulfate contents of 0, 1.4, 2.8, and 4.2%, respectively) on the performance of sulfate soil st...
Article
The utilization of recycled aggregate (RA) from the construction and demolition waste (C&DW) in civil engineering applications, has proven to be an eco-efficient environmentally friendly approach to overcome the current environmental concerns. Nevertheless, the poor quality of RA has limited its utilization in high-grade civil engineering applicati...
Article
Recycled aggregate (RA) from construction and demolition waste can readily be used to replace natural aggregate in concrete. Nonetheless, the poor quality of RA adversely affects the properties of recycled aggregate concrete, limiting its use to only non-structural applications. This study examined the effects of various treatment methods by testin...
Article
Full-text available
Sulfate-induced expansion resulting from the formation of ettringite in sulfate-bearing soil stabilised with calcium-based stabilisers is a problematic issue with technical and economic implications. Thus, this research examines the viability of the co-addition of lime (L) and silica fume (S) at varying binder dosages (4, 6, and 10 wt%), with a vie...
Article
Full-text available
High performance colloid flake of carbon is gaining interest due importance in meeting the challenges of the globe. To make novel superior materials, the pulverized fuel ash-green adhesive based construction materials modified with the flake of carbon and the colloid flake of carbon were evaluated in view of synthesis, physico-mechanical properties...
Preprint
Full-text available
Synthesis, physico-mechanical properties, material processing, and math models of novel superior materials doped flake of carbon and colloid flake of carbon, Journal of Materials Research and Technology, https:// Abstract High performance colloid flake of carbon is gaining interest due importance in meeting the challenges of the globe. To make nove...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study is to evaluate the usability of new cement (NC) made by the burning of quinary by-product to make commercial binders. Chemical analysis of the by-products and NC as well as X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of NC, fineness, density, consistency, and setting time of NC paste, and slump in addition to compressive strength (CS)...
Preprint
Full-text available
The aim of this study is to evaluate the usability of new cement (NC) made by the burning of quinary by-product to make commercial binders. Chemical analysis of the by-products and NC as well as X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of NC, fineness, density, consistency, and setting time of NC paste, and slump in addition to compressive strength (CS) an...
Article
In the present study, un-densified silica fume was reacted with a 10 M sodium hydroxide solution to produce the sodium silicate gel having a pH of 14. The calorimetry of the reaction was evaluated. The gel was dried to increase its density by almost 35%. Thereafter, the thermogravimetry of the gel was performed at temperatures up to 1000 °C. Except...
Article
Full-text available
The current study investigated the development of a sustainable thermo-chemical approach to effectively optimize MgO-waste activated GGBS formulations, using four types of magnesium oxide (MgO) waste materials with ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS) to develop binary cementitious systems (MgO-GGBS). This stems from the expected complexity...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigates the effects of two different Blaine fineness and three distinct curing conditions on the physico-mechanical properties of a geopolymer-ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) binder mortar activated through a combination of NaOH/NaS alkalis. By ensuring constant curing and mixing conditions, geopolymer mortar (GPM) spec...
Article
The effectiveness of using silica fume based sodium silicate in the production of metakaolin (MK) and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) based geopolymer was investigated. Un-densified silica fume was appropriately dissolved in a 10 M sodium hydroxide solution to obtain a sodium silicate alternative (SSA) solution having the SiO2/Na2O mola...
Article
Full-text available
This study sought to use the stress–strain relationship of interlocking stabilized soil block (ISSB) masonry to model its behaviour and develop empirical formulae to aid in predicting its compressive strength. A finite element (FE) analysis adopting the Rankine failure criterion was performed using Abaqus software to simulate the deformability beha...
Article
Full-text available
This study covers an in-depth investigation into the properties and practicality of the utilization of up to 40% Alumina Waste Filler (AWF) as a partial Portland Cement (PC) replacement material. AWF is a by-product from the recycling of aluminium, produced when salt slag is smelted and cleaned. Its use in concrete will lessen the landfill requirem...
Article
Full-text available
Expansion of soils has been found to produce significant negative economic and environmental impact on various civil engineering infrastructure. This impact is more deleterious in soils containing sulphates, when treated with calcium-based stabilizers such as Lime and/or Portland cement (PC). The reported study investigated the strength and swell c...
Article
Full-text available
This paper reports on stabilised clay-hemp building material for sustainability and low carbon use. Ground Granulated Blast-furnace Slag (GGBS) was used as a partial substitute for conventional stabiliser (lime or Portland cement) to stabilise Lower Oxford Clay (LOC) incorporating industrial hemp. The development of stabilised clay-hemp building ma...
