John Hagedoorn

John Hagedoorn
Royal Holloway, University of London | RHUL · School of Management

About

159
Publications
51,683
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17,226
Citations
Citations since 2016
16 Research Items
5808 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220200400600800
20162017201820192020202120220200400600800
20162017201820192020202120220200400600800
20162017201820192020202120220200400600800

Publications

Publications (159)
Chapter
This chapter takes stock of the empirical literature on research and development (R&D) alliances, one among other open-innovation (OI) practices, and identifies opportunities to bring the traditions of research on R&D alliances and OI into closer alignment. Through a structured literature review, it finds a wealth of research on the antecedents and...
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Plain English Summary Headline: The more social enterprises focus on both commercial and social goals, the more successful they are in improving their social innovation performance. Social innovation refers to new products, processes, and services that respond to a range of social challenges such as poverty, inequality, homelessness, health, and en...
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Different streams of literature in economics and strategy suggest that several characteristics of a firm's technological base such as diversity, breadth, depth, and R&D portfolio affect its R&D output. Separately, strategy literature on technological mergers and acquisitions (M&As) suggests that the relationship between technological knowledge base...
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Research and development (R&D) collaborations are assumed to be important means by which firms facilitate innovation performance; however, collaborations with different kinds of partners may yield different innovation outputs. Building on the knowledge-based view (KBV) and the behavioural theory of the firm, this paper investigates the effects of t...
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Although merger and acquisitions (M&As) are acknowledged as an important means to access innovative assets and know‐how, firms’ inventive output often declines in the post‐M&A period. Financial, managerial and organizational constraints related to the M&A event contribute to inventive output declines and inventors’ departure. Prior literature treat...
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Frontiers of Strategic Alliance Research - edited by Farok J. Contractor March 2019
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We explore the innovation performance benefits of alliances for spin-off firms, in particular spin-offs either from other firms or from public research organizations. During the early years of the emerging combinatorial chemistry industry, the industry on which our empirical analysis focuses, spin-offs engaged in alliances with large and establishe...
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In fast-paced and knowledge-intensive environments, licensing partnerships can be powerful levers for market expansion. Research on the management of technology-oriented licenses has nonetheless pointed out the risks of corrosive disputes caused by conflicting interests or misunderstandings among licensing partners. The choice made ex ante on mecha...
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Our research extends the current knowledge based view on the configuration of alliance portfolios and their deployment in different external knowledge environments. We study these alliance portfolios in a longitudinal sample (1996-2010) for over three thousand firms that operate in a large number of industries in the Netherlands. Our findings indic...
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This paper provides an overview of the main perspectives and themes emerging in research on open innovation (OI). The paper is the result of a collaborative process among several OI scholars – having a common basis in the recurrent Professional Development Workshop on ‘Researching Open Innovation’ at the Annual Meeting of the Academy of Management....
Article
This paper analyses how firms’ degree of openness and innovativeness influence their use of formal and informal appropriation mechanisms. Patents, trademarks, copyrights, and design rights are formal appropriation mechanisms. Secrecy, lead-time, and complexity are examples of informal appropriation mechanisms. Both external search breadth and depth...
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Drawing on a cognitive perspective of trust, we propose that the trust towards an alliance partner’s country, which we call national trust, will affect the governance structure used to organize the alliance between the partners. We further argue that this effect of national trust is moderated by improved information on the partner firm. Using a sam...
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We develop a theoretical Bayesian learning model to examine how a firm’s learning horizon, defined as the maximum distance in a network of alliances across which the firm learns from other firms, conditions its optimal number of direct alliance partners under technological uncertainty. We compare theoretical optima for a ‘close’ learning horizon, w...
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Our exploratory empirical study, based on interviews and a survey of firms, addresses a number of questions on the role of formal contracts and intellectual property rights (IPR) in the context of firm-to-firm open innovation (OI). We find that firms active in OI have a very strong preference for the governance of their OI relationships with other...
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This research studies the effect of specific institutional and distance cost issues, in particular the protection of intellectual property rights and geographic distance, on the preference of companies for different governance modalities in terms of the degree of their involvement in international relational-based technology alliances. In the sampl...
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The purpose of this symposium is to bring scholars together to discuss potential tensions between value creation and value capture in the context of open innovation. While value creation generally benefits from openness, successful commercialization and value capture often requires protection. Hence, a key question motivating this symposium is: How...
Article
The principal purpose of this study is to revisit the classic research question regarding the lag structure of the patents–R&D relationship through an examination of the impact of internal R&D on firm patenting in the context of the global pharmaceutical industry during 1986–2000. Our empirical analysis, using both a multiplicative distributed lag...
