John Edward Harries

John Edward Harries
Imperial College London | Imperial · Department of Physics

B.Sc, Ph.D

About

212
Publications
13,127
Reads
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5,122
Citations
Citations since 2016
2 Research Items
818 Citations
2016201720182019202020212022050100150
2016201720182019202020212022050100150
2016201720182019202020212022050100150
2016201720182019202020212022050100150
Additional affiliations
October 1994 - July 2013
Imperial College London
Position
  • Emeritus Professor of Physics
Description
  • I have retired and continue my interest in the research of the group. Imperial College have granted me the honour of a position as Emeritus Professor in my retirement.

Publications

Publications (212)
Article
Full-text available
Request to PM to raise climate change as serious issue with President Trump
Article
Full-text available
Differences between Earth's global mean all-sky outgoing longwave radiation spectrum as observed in 1970 [Interferometric Infrared Spectrometer (IRIS)], 1997 [Interferometric Monitor for Greenhouse Gases (IMG)], and 2012 [Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Instrument (IASI)] are presented. These differences are evaluated to determine whether these are r...
Article
Interannual variability in spectrally resolved longwave radiances is quantified at a variety of spatial scales using 5 yr of IASI observations. Maximum variability is seen at the smallest scales investigated (10° zonal means) at northern and southern high latitudes across the center of the 15-μm CO2 band. As the spatial scale increases, the overall...
Article
We present a new derivation of the foreign-broadened water vapour continuum in the far-infrared (far-IR) pure rotation band between 24 μm and 120 μm (85-420 cm(-1)) from field data collected in flight campaigns of the Continuum Absorption by Visible and IR radiation and Atmospheric Relevance (CAVIAR) project with Imperial College's Tropospheric Air...
Conference Paper
We report results from the second CAVIAR and first RHUBC field campaigns, comparing a derived water vapor continuum parametrisation in the far IR spectral region with those in the mid IR and the literature.
Article
The spectrally resolved Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR) is the result of the complex interaction of the earth's emitted radiation with different geophysical variables at different altitudes. Although so far no instrument has observed the entire range of the Earth's Infrared (IR) emission, future missions with this objective are now being formulat...
Article
The Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) instrument on METEOSAT-8 was the first instrument to measure the broadband reflected solar and emitted longwave radiation from geostationary orbit. Validated GERB Edition 1 products were released to the scientific community in 2006, and are available at approximately 15 minute time resolution for the...
Article
Full-text available
Observed far-infrared and mid-infrared radiance spectra measured insitu above cirrus with both the Tropospheric Airborne Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TAFTS) and the Airborne Research Interferometer Evaluation System (ARIES) are presented. Two sets of upwelling spectra between wavenumbers 100 and 1415cm−1 taken over ice cloud of visible optical t...
Article
Recent observations and model studies of the earth's radiative energy balance have focused attention on the earth's top of atmosphere (TOA) energy balance. This is the balance between the shortwave energy absorbed by the earth, which is represented by a spatially and temporally averaged absorbed flux F{downwards arrow to bar}, and theemitted longwa...
Article
The Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget data record Accurate observations of the Earth's radiation balance can provide us with unique information on the climate and allow us to monitor how it might be changing. However such observations need to achieve demanding absolute accuracy targets and maintain calibration stability over many years if they a...
Article
A polarising far infrared spectrometer has been simulated to investigate the effect of Mylar substrates on polarisers. Procedural errors were found to the calibration in certain spectral regions. Comparisons with laboratory measurements are discussed.
Conference Paper
An overview of the results of recent field campaigns performed with the Tropospheric Airborne Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TAFTS) to study the radiative properties of cirrus in the far infrared spectral region is presented.
Conference Paper
The objectives and component parts of the CAVIAR consortium are described. Preliminary data from the recent UK-based airborne field campaign are discussed, with a description of the analysis method and its expected scientific merit.
