John M Hinson

John M Hinson
Washington State University | WSU · Department of Psychology

PhD Duke University

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80
Publications
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Publications

Publications (80)
Article
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Emotion is characterized by dimensions of affective valence and arousal, either or both of which may be altered by sleep loss, thereby contributing to impaired regulatory functioning. Controlled laboratory studies of total sleep deprivation (TSD) generally show alterations in physiological arousal and affective state, but the relationship of affect...
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Introduction The Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST) has been used in sleep research to measure slowing of cognitive throughput. The task shows large aptitude differences in baseline performance and substantial inter-individual differences in vulnerability to performance deficits during total sleep deprivation (TSD). Fluid intelligence (Gf) is ge...
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Introduction Total sleep deprivation (TSD) impairs binding, i.e., the ability to form new associations. Unitization – when separate memory items are learned as a single unit (e.g., combining two words into a novel compound word) – reduces the need for binding. Unitization mitigates impaired memory for associations in amnesiacs, but whether it offse...
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Sleep loss is reported to influence affective processing, causing changes in overall mood and altering emotion regulation. These aspects of affective processing are seldom investigated together, making it difficult to determine whether total sleep deprivation has a global effect on how affective stimuli and emotions are processed, or whether specif...
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Introduction Total sleep deprivation (TSD) has been shown to impair performance on a two-phase attentional control task, the AX-type continuous performance task with switch (AX-CPTs). Here we investigate whether the observed AX-CPTs impairments are a downstream consequence of TSD-induced non-specific effects (e.g., reduced vigilant attention) or re...
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Introduction Effective memory often requires recall of both specific information and the context in which the information was encountered. Total sleep deprivation (TSD) is known to impair memory for information items (e.g., words on a studied list), but the impact of TSD on binding, or associative linking, between items and context is not clear. M...
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Binding information to its context in long-term memory is critical for many tasks, including memory tasks and decision making. Failure to associate information to its context could be an important aspect of sleep deprivation effects on cognition, but little is known about binding problems from being sleep-deprived at the time of encoding. We studie...
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Introduction Visual search is important in many operational tasks, such as passive sonar monitoring in naval operations. Shift work can contribute to fatigue and task performance impairment; in particular, backward rotating shift schedules have been shown to impair vigilant attention performance. However, the impact on visual search performance, ab...
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Besides degrading vigilant attention, total sleep deprivation (TSD) impairs reversal learning performance and blunts affective reactions to feedback. Whether these effects are downstream consequences of information acquisition failures from degraded vigilant attention, or distinct from degraded vigilant attention, is unclear. In well-rested individ...
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Total sleep deprivation (TSD) is known to impair sustained attention. However, previously reported effects of TSD on response inhibition are mixed. We administered a “stop-signal” variation of the psychomotor vigilance test, which included 25% of trials requiring withholding of a response to assess response inhibition alongside sustained attention....
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Introduction When presented with a choice between sure gains or losses versus gambles, people tend to select sure gains over gambles, but gambles over sure losses. This pre-existing framing bias is embedded in the Framed Gambling Task (FGT), in which subjects choose between a sure option (gain or loss) and a gamble (card from one of two decks). For...
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Introduction Total sleep deprivation (TSD) causes profound vigilant attention deficits, with large, trait-like individual differences, as evidenced convincingly by response lapses on the psychomotor vigilance test (PVT). There is debate, however, about the role of vigilant attention deficits in the effects of TSD on other speeded performance tasks...
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Introduction Stimuli with an emotional valence tend to produce better recognition from memory than neutral stimuli. Sleep loss is believed to increase reactivity to negative stimuli, as compared to positive stimuli, which may comparatively enhance subsequent recognition from memory for negative stimuli. We investigated the impact of total sleep dep...
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Rationale Prospective memory pervades our daily lives and failures can have detrimental consequences. This ability to execute delayed intentions may be impacted by stress, yet few studies have examined these effects. Moreover, as many cannabis users report using cannabis to cope with stress, it is important to understand how stress impacts memory i...
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Introduction The attention network test (ANT) measures the ability to use an alerting cue to detect a stimulus (alerting effect), use a spatial cue to shift the location of visual attention (orienting effect), and manage response conflict (conflict effect). Total sleep deprivation (TSD) has been shown to negatively affect cognitive functions, inclu...
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Risky decision making can be biased by several types of contextual factors—in particular, framing of outcomes. A popular explanation for outcome framing effects is based on presumed affective reactions that contribute to accepting sure gains and avoiding sure losses. Other theories propose that selective weighting of information about gains and los...
