John Hammond

John Hammond
United States Geological Survey | USGS · Water Science Center for Maryland, Delaware and the District of Columbia

USGS Hydrologist PhD Earth Sciences, M.S. Water Resources Science Oregon State University, B.S. Environmental Science and Policy University of Maryland

About

27
Publications
7,218
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
375
Citations
Introduction
John studies hydroclimatic variability and trends, seasonal snow dynamics, empirical streamflow relationships across scales, and incorporates satellite data into hydrologic models. Current projects include improving snow process representation in hydrologic models, characterizing and predicting hydrologic drought, assessing patterns and drivers of non-perennial flow, and DC StreamStats.

Publications

Publications (27)
Article
Building continental‐scale hydrologic models in data‐sparse regions requires an understanding of spatial variation in hydrologic processes. Extending these models to ungaged locations requires techniques to group ungaged locations with gaged ones to make process importance and model parameter transfer decisions to ungaged locations. This analysis (...
Article
Full-text available
Knowing where and when rivers flow is paramount to managing freshwater ecosystems. Yet stream gauging stations are dis- tributed sparsely across rivers globally and may not capture the diversity of fluvial network properties and anthropogenic influences. Here we evaluate the placement bias of a global stream gauge dataset on its representation of s...
Article
Groundwater pumping can cause reductions in streamflow (“streamflow depletion”) that must be quantified for conjunctive management of groundwater and surface water resources. However, streamflow depletion cannot be measured directly and is challenging to estimate because pumping impacts are masked by streamflow variability due to other factors. Her...
Preprint
Groundwater pumping can cause reductions in streamflow (‘streamflow depletion’) that must be quantified for conjunctive management of groundwater and surface water resources. However, streamflow depletion cannot be measured directly and is challenging to estimate because pumping impacts are masked by streamflow variability due to other factors. Her...
Article
Full-text available
Because of the importance of snow for river discharge in mountain regions, hydrological research often focuses on seasonally snow-covered zones. However, in many basins the majority of the land surface area is intermittently snow-covered. Discharge monitoring in these areas is less common, so their contributions to downstream rivers remain largely...
Article
Forest management guidelines are designed to protect water quality from unintended effects of land use changes such as timber harvest, mining, or forest road construction. Although streams that periodically cease to flow (nonperennial) drain the majority of forested areas, these streams are not consistently included in forest management guidelines....
Article
Full-text available
Non-perennial streams are widespread, critical to ecosystems and society, and the subject of ongoing policy debate. Prior large-scale research on stream intermittency has been based on long-term averages, generally using annually aggregated data to characterize a highly variable process. As a result, it is not well understood if, how, or why the hy...
Article
Full-text available
Plain Language Summary How, when, and where streams and rivers dry are important variables that influence ecosystem functions, such as regulating downstream water quality, supporting fisheries, and promoting carbon storage. Non‐perennial streams, which flow only part of the year, comprise the majority of the global river length and are understudied...
Article
Full-text available
This study examines the spatial and temporal variability of flow intermittence over the period 1970-2018 across four countries (Australia, France, UK and the conterminous USA). Intermittence (no-flow periods) in 471 unregulated non-perennial rivers were analyzed using flow data collected from 1356 gauging stations distributed across the four countr...
Article
Full-text available
In the humid, temperate Delaware River Basin (DRB) where water availability is generally reliable, summer low flows can cause competition between various human and ecological water uses. As temperatures continue to rise, population increases and development expands, it is critical to understand historical low flow variability to anticipate and plan...
Article
Full-text available
Developing accurate stream maps requires both an improved understanding of the drivers of streamflow spatial patterns and field verification. This study examined streamflow locations in three semiarid catchments across an elevation gradient in the Colorado Front Range, USA. The locations of surface flow throughout each channel network were mapped i...
Article
Full-text available
River managers often need estimates of streamflow for ungauged streams. These estimates can be used in water rights acquisitions, in‐stream flow management, habitat assessment, water quality planning, and stream hazard identification. This publication describes new regression models for predicting mean annual and mean monthly streamflow in Colorado...