Article
The Earth is a far IR planet, in that it is a cool object in space, with a considerable amount of energy being emitted at wavelengths longer than 10 microns. This has a number of consequences, some of which are discussed in the paper. Amongst other things, we discuss the water vapour feedback in climate, which operates principally via the FIR pure...
Article
Initial results from a study comparing filtered radiance data from the first two Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) instruments on board the METEOSAT-8 and -9 satellites are presented. The differences seen between longwave filtered radiances from GERB-1 and -2 are in line with those predicted when considering the known differences in the g...
Article
Recent studies have highlighted the important contribution of the far-infrared (electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths greater than 12 μm) to the Earth’s radiative energy budget. In a cloud-free atmosphere, a significant fraction of the Earth’s cooling to space from the mid- and upper troposphere takes place via the water vapor pure rotational...
Article
Full-text available
The paper presents a review of the far-infrared (FIR) properties of the Earth's atmosphere and their role in climate. These properties have been relatively poorly understood, and it is one of the purposes of this review to demonstrate that in recent years we have made great strides in improving this understanding. Seen from space, the Earth is a co...
Article
Observations of the outgoing longwave spectrum of the Earth have been made from a number of spacecraft, dating back to the IRIS experiment on Nimbus 4 in 1970. Using these observations, and following very careful calibration exercises, we have searched cloud-cleared (clear sky) spectra , and found changes in the spectral signatures of greenhouse ga...
Article
Measurements of the resolved spectrum of OLR energy leaving the Earth have been intermittently made since 1970 up to the present day, and we have studied the information that is contained within these spectra, in terms of changes in the greenhouse forcing and feedback processes due to H2O, CO2, CH4, O3, clouds, and other constituents. The signals a...
Article
Observed clear-sky far-infrared (FIR) radiances measured by the Tropospheric Airborne Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TAFTS) are presented. These measurements were taken when flying on board the Facility for Atmospheric Airborne Measurements British Aerospace 146 aircraft over the UK on 18 September 2004 in the upper troposphere between 8.3 and 9.2...
Article
Full-text available
The observation of changes in the earth's spectrally resolved outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) provides a direct method of determining changes in the radiative forcing of the climate system. An earlier study showed that satellite-observed changes in the clear-sky outgoing longwave spectrum between 1997 and 1970 from the Infrared Interferometer Spe...
Conference Paper
We present the results from on-going work on cirrus cloud radiative emission in the far-IR from datasets collected in a number of recent campaigns involving the TAFTS instrument.
Article
Full-text available
Saharan dust storms have often been observed from space, but the full impact on the Earth's radiation balance has been difficult to assess, due to limited observations from the surface. We present the first simultaneous observations from space and from a comprehensive new mobile facility in Niamey, Niger, of a major dust storm in March 2006. The re...
Article
Monthly zonal mean observations of H2O and CH4 made by the limb infrared monitor of the stratosphere (LIMS) and the stratospheric and mesospheric sounder (SAMS) instruments on Nimbus 7 have been used to investigate whether the H2O mixing ratios in the stratosphere are consistent with a source via the oxidation of CH4. While both sets of data show c...
Article
Full-text available
A volcanic eruption provides a natural experiment in which time constants for the onset and decay of the consequent radiative perturbation may be measured. The radiative and atmospheric responses also provide insight into how the top of atmosphere net balance of energy responds to perturbations. We analyse the response of the atmospheric humidity,...
Article
Observations have been made of the submillimetre wavelength radiation emitted by the lower stratosphere, using techniques of Fourier transform spectroscopy, while flying in a Comet 2E aircraft. Using the method of phase-modulation high quality spectra have been obtained at several altitudes over the spectral range 20 to 66 cm−1, and these have enab...
Article
Full-text available
The Valencia Anchor Station (VAS) was set up by the University of Valencia at the natural region of Utiel- Requena Plateau in 2001. The plateau is a large and reasonably homogeneous area suitable for validation of low spatial resolution satellite data and products such as GERB's. In the framework of the EUMETSAT/ESA MSG-RAO Project no. 138 GIST Pro...