Chapter
The cognitive effects of sleep loss are often attributed to compromised functioning of the prefrontal cortex (PFC). However, compromised PFC functioning does not account for well-known effects of sleep deprivation on vigilance. Furthermore, the executive attentional control functions associated with the PFC show considerable variability in the effe...
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Individuals with high trait anxiety tend to be worse at flexibly adapting goal-directed behavior to meet changing demands relative to those with low trait anxiety. Past research on anxiety and cognitive flexibility has used tasks that involve overcoming a recently acquired rule, strategy, or response pattern after an abrupt change in task requireme...
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Positive mood often facilitates cognitive functions. Facilitation is hypothesized to be due to an increase in dopamine occurring in positive mood states. However, facilitation has not been consistently found in studies of cognitive flexibility. This inconsistent relationship may reflect the numerous ways cognitive flexibility is measured. Moreover,...
Article
In around-the-clock operations, reduced alertness due to circadian misalignment and sleep loss causes performance impairment, which can lead to catastrophic errors and accidents. There is mounting evidence that performance on different tasks is differentially affected, but the general principles underlying this differentiation are not well understo...
Article
Sleep deprivation impairs performance on cognitive tasks, but it is unclear which cognitive processes it degrades. We administered a semantic matching task with variable stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) and both speeded and self-paced trial blocks. The task was administered at the baseline and 24 hours later after 30.8 hours of total sleep deprivati...
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Insufficient sleep is a global public health problem resulting in catastrophic accidents, increased mortality, and hundreds of billions of dollars in lost productivity. Yet the effect of sleep deprivation (SD) on decision making and performance is often underestimated by fatigued individuals and is only beginning to be understood by scientists. The...
Article
Adaptive decision making is profoundly impaired by total sleep deprivation (TSD). This suggests that TSD impacts fronto-striatal pathways involved in cognitive control, where dopamine is a key neuromodulator. In the prefrontal cortex (PFC), dopamine is catabolized by the enzyme catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT). A functional polymorphism (Val158M...
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Introduction: Older adults are often worse than younger adults at adapting to changing situational demands, and this difference is commonly attributed to an age-related decline in acquiring and updating information. Previous research on aging and cognitive flexibility has used measures that require adapting to novel associations learned during a la...
Article
Background: Cannabis use has increased rapidly in recent decades. The increase in cannabis use makes it important to understand the potential influence of chronic use on attentional control and other executive functions (EFs). Because cannabis is often used to reduce stress, and because stress can constrain attentional control and EFs, the primary...
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Rationale: One of the most commonly cited reasons for chronic cannabis use is to cope with stress. Consistent with this, cannabis users have shown reduced emotional arousal and dampened stress reactivity in response to negative imagery. Objectives: To our knowledge, the present study represents the first to examine the effects of an acute stress...
Article
Introduction: Sleep deprivation (SD) poses risks to safety and effectiveness in a wide range of critical decision-making contexts. Using high-fidelity simulators, we investigated whether SD impairs response flexibility to potential threats in deadly force decision-making (DFDM) scenarios. Methods: In a laboratory study involving 34h total SD (n=37)...
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To better understand the sometimes catastrophic effects of sleep loss on naturalistic decision making, we investigated effects of sleep deprivation on decision making in a reversal learning paradigm requiring acquisition and updating of information based on outcome feedback. Subjects were randomized to a sleep deprivation or control condition, with...
Article
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The role of memory in the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) was tested in two experiments that dissociated item memory (memory for losses obtained) from source memory (the deck that produced a given loss). In Experiment 1, participants observed 75 choices that had been made by controls or patients in previous research, followed by memory tests, and then 25...
Article
Controlled laboratory studies of the effects of sleep deprivation on cognition have the potential to further our understanding of why some complex tasks are more affected by lack of sleep than other tasks. However, apparently simple cognitive tasks reflect multiple cognitive processes at once. Some of the component processes involved in a task may...
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We studied the effects of sleep deprivation on executive functions using a task battery which included a modified Sternberg task, a probed recall task, and a phonemic verbal fluency task. These tasks were selected because they allow dissociation of some important executive processes from non-executive components of cognition. Subjects were randomiz...
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Framing effects occur in a wide range of laboratory and natural decision contexts, but the underlying processes that produce framing effects are not well understood. We explored the role of working memory (WM) in framing by manipulating WM loads during risky decisions. After starting with a hypothetical stake of money, participants were then presen...