Poster
Full-text available
The global production of construction binder is 7.5 billion tons per year and, as a consequence of its popularity, the production of cement, lime, gypsum, bitumen, and others are responsible for almost 10% of global CO2 emissions. Reducing this carbon footprint is a key aim of the binder industry and of researchers worldwide, leading to the develop...
Article
Full-text available
Ground Granulated Blast-furnace Slag (GGBS) and Pulverised Fuel Ash (PFA) were used to replace up to 60% of Portland cement (PC) in concrete. The testing program of the concrete included the determination of the consistency of fresh concrete, the measurement of the density and compressive strength of the hardened products cured for up to 56 days an...
Article
Full-text available
In the present study, physico-chemical investigations were carried out on hydrated lime produced from the limestone of the travertine outcrop of Bogongo in the South West Region of Cameroon. The aim was to evaluate the suitability of that hydrated lime as building lime. The raw material was characterized and then fired at 900 °C. The fired product...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Globally, there is growing demand for low cost, ecologically friendly and technologically suitable construction materials. This is driven by the need for sustainable building materials that could be defined as affordable and with low carbon footprint. Housing plays an important role within sustainable development agenda. Affordable housing is there...
Article
The effect of lime (L), cow dung (CD), rice husk ash (RHA) and pozzolanic cement (PC) on the performance of interlocking clay soil block masonry panel under compressional loading was investigated. CINVA Ram type interlocking blocks were used to quantify the behavior of soil stabilizer mixture, through testing their dry compressive strength, water a...
Article
The objective of the present work is to study the effect of RHA on the performance of fresh and hardened metakaolin geopolymer pastes with focus on tensile strength and microstructure. The metakaolin was partially substituted by 12.5–50% RHA in the solid mixes and reacted with 10 M sodium hydroxide solution at ambient conditions of 20 ± 3 °C and 70...
Book
The first “International Sustainable Buildings Symposium” conferences (ISBS 2010) took place on 26–28th May 2010 at Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey. The plan was to hold the ISBS conference series at different cities every two years. The sequel to ISBS 2010 (ISBS 2015) however also took place at Gazi University on 28–30th May 2015 but at a much imp...
Book
The first “International Sustainable Buildings Symposium” conferences (ISBS 2010) took place on 26–28th May 2010, at Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey. The plan was to hold the ISBS conference series at different cities every two years. The sequel to ISBS 2010 (ISBS 2015), however, also took place at Gazi University on 26–28th May 2015, but at a much...
Article
Little is known about the performance of unreinforced interlocking block masonry walls made using CINVA-Ram blocks subjected to static compression loads. In a laboratory study, Pozzolanic cement (C), hydrated lime (L) and rice husk ash (RHA) were used to stabilize laterite soil with sandy clay loam texture. The stabilized blocks were used to make t...
Chapter
This chapter summarizes the attempts to utilize Wastepaper Sludge Ash (WSA) and allied products in construction, in particular in concrete. The construction industry has been regarded by many as very conservative in its approaches, especially in terms of uptake of advances in various technologies. One of the more conservative approaches has been se...
Article
The preference of clay-based materials for sustainable construction is well-established. The establishment of sustainability credentials of emergent construction materials is very subjective, and most available tools are not fully equipped to deal with individual material systems, such as composite cement- or lime-based cementitious systems, includ...
Article
The establishment of sustainability credentials of emergent construction materials is very subjective, and most available tools such as BREEAM, CEQUAL, ARUP SpeAR among others are not fully quipped or equipped at all to deal with individual material systems. The main problem emanates from the challenges of the audit of each aspect of the material p...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The study shows the sustainable and effective way of managing growing water and wastewater problem is to reclaim and use greywater from bath/shower, hand basin and washing machine for outdoor and indoor non-potable purposes. A detail wastewater characterisation study by the past researchers indicates that grey water is polluted, but the quality is...
Chapter
Humans have not always relied on paper to record human activity. This is witnessed by the inscriptions in prehistoric caves where some of the sketches are made to very high detail. The artistry to show events such as rain, wars, festivals, as well as accurate depiction of both dead and living things—mountains, animals, wind, fire, sun—shows an earl...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This research work reports the potential of using Brick Dust Waste (BDW) as a partial substitute for Portland Cement (PC) in the development of concrete. BDW is a recycled waste materials that is sourced from the demolishing of fired clay brick buildings or the discarded by-product materials from the cutting of fired clay bricks into shape and size...
Chapter
Strictly speaking, the use of clay soil is not nonconventional. It is only nonconventional compared or in competition with the use and application of the more energy-intensive and less environmentally friendly materials such as concrete and steel. The use of clay-based materials has a long and prehistoric background. Their association with mud huts...