Article
Full-text available
The Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) instrument on METEOSAT-8 is making the first measurements of the Earth’s radiation budget from geostationary orbit. The first validated GERB Edition 1 products were released to the scientific community via the ggsps archive (http://ggsps.rl.ac.uk) earlier this year. This paper summaries the calibratio...
Article
Full-text available
The Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) instrument on METEOSAT-8 is making the first measurements of the Earth's radiation budget from geostationary orbit. The first validated GERB Edition 1 products were released to the scientific community via the ggsps archive (http://ggsps.rl.ac.uk) earlier this year. This paper summaries the calibratio...
Article
The purpose of this work is to compare top of the atmosphere (TOA) radiances as measured by the Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) instrument on board the METEOSAT-8 (METEOSAT Second Generation) satellite to equivalent independent radiances obtained from radiative transfer simulations performed using surface and atmospheric measured parame...
Article
Between 25-35% of the Earth's outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) lies in the far-infrared (FIR) spectral region from 0- 500cm-1 where the emission is primarily due to water vapour located in the upper and mid troposphere. The local maximum in the absorption spectrum of ice means that high, cold cirrus clouds have a large effect on intensity of the O...
Article
Full-text available
Measurements of spectrally resolved outgoing longwave radiation recorded in 1970, 1997 and 2003 are compared to determine the change in radiative forcing over that period. The changes are shown to be in agreements with that simulated by MODTRAN, a band model, using the known changes in atmospheric temperature and greenhouse gas concentrations when...
Article
Full-text available
This paper reports on a new satellite sensor, the Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) experiment. GERB is designed to make the first measurements of the Earth's radiation budget from geostationary orbit. Measurements at high absolute accuracy of the reflected sunlight from the Earth, and the thermal radiation emitted by the Earth are made e...
Article
Full-text available
To fully attribute differences in cloud forcing between regions, or between models and observations, requires separation of the effects of different cloud types. This can only be achieved using data which resolve both day to day and diurnal variations. Here we propose a method which takes advantage of the high temporal resolution of geostationary d...
Article
The EAQUATE campaign was a validation exercise for the AIRS satellite instrument, and involved two aircraft, the NASA Proteus and FAAM Bae-146. Early results of this campaign from the far-IR TAFTS instrument are presented.
Conference Paper
During a recent flight campaign, measurements of far infrared radiation were taken with a Fourier transform spectrometer. The results taken in clear conditions will further understanding of the atmosphere and ability to predict climate.
Article
Full-text available
The Emerald airborne measurement campaigns have provided a view of the anatomy of cirrus clouds in both the tropics and mid-latitudes. These experiments have involved two aircraft that combine remote sensing and in-situ measurements. Results are presented here from two separate flights: one in frontal cirrus above Adelaide, Australia, the other in...
Article
Full-text available
Measurements of spectrally resolved outgoing longwave radiation allows signatures of many aspects of greenhouse warming to be distinguished without the need to amalgamate information from multiple measurements, allowing direct interpretation of the error characteristics. Here, data from three instruments measuring the spectrally resolved outgoing l...
Conference Paper
Resolving uncertainties surrounding the nature of future climate change is currently one of the greatest challenges facing mankind. Validation of global climate model (GCM) predictions of the currently much miss-represented cloud radiative feedback requires measurements made from orbit of the Earth Radiation Budget (ERB), specifically targeted at c...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) instrument aboard the Meteosat Second Generation spacecraft provides measurements of reflected solar radiation and outgoing longwave radiation over the Earth's disc as viewed from 3.5 degrees west over the Equator. From this platform, one can measure the radiation budget of all regions within the view...
Article
Full-text available
The high degree of cancellation between longwave (LW) and shortwave (SW) cloud radiative forcing (CRF) observed in the Pacific warm pool region has generally been assumed to be a property of all convective regions in the Tropics. Analysis of the (Earth Radiation Budget Experiment) ERBE-like data from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System...