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A common phenomenon in entrepreneurship is that employees turn away from employment to found their own businesses. Prior literature discusses the former employers’ characteristics that influence the creation of entrepreneurial ventures. An investigation of whether these characteristics also affect the success of the spawned ventures is missing so f...
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This article links research on parallel search and joint R&D to contribute a portfolio perspective to the study of knowledge flows within interfirm R&D partnerships. In a longitudinal analysis of firms engaged in R&D partnerships relating to information technology between 1975 and 1999, we show that the size of a firm's R&D partnership portfolio an...
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Using a Bayesian learning model, the authors provide a formal understanding of the strategic implications of a firm's R&D alliance activity through its local or distant ties. A major advantage of the model is that it facilitates an explicit analysis of the factors that determine a firm's potential to learn from its R&D alliances. The article's theo...
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We study the effect of the tie strength of inter-firm R&D partnerships on the innovation performance of companies in four high-tech sectors (pharmaceuticals, computers, semi-conductors and telecom). Returning to Granovetter's (197319. Granovetter , M. S. 1973 . The strength of weak ties . American Journal of Sociology , 78 : 1360 – 80 . [CrossRef],...
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The widespread use of cooperative modes of company governance, such as joint ventures and a wide range of inter-firm alliances, during the past couple of decades has attracted a lot of attention by economists and policy decision makers alike (e.g. Hagedoorn, 1996; Osborn and Hagedoorn, 1997; Vonortas, 1997; Caloghirou and Vonortas, 2000). The expan...
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MERIT Research Memoranda can be ordered from the address below, or be obtained in electronic form (Postscript) by anonymous ftp at meritbbs.rulimburg.nl
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Alliance cliques have been largely neglected in technological alliances studies. In this study we show that cliques offer an interesting angle to analyze why certain firms are better in going beyond local search than others. Clique spanning ties can be expected to have strategic advantages for firms maneuvering themselves in a position as broker be...
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When inter-firm alliance contracts are inevitably incomplete and include interdependent, though to some extent non-contractible, activities, contracting parties can device coordination mechanisms that both facilitate guidance of the alliance through communication and promote mutual adaptability and re-alignment of objectives in response to unantici...
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Research on technological partnerships has traditionally sought explanation of their high failure rates in partner characteristics and relationship features. This study introduces the notion of a ‘bumpy road’ in technology partnerships which refers to undesired outcomes such as ‘partnership mal-functioning’ and ‘instability’ to the degree to which...
Article
Our exploratory empirical study, based on a series of in-depth interviews and a survey of firms, searches for answers on a number of questions that deal with the role of formal contracts and intellectual property rights in the context of open innovation. We find that firms active in open innovation have a strong preference for the governance of the...
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This paper studies the control rights allocated to partners within R&D alliances formed in the bio-pharmaceutical industry. More in particular, it focuses on the allocation of intellectual property control rights as seen from the perspective of the firm that is the main source of the technology that is developed or used within the alliance. The emp...
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This paper presents an analysis of some major historical trends in inter-firm R&D partnering in the international software industry during the period 1970-1999. Our research demonstrates an overall growth pattern of newly made R&D partnerships and reveals the important role played by leading firms. We also examine the emergence of various R&D netwo...
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The mixed picture of extant research on the relationship between internal and external R&D prompts us to ask such a question: under what conditions is there complementarity or substitutability between different R&D strategies? The goal of this paper is to contribute to the empirical literature by advancing and testing the contingency of the relatio...
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We offer a new perspective on measuring the complexity of interfirm contracts. We define complex contracts as those contracts that contain many elements (clauses) with a relatively large number of interdependencies that also impose a significant cognitive load on contract parties. Previous studies on contractual complexity employ objective measures...
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There has been little systematic theoretical or empirical analysis on how inter-firm contracts are actually designed. This is problematic because the structure of a contract has a large influence on the extent to which firms will benefit from a contractual relationship. We present a novel perspective on contract design using the construct of contra...
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When companies decide to engage in technology transfer through exclusive licensing to other firms, they have two basic options: to use standard licensing contracts or to set-up more elaborate partnership-embedded licensing agreements. We find that broader partnership-embedded licensing agreements are preferred with higher levels of technological so...
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Abstract This paper assumes that a firm sets up information generating alliances or R&D network ties that create alliance groups to reduce technological uncertainty. Our model indicates it is only worthwhile for a firm to establish an alliance with a new, unembedded partner outside its existing alliance group when the value of technologicalinformat...