Article
While improving the theoretical account of base-rate neglect, Barbey & Sloman's (B&S's) target article suffers from affect neglect by failing to consider the fundamental role of emotional processes in “real world” decisions. We illustrate how affective influences are fundamental to decision making, and discuss how the dual process model can be a us...
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In the present study, skin conductance responses (SCRs) were measured postdecision and prefeedback in a go/no-go (GNG) task in which participants used response feedback to learn when to respond or not to respond to numeric stimuli. Like somatic markers in gambling tasks and somatic reactions to error monitoring in choice reaction time tasks, SCR pa...
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The proponents of the somatic marker hypothesis presume that rational decision making is guided by emotional reactions that are developed from prior experience. Supporting evidence for the hypothesis comes almost exclusively from the short-term affective reactions that are learned during the course of a hypothetical decision-making task--the gambli...
Article
This study tested whether individual differences in executive control can be used to predict problem drinking among college students. Performance on tests of executive control functions was contrasted in two groups of students. The groups were defined by how often they experienced negative consequences of drinking. The executive control measures in...
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A. M. Franco-Watkins, H. Pashler, and T. C. Rickard (2006; see record 2006-03562-020) discussed some interesting issues about the interpretation of working memory load effects and decision making in their reanalysis of our previously published data (J. M. Hinson, T. L. Jameson, & P. Whitney, 2003). Nonetheless, there is sufficiently strong evidenc...
Article
Deficits in the executive control system of working memory (WM) may explain some of the cognitive and behavioral problems exhibited by individuals identified as being impulsive on self-report measures. However, existing measures of executive control tend to collapse across several potentially dissociable indices. Therefore, people who score high on...
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According to Damasio's somatic marker hypothesis, affective reactions ordinarily guide and simplify decision making. In an earlier study, we used a modified version of the gambling task developed by Bechara and colleagues so that we could explore the relations among decision making, working memory (WM) load, and formation of somatic markers. This p...
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Decision making that favors short-term over long-term consequences of action, defined as impulsive or temporally myopic, may be related to individual differences in the executive functions of working memory (WM). In the first 2 experiments, participants made delay discounting (DD) judgments under different WM load conditions. In a 3rd experiment, p...
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The somatic marker hypothesis formulated by Damasio (e.g., 1994; Damasio, Tranel, & Damasio, 1991) argues that affective reactions ordinarily guide and simplify decision making. Although originally intended to explain decision-making deficits in people with specific frontal lobe damage, the hypothesis also applies to decision-making problems in pop...
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We examine some implications of an attentional model designed to explain dimensional contrast. Pigeons were trained to discriminate rectangular forms under conditions that produced positive dimensional contrast. In two experiments, the spacing of training stimuli was manipulated in ways that should have changed the allocation of attention. Experime...
Article
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Within-session changes in responding by pigeons during a maintained successive discrimination procedure were examined in four experiments. In the first two experiments, which involved discrimination of visual flicker rate, within-session changes in responding were minimal or absent. A third experiment, which examined discrimination of rectangular f...
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These experiments examined one way in which the allocation of attentional resources can change performance during a visual discrimination task. Pigeons were trained to discriminate visual forms under conditions that produced dimensional contrast. In three experiments, negative training stimuli differed from positive stimuli either along a primary p...
Article
Pigeons were trained to discriminate two types of visual forms that could vary in two orthogonal dimensions. One set of stimuli was designed to have relatively integral dimensions, while the other set of stimuli was intended to have relatively separable dimensions, for the pigeon. A first experiment provided evidence that the dimensions of our two...
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Pigeons were trained to discriminate visual flicker-rate stimuli using two types of instrumental choice procedures. One experiment used a free-operant concurrent schedule with multiple schedule components. Two additional experiments used a two-alternative, discrete-trial procedure. In all experiments, the range of training stimuli was manipulated a...
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In this article, the authors introduce a model of dimensional stimulus control designed to explain dimensional contrast effects. The model suggests that dimensional contrast is the result of the nonuniform allocation of limited attentional resources during discrimination training. Attention in the model is conceived as a gradient that extends throu...
Article
In this article, the authors introduce a model of dimensional stimulus control designed to explain dimensional contrast effects. The model suggests that dimensional contrast is the result of the nonuniform allocation of limited attentional resources during discrimination training. Attention in the model is conceived as a gradient that extends throu...