Article
The main objective of the SCALES Project is to exploit the unique opportunity offered by the recent launch of the first European METEOSAT Second Generation geostationary satellite (MSG-1) to generate and validate new radiation budget and cloud products provided by the GERB (Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget ) instrument. SCALES" specific objecti...
Article
The main objective of the SCALES Project is to exploit the unique opportunity offered by the recent launch of the first European METEOSAT Second Generation geostationary satellite (MSG-1) to generate and validate new radiation budget and cloud products provided by the GERB (Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget) instrument. SCALES" specific objectiv...
Article
The Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) instrument aboard the Meteosat Second Generation Satellite has 256 channels which measure total radiance and 256 channels which measure solar radiation reflected from the Earth. In order to validate the calibration of these channels, the Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument aboard...
Article
Geostationary Earth radiation budget (GERB) is an Announcement of Opportunity Instrument for EUMETSAT's Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite. GERB will make accurate measurements of the Earth Radiation Budget from geostationary orbit, provide an absolute reference calibration for LEO Earth radiation budget instruments and allow studies of the...
Article
The EMERALD-2 campaign was conducted from Darwin Australia in November 2002 to study the cirrus outflow from tropical convection. This involved two aircraft from which in-situ sampling and remote sensing were applied. One aircraft, called the Egrett, flew to heights of 15 km while carrying instruments for measuring cloud particles, humidity, temper...
Article
A recent comparison between data taken by two different satellite instruments, the Interferometric Monitor of Greenhouse Gases (IMG) that flew in 1997 and the Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer (IRIS) that flew in 1970, showed evidence of a change in the clear-sky greenhouse radiative forcing due to the increase in greenhouse gas concentrations b...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The radiative balance of the Earth is influenced strongly by radiative cooling associated with emission of radiation by water vapor at far-infrared (far-IR) wavelengths greater than 15 μm and extending out beyond 60 μm. the distribution of water vapor and cirrus cloud associated far-IR radiative forcings and feedbacks are well-recognized as major u...
Article
Spatially resolved images from the MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) instrument are used to investigate the impact of a change in spatial field of view, from that typical of the Nimbus 4 Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer (IRIS) to that of the Interferometric Monitor for Greenhouse Gases (IMG), upon the spectral outgoing longwave r...
Article
The Earth's radiative energy balance between absorbed incoming solar radiation and outgoing longwave emission is expected to remain in balance as the planet maintains equilibrium. However, we are not clear about the speed with which this balance is maintained as a result of perturbations. In addition to the information about clouds and their proces...
Article
Full-text available
The balance between the incoming solar radiation from the Sun and the outgoing reflected and scattered solar radiation and thermal-infrared emission from the Earth, the so-called Earth Radiation Budget (ERB), provides information on the fundamental energy source of the climate system [1]. To fulfil global coverage and sampling requirements, the ERB...
Article
The TAFTS instrument was flown at high altitude in clear and cloudy sky conditions during the EMERALD project. Here we discuss the results including clear sky net flux profiling in the far infrared.
Article
The CLOUDS study defines a small satellite addressing the objective of cloud-radiation interaction monitoring for improved climate and weather prediction. The study was funded by the EC, and now various paths are explored to provide study continuation and eventual programme implementation. The payload only includes passive radiometers, covering the...
Article
This chapter discusses the use of measurements of the spectrum of outgoing longwave radiation, measured from space, as a mechanism for detecting and attributing a cause to climate change. Observations are available from two experiments, one flown by NASA in 1970 (the InfraRed Interferometer Spectrometer, IRIS), and the other flown by Japan's NASDA...
Article
In-situ methods for measuring upper tropospheric humidity are important for two reasons: (i) they can be used as accurate spot measurements with which to calibrate more extensive data from satellites and other sensors; (ii) they can provide high accuracy measurements from aircraft or balloon with which individual processes of transport, phase chang...
Article
The REFIR (Radiation explorer in the far infrared) project is a study, funded by European Union, of feasibility of a novel space-borne instrument that will measure the atmospheric spectral radiance of the Earth in the broad spectral range 100-1100 cm-1 from space with sufficient spectral resolution (0.5 cm-1) and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR > 100)....