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This paper analyses the role of inter-organisational trust in pharmaceutical biotechnology, an industry characterised by a strong dual market structure. Our main finding is that repeated ties in pairs of large pharmaceutical companies and small, entrepreneurial biotechnology firms, which indicate inter-organisational trust, have a negative effect o...
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Clique spanning ties can be expected to have strategic advantages for firms maneuvering themselves in a position as broker between two dense regions of firms. In a sample of semiconductor cliques (ASIC) from 1987 to 2000 we examined the independent effects of technological -, firm -, ego network -, and clique level characteristics on the formation...
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We discuss the 'gloomy' side of firms' embeddedness in networks of inter- firm partnerships. We propose a nested understanding of the effects of three levels of overembeddedness - environmental, inter-organizational and dyadic overembeddedness - on subsequent inter-firm partnership formation and argue for a joint examination of these three levels a...
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This study examines the influence of managerial and family characteristics on three types of innovation in family firms, namely product, process and organizational innovation. The hypotheses are based on the main premises of trait-based theory, upper-echelon, resource-based and agency perspectives. While the empirical results illustrate that manage...
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The effect of a firm's uncertainty regarding technological development on the formation of alliances is examined, and it is shown that this uncertainty is positively related to the number of alliances. However, higher uncertainty also makes the firm less likely to ally with others if the collected information is redundant. The higher the similarity...
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This study investigates the internal and external strategic choices that telecommunications firms, operating in a dynamic network environment, make to adapt to changes and to respond quickly in order to create or to sustain their competitive advantage. In particular, in the European telecommunications industry incumbent firms have faced important c...
Chapter
This chapter studies the role played by small entrepreneurial firms and large companies in the international biotechnology industry. The biotechnology industry is one of the main examples of current industries that are characterized by "hypercompetition", with a high degree of uncertainty about the combined effects of both new technologies and new...
Article
So far, the literature on inter-firm networks of R&D partnerships has mainly focused on the effect of these networks on the innovation performance of companies, while the inter-firm flows of knowledge through these networks have received little attention. We find that strategic network positioning in the information technology sector, based on a ce...
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The primary goal of this paper is to improve our understanding of the complex relationship between the positioning of companies in alliance networks and their innovative performance. We expect that a firm's innovative performance depends partly on its position in specific network settings(block membership or non-block membership), with additional e...
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This paper studies some major legal implications of inter-firm technology partnering through equity joint ventures, non-equity partnerships, and licensing contracts. These different partnerships are placed within the classical and relational contracting perspectives, while also considering intellectual property rights issues. Samples of contracts o...
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When companies decide to engage in technology transfer through exclusive licensing to other firms, they have two basic options: to use standard licensing contracts or to set-up more elaborate partnership-embedded licensing agreements. We find that broader partnership-embedded licensing agreements are preferred with higher levels of technological so...
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Nadine Roijakkers is assistant professor at the Faculty of Technology Management, Eindhoven University of Technology, the Netherlands. Among her research interests are innovation, alliances, and networks, and she has published articles on these topics in Research Policy and the British Journal of Management.
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This paper suggests a cross-level understanding of the embeddedness of interfirm partnering in the context of the formation of new partnerships. It makes a critical distinction among environmental embeddedness, interorganizational embeddedness, and dyadic embeddedness, stressing the importance of understanding the interaction of these different lev...
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This study examines the post-M&A innovative performance of acquiring firms in four major high-tech sectors. Non-technological M&As appear to have a negative impact on the acquiring firm's post-M&A innovative performance. With respect to technological M&As, a large relative size of the acquired knowledge base reduces the innovative performance of th...
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We examine the role of different network capabilities of companies that influence the formation of R&D partnerships in pharmaceutical biotechnology. Strategic network capabilities, specifically centrality-based capabilities and the efficiency with which companies choose their partners, are found to facilitate the formation of new partnerships. Unli...
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This paper analyses a large, longitudinal database on inter-firm R&D partnerships formed in the high-tech pharmaceutical biotechnology industry since 1975. Our research indicates an overall growth in the number of annually, newly established R&D partnerships where research partners consistently prefer contractual partnerships to equity-based allian...
Article
We explore the role of interfirm alliances as a mechanism for sharing technological knowledge. We argue that knowledge flows between alliance partners will be greater than flows between pairs of nonallied firms, and less than flows between units within single firms. Using patent citations as a proxy for knowledge flows, we find results that are con...