Chapter
This chapter focuses on the durability of compressed earth masonry – bricks and blocks. It aims to provide a detailed analysis of the factors at play in the determination of durability. Because the durability aspects of compressed earth masonry and those of concrete are broadly common, and because there is by far a larger body of research work in c...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, the Compressive strength of concretes made with Ground Granulated Blast furnace Slag (GGBS), Pulverised Fuel Ash (PFA), Rice Husk Ash (RHA) and Waste Glass Powder (WGP) after they were exposed 780 degree C (exposure duration of around 60 minutes) and then allowed to cool down gradually in the furnace for about 280 minutes at water bi...
Article
Full-text available
This work reports the potential of using Palm Kernel (PK) ash and shell as a partial substitute for Portland Cement (PC) and coarse aggregate in the development of mortar and concrete. PK ash and shell are agro-waste materials from palm oil mills, the disposal of PK ash and shell is an environmental problem of concern. The PK ash has pozzolanic pro...
Article
This paper reports the potential of using cereal ash and bottom ash waste generated from biomass combustion plants for the manufacture of stabilised bricks and sustainable masonry mortar for brick joints and plaster. For the stabilised brick production, the cereal ash waste and bottom ash waste were used as full substitutes for primary clay, while...
Article
This work reports the potential of using Brick Dust Waste (BDW) as a partial substitute for clay in the development of unfired clay building materials (brick, block and mortar). BDW is a waste material from the cutting of fired clay bricks. There are various reasons necessitating the cutting of bricks — corner bricks, construction of chimneys, and...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper reports on the morphology and composition of the hydrated unfired brick. Lime or Portland Cement (PC) was used as an activator to an industrial by-product (Ground Granulated Blastfurnace Slag -GGBS) to stabilise Lower Oxford Clay (LOC) for unfired clay brick production. Small slices (of 2 mm thickness) from each of the unfired clay brick...
Conference Paper
The last few decades have witnessed various approaches and strategies that are geared towards the achievement of global sustainability. The key drivers to these efforts have included the ever growing scarcity of natural raw materials and increasing awareness of the effects of climate change. These drivers have resulted in efforts by various governm...
Conference Paper
Oil and gas production plays an important role in world economics. However, a vital aspect of ensuring successful production of oil and gas as required depends a lot on the construction of the oil well and designed cementing slurry used. Improper oil well cementing slurry used for well completion can jeopardise oil production and the entire oil wel...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents the results of an investigation for the application of alumina filler wastes and coal ash waste for unfired brick production. Mechanical test and durability assessment were carried out on unfired brick test specimens made using marl clay soil and alumina filler waste as a target material, and 70% mix of coal ash waste were used...
Article
This article provides a comparative analysis of normative and community-to-community-based approaches to resilience building. A narrative rendering of events in Bududa in 2010 is provided through the lens of a community-to-community partnership. The comparison is then achieved through a picture of a normative model for low-impact (cyclical), high-f...
Article
One of the major setbacks of road construction in most flood plains is their geological incompetence. They are hardly able to form soils with the right engineering profile for use as foundation soils for road construction. This has undoubtedly made the prospects of improving natural soils an attractive option, coupled with the ever increasing zest...
Article
Reducing the high embankments associated with road construction especially in low-land areas to within the design flood level, will offer project overall cost reduction amidst enhancing environmental friendliness. This is necessary to mitigate the global environmental concerns of flooding envisaged to be more critical in low-land areas and to keep...
Article
To improve long-term hydraulic properties of binders from RHA and lime, 25–75% MK was added to RHA. Binders were formulated and properties were compared to that containing RHA or MK as only pozzolans. The lime–pozzolan ratio was 1:3. The properties tested after 7, 28 and 56days were: absolute density and fineness of the binders, initial setting tim...
Article
Stabilisation of sulphate-bearing soils with lime/cement-based binders has always been problematic, owing to excessive sulphate-induced expansion. This paper reports on investigations conducted on the consistency and compaction properties of Lower Oxford Clay (LOC), a sulphate-bearing soil that has been difficult to stabilise in the traditional man...
Article
Full-text available
This paper reports on freezing and thawing of stabilised clay brick incorporating a latent hydraulic binder. The latent hydraulic binder used for the stabilised clay bricks is an industrial by-product (slag) arising as an inherent consequence of iron production. Laboratory and industrial-scale masonry bricks were produced. In order to improve on th...
Article
Blended mixtures of ground granulated blastfurnace slag and Portland cement were used in making sustainable masonry mortars suitable for brick joints and for plastering, with Portland cement mortar as control. The testing programme included the determination of a relationship between the mortar flow value and mortar water demand for a wide range of...