Article
The radiative balance of the troposphere, and hence climate, is influenced strongly by radiative cooling associated with emission of infrared radiation by water vapor, particularly at far-infrared (far-IR) wavelengths greater than 15 micrometers and extending out beyond 50micrometers . Water vapor absorption and emission is principally due to the p...
Article
Full-text available
The REFIR (Radiation explorer in the far infrared) project is a study, funded by European Union, of feasibility of a novel space-borne instrument that will measure the atmospheric spectral radiance of the Earth in the broad spectral range 100-1100 cm-1 from space with sufficient spectral resolution (0.5 cm-1) and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR > 100)....
Article
EMERALD was a major airborne measurement campaign to study cirrus clouds. This was conducted above Adelaide Australia during September 2001. Both in-situ sam- pling and remote sensing were applied to investigate the interactions between particle microphysics, dynamics, and radiation. Two aircraft were used. One, called the Egrett, flew up to height...
Article
The radiative balance of the troposphere, and hence climate, is influenced strongly by radiative cooling associated with emission of infrared radiation by water vapor, particularly at far-infrared (far-IR) wavelengths greater than 15 micrometers and extending out beyond 50micrometers . Water vapor absorption and emission is principally due to the p...
Article
Full-text available
The evolution of the Earth's climate has been extensively studied, and a strong link between increases in surface temperatures and greenhouse gases has been established. But this relationship is complicated by several feedback processes-most importantly the hydrological cycle-that are not well understood. Changes in the Earth's greenhouse effect ca...
Article
Full-text available
The collision-induced absorption spectrum of gaseous CO2 has been measured in the far infrared at temperatures of 200 K, 293 K, 323 K and 373 K. The peak of the induced absorption band is observed to shift to lower frequency and to increase in magnitude as the temperature is reduced. Values of the absorption coefficient measured at frequencies acro...
Article
This study investigates the prospect of retrieving ice cloud properties using the far IR part of the outgoing longwave radiation spectrum. Ice optical properties in the far IR are such that ice clouds not only absorb but also scatter radiation. Thus, the far IR offers unique remote sensing opportunities for ice particle size and shape retrieval. Ca...
Article
CLOUDS is a project co-funded by the EC under FP-4, conducted by 12 European partners, also cooperating with NOAA/ETL. It is the mission study of a monitoring satellite to perform measurements necessary to describe cloud-radiation interaction in operational models for climate and long-term weather prediction. Complementary to missions for process s...
Article
This study investigates the prospect of retrieving ice cloud properties using the far IR part of the outgoing longwave radiation spectrum. Ice optical properties in the far IR are such that ice clouds not only absorb but also scatter radiation. Thus, the far IR offers unique remote sensing opportunities for ice particle size and shape retrieval. Ca...
Article
The advent of space techniques has had a profound effect on how mankind views the place of the Earth and of the human race in the universe. To see the planet Earth, in images taken from orbiting spacecraft such as the Space Shuttle, or from greater distances (as in the case of those famous images of the Earth from the surface of the Moon) tells us...
Article
The purpose of this paper is to review the status of research into one of the most challenging and important problems facing physics today: how does the atmosphere moderate the radiative energy balance that determines the Earth's climate? Behind this question lies the whole basis for understanding the greenhouse effect, including coupled feedback p...
Conference Paper
CLOUDS is a project supported by the European Union, conducted by 12 European partners (7 scientific institutes and 5 industrial companies), also cooperating with NOAA/ETL. It is the mission study of a monitoring satellite to perform measurements necessary to describe cloud-radiation interaction in operational models for climate and weather predict...
Article
The Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) instrument is described. GERB will be the first spectral broadband instrument on a geostationary platform. GERB 1 is scheduled for launch on the first Meteosat Second Generation (MSG1) satellite in October 2000. Every 15 minutes, a complete image of the visible part of the Earth is transmitted in two...