Article
Full-text available
Over half of global rivers and streams lack perennial flow, and understanding the distribution and drivers of their flow regimes is critical for understanding their hydrologic, biogeochemical, and ecological functions. We analyzed nonperennial flow regimes using 540 U.S. Geological Survey watersheds across the contiguous United States from 1979 to...
Article
Full-text available
Recent streamflow declines in the Upper Colorado River Basin raise concerns about the sensitivity of water supply for 40 million people to rising temperatures. Yet, other studies in western US river basins present a paradox: streamflow has not consistently declined with warming and snow loss. A potential explanation for this lack of consistency is...
Article
Full-text available
Around the world, long‐term changes in the timing and magnitude of streamflow are testing the ability of large managed water resource systems constructed in the 20th century to continue to meet objectives in the 21st century. Streamflow records for unregulated rivers upstream of reservoirs can be combined with records downstream of reservoirs using...
Article
Full-text available
Rivers that cease to flow are globally prevalent. Although many epithets have been used for these rivers, a consensus on terminology has not yet been reached. Doing so would facilitate a marked increase in interdisciplinary interest as well as critical need for clear regulations. Here we reviewed literature from Web of Science database searches of...
Article
Full-text available
The discipline of hydrology has long focused on quantifying the water balance, which is frequently used to estimate unknown water fluxes or stores. While technologies for measuring water balance components continue to improve, all components of the balance have substantial uncertainty at the watershed scale. Watershed-scale evapotranspiration, stor...
Article
Streamflow observations can be used to understand, predict, and contextualize hydrologic, ecological, and biogeochemical processes and conditions in streams. Stream gages are point measurements along rivers where streamflow is measured, and are often used to infer upstream watershed‐scale processes. When stream gages read zero, this may indicate th...
Article
Full-text available
Streamflow generation in mountain watersheds is strongly influenced by snow accumulation and melt, and multiple studies have found that snow loss leads to earlier snowmelt timing and declines in annual streamflow. However, hydrologic responses to snow loss are heterogeneous, and not all areas experience streamflow declines. This research examines w...
Article
Nonperennial rivers are a major—and growing—part of the global river network. New research and science-based policies are needed to ensure the sustainability of these long-overlooked waterways.
Article
Full-text available
The spatial variability of snow water equivalent (SWE) can exert a strong influence on the timing and magnitude of snowmelt delivery to a watershed. Therefore, the representation of subgrid or subwatershed snow variability in hydrologic models is important for accurately simulating snowmelt dynamics and runoff response. The U.S. Geological Survey N...
Article
Full-text available
Streamflow generation and deep groundwater recharge may be vulnerable to loss of snow, making it important to quantify how snowmelt is partitioned between soil storage, deep drainage, evapotranspiration, and runoff. Based on previous findings, we hypothesize that snowmelt produces greater streamflow and deep drainage than rainfall and that this eff...
Article
Full-text available
Streamflow generation and deep groundwater recharge in high elevation and high latitude locations may be vulnerable to loss of snow, making it important to quantify how snowmelt is partitioned between soil storage, deep drainage, evapotranspiration, and runoff. Based on previous findings, we hypothesize that snowmelt produces greater streamflow and...
Article
Full-text available
Seasonal snow is a critical component of the surface energy balance and hydrologic cycle, yet global maps of seasonal snow boundaries are not readily available. Snow persistence (SP), the fraction of a year that snow is present on the ground, is an easily globally observed snow metric that can be used to map snow zones globally. Here we map snow zo...
Article
Citizen scientists keep a watchful eye on the world's streams, catching intermittent streams in action and filling data gaps to construct a more complete hydrologic picture.
Article
Full-text available
With climate warming, many regions are experiencing changes in snow accumulation and persistence. These changes are known to affect streamflow volume, but the magnitude of the effect varies between regions. This research evaluates whether variables derived from remotely sensed snow cover can be used to estimate annual streamflow at the small waters...

Network

Cited By

Projects

Project (1)
Project
Threshold hydrologic change across the intermittent-persistent snow transition