Article
Full-text available
Operant response rates often change within experimental sessions, sometimes increasing and then decreasing. The authors attribute these changes to sensitization and habituation to aspects of the experimental situation presented repeatedly (e.g., reinforcers) or for a prolonged time (e.g., the experimental enclosure). They describe several empirical...
Article
Two experiments examined within-session changes in operant responding when cocaine or cocaine plus food served as the reinforcer. In Experiment 1, male rats self-administered intravenous cocaine according to several fixed interval schedules. The within-session patterns of responding differed for the different schedules early in the session, but the...
Article
In three experiments pigeons were trained to discriminate visual flicker rate stimuli. The stimulus set was varied so that the effects of overall stimulus range and border separation between positive and negative stimuli could be assessed. Experiments 1 and 2 showed that transient generalization gradients were lower in height and flatter with incre...
Article
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Rates of responding changed systematically across sessions for rats pressing levers and keys and for pigeons pressing treadles and pecking keys. A bitonic function in which response rates increased and then decreased across sessions was the most common finding, although an increase in responding also occurred alone. The change in response rate was...
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In two sets of experiments, we examined dimensional stimulus control of pigeons' responses to a visual flicker-rate continuum. In the first experiment, responses to a single key were reinforced periodically during stimuli from one half of the stimulus continuum, and responses during other stimuli were extinguished. In the second experiment, two res...
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In two experiments, a maintained generalization procedure was employed to examine stimulus control of pigeons’ responses to a visual wavelength continuum. For both experiments, pigeons’ responses were periodically reinforced during wavelength values from one end of a continuum, while responses during other stimulus values were extinguished. In Expe...
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Two sets of experiments examined the discriminative performance of pigeons on a visual flicker-rate continuum using a maintained generalization procedure. In the first experiment, responses during the intermediate stimulus value were not reinforced, whereas responses during all other stimuli were reinforced periodically. In the second experiment, t...
Article
In two experiments, pigeons' responding to a visual flicker-rate continuum was established by a maintained generalization procedure. For both experiments, variable-interval reinforcement was available for responses during stimuli from one half of the stimulus continuum while responses during other stimuli were extinguished. The first experiment com...
Article
Four adult females responded at a computer console, on three constant probability concurrent variable-interval reinforcement schedules. The subjects were instructed to try to obtain as many reinforcers as possible, but were not given any instructions on how to accomplish this task. Three of the four subjects typically allocated responses to the sch...
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Listeners classified three tones that differed in loudness. Two tones were always similar in intensity (2 dB separation). The third tone was either similar to or different from these two tones. Performance depended on this stimulus range: The greater the difference between two tones fixed in intensity and the third tone, the less precise was the di...
Article
In two sets of experiments we examined pigeons' discrimination performance with a visual flicker-rate continuum, using a conventional successive discrimination procedure. In the first experiment, responses during the intermediate stimulus value were never reinforced, while responses during stimuli on either end of the continuum were reinforced peri...
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In simple situations, animals consistently choose the better of two alternatives. On concurrent variable-interval variable-interval and variable-interval variable-ratio schedules, they approximately match aggregate choice and reinforcement ratios. The matching law attempts to explain the latter result but does not address the former. Hill-climbing...
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Pigeons were exposed to two types of concurrent operant-reinforcement schedules in order to determine what choice rules determine behavior on these schedules. In the first set of experiments, concurrent variable-interval, variable-interval schedules, key-peck responses to either of two alternative schedules produced food reinforcement after a rando...
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We present a classification and theoretical analysis of discrete-trial and free-operant choice procedures in which reinforcement is assigned to one alternative only, or independently to both, is either always available or conditionally available, and is either "held" or not from trial to trial. Momentary-maximizing and (globally) optimal choice seq...
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Pigeons received variable-interval food reinforcement for key pecking during one line-orientation stimulus while key pecking during another line orientation was extinguished (mult VI EXT); the duration of the extinction component was either fixed or variable. When the duration of the extinction stimulus was variable, stable response rate was highes...
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Pigeons received variable-interval reinforcement for key pecking during presentations of horizontal and vertical line-orientation stimuli, while pecks during five intermediate orientations were extinguished. Lowest peck rates were observed during presentations of negative stimuli adjacent to the positive orientations while peck rate during 45 degre...
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Rats pressing a lever for food reinforcement showed large positive-contrast effects when provided with the opportunity for a competing wheel-running response. Positive and negative behavioral contrast may reflect reallocation of competing interim and terminal responses between schedule components following changes in the reinforcement conditions in...
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Pigeons received equal variable-interval reinforcement during presentations of two line-orient