Article
The potential of using slate waste generated from roofing slate production in the UK in various applications is reviewed and the environmental impact of the stockpile of slate waste is also assessed. The findings suggest that there is potential for using slate waste in many situations, including engineering applications. In order to reduce the envi...
Article
This paper reports on a laboratory and theoretical method for determining the design values for thermal conductivity and thermal resistance of unfired clay masonry bricks from both experimental and theoretical design point of view. The paper describes the methodology of obtaining these values using the measured lower and upper lambda limits. In ord...
Article
Full-text available
This paper reports on the production of unfired clay masonry bricks at both laboratory and industrial scales. The laboratory-scale bricks were produced at the University of Glamorgan while industrial brick production was carried out at Hanson Brick Company in Stewartby, Bedfordshire. Lime-activated ground granulated blast-furnace slag and Portland...
Article
Full-text available
The shortage of low cost and affordable housing in the UK has led to many investigations into new building masonry materials. Fired clay masonry bricks are conventionally used for mainstream masonry wall construction but suffer from the rising price of energy plus other related environmental problems such as high energy usage and carbon dioxide emi...
Article
This paper discusses laboratory tests on Lower Oxford Clay (LOC) stabilised using different levels of lime (L) or Portland cement (PC), with and without blending with ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS). LOC is used by Hanson Brick Company Ltd in the manufacture of fired ‘London’ bricks at the Stewartby brick plant in Bedfordshire. The rese...
Article
This paper reports on an investigation on the use of ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS) in the development of a sustainable unfired clay binder material for stabilised masonry-brick. The compressive strength of the stabilised masonry-brick, using a semi-processed industrial kaolinite clay soil and a ‘real’ clay soil (Lower Oxford Clay) com...
Conference Paper
This study deals with an innovative way of developing low carbon unfired clay bricks. A further development of this research work could lead to the formulation of other masonry units (blocks and mortar). The obvious advantage of this product is its ability to minimise CO2 within the wall of buildings with minimal heating or cooling. The bricks are...
Conference Paper
This paper reports on energy usage and carbon dioxide (co2) reduction technology. It presents the results of laboratory tests on lime-stabilised Lower Oxford Clay (LOC) using different levels of lime, and Portland cement (PC), and using these traditional stabilisers blended with Ground Granulated Blast-furnace Slag – GGBS. LOC is the clay used by H...
Article
Sustainable construction requires a critical review of prevailing practices, techniques and sources of raw materials, and the recent focus has been turning to natural and industrial wastes and by-proudcts. Extensive experimental work and analysis were carried out to identify the mineral components in wastewaper sludge ash (WSA) and the hydration pr...
Article
This paper reports the results of an investigation of the setting times and heats of hydration of WSA-GGBS and WSA-GGBS-PC blended pastes. Setting time tests were carried out in accordance with BS EN 196-3 and also at a constant w/b ratio (0.5). Regardless of the test procedure used, the setting times of WSA-GGBS blended pastes were found to decrea...
Article
The presence of sulfates during lime-stabilisation of clay soils may modify the clay–lime reaction products with undesirable consequences such as excessive expansion and reduced strength. Some failures in major highways have been attributed to formation of these expansive products. Sulfates may occur in the parent stabilisation material or in the g...
Article
Full-text available
Ettringite related swelling in lime-stabilized sulphate bearing clay soil systems has only been reported within the last decade although similar expansive behaviour has been reported in concrete over many years. The use of ground granulated blastfurnace slag (GGBS), an industrial by-product, is well established as a binder in many cement applicatio...
Article
Increasing global awareness of environmental pollution as well as increasing waste material disposal legislation is providing impetus for material upgrading by stabilisation of in situ soil as an alternative to its export to land-fill and replacement by imported granular fill. The use of ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS), an industrial by...
Article
The pyrolytic behaviour of sets of maceral concentrates have been examined under conditions similar to those of pf-combustion. Relative combustion reactivities of chars prepared during the pyrolysis experiments have been compared by standard methods. As expected, for samples of similar elemental C-content, total volatile release decreased as: lipti...
Article
Full-text available
The use of ground granulated blast furnace slag (ggbs) is well established in many cement applications where it provides enhanced durability, including high resistance to chloride penetration, resistance to sulphate attack and protection against alkali silica reaction (ASR). The use of ggbs in soil stabilization is, however, still a novel process i...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents a method for predicting the workability of concrete incorporating Pulverized Fuel Ash (PFA) and Metakaolin (MK) from the results of standard workability tests. The predictions produced are compared with the experimental results of workability of concrete blends. They reflect the effect of variations of pozzolanic replacement mat...

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