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This paper analyses the role of repeated ties in the high-tech pharmaceutical biotechnology industry, a sector that is characterized by a strong dual market structure. Our most important finding is that previous ties in pairs of large pharmaceutical companies and small biotechnology firms have a negative effect on their subsequent partnering. An ex...
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This paper studies the degree to which country differences in intellectual property rights protection affect the choice of companies for a particular mode of international inter-firm R&D partnering. It focuses on the preference of companies for either an equity joint venture or a contractual partnership. We find that international differences in in...
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The telecommunications industry has experienced a series of dramatic changes since itsinception in the 1880s. Due to the latest liberalization and privatization wave in the world, the telecommunications industry has turned into a dynamic environment and is rapidly growing.In addition, the New Economy emerged and brought new technological developmen...
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Tevens verschenen als: Research Memorandum / METEOR, Universiteit Maastricht. - (RM05016)
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Did living standards stagnate before the Industrial Revolution? Traditional real-wage indices typically show broadly constant living standards before 1800. In this paper, we show that living standards rose substantially, but surreptitiously because of the growing availability of new goods. Colonial luxuries such as tea, coffee, and sugar transforme...
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The innovative performance of companies has been studied quite extensively and for a long period of time. However, the results of many studies have not yet led to a generally accepted indicator of innovative performance or a common set of indicators. So far the variety in terms of constructs, measurements, samples, industries and countries has been...
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This paper offers the first statistical analysis of the long-term movement in inter-firm partnerships during the period 1960–1998. Our analysis indicates a growth pattern in R&D partnering that is largely of a non-stationary nature, caused by fluctuations during the last 10 years of this time series. The further analysis of specific groups of these...
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R&D alliances and previous experience with the sharing of intellectual property rights are expected to have significant effects on joint patenting by alliance partners. Although so far un-researched, this is both an intuitively and theoretically appealing subject because joint patenting could relate to the possible outcome of an important group of...
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Joint patenting by companies, the sharing of property rights on inventions, is a relatively unknown phenomenon that is generally seen by patent lawyers and firms alike as a second-best option that, if possible, should be avoided. However, the number of joint patents has increased during the last couple of decades and despite its impopularity firms...
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This paper examines empirically the relationship between the internal technological profile and the diversification through strategic alliances of the largest 219 industrial firms world-wide. It explores three related issues. First, the paper shows that firms? internal technological diversification is more pronounced than external technological div...
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This paper examines the relevance of both efficiency-based and learning-based network behaviour in the context of inter-firm partnering. The effect of these different forms of network behaviour on company performance is analyzed for companies in the international computer industry. Strategies associated with learning through so-called exploratory n...
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This paper explores the preferences that companies have as they use alternative (quasi) external sources of innovative competencies such as strategic technology alliances, mergers and acquisitions, or a mix of these. These alternatives are studied in the context of distinct industrial, technological and international settings during the first half...
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[eng] The role of social networks in innovation diffusion remains a strategic question. In former works, we have introduced a relational learning, based on hebbian rule, that leads to a critical state, in which few agents reach structural positions of opinion leaders. In this paper, we show that the self-organization of an influence network, throug...
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This paper explores 40 years of data on R&D partnerships. These R&D partnerships are examples of inter-firm collaboration or strategic partnering, a topic that has recently attracted attention in both the academic literature and the popular press. The paper presents an analysis of some basic historical trends and sectoral patterns in R&D partnering...
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Until recently technological development in the personal computer industry could be characterized by the competition between two basic designs. The current dominant design in this industry is associated with the IBM and Microsoft personal computing architecture. The other version of personal computing originated in the Macintosh computer from Apple...
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Did living standards stagnate before the Industrial Revolution? Traditional real-wage indices typically show broadly constant living standards before 1800. In this paper, we show that living standards rose substantially, but surreptitiously because of the growing availability of new goods. Colonial luxuries such as tea, coffee, and sugar transforme...
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This paper reviews recent empirical evidence to assess the implications of alliance formation and increasing merger and acquisition activity of multinationals in the context of the eclectic paradigm. Specifically, the paper will concentrate on the performance implications of international expansion via alliances and mergers, and their relationship...
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This note examines isomorphism and diversity in a global industry. We study how the ongoing internationalisation process has affected companies from various regions of the world. Empirical research is focussed on the international computer industry. We find that companies in this sector have become more divergent and that there is little evidence o...
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The paper addresses an issue that is often neglected in the literature on strategic technology alliances, i.e., the organizational modes of partnering as such. A classification of modes of technology cooperation in terms of inter-organizational dependence is used here to discuss major trends and characteristics of different forms of inter-firm part...
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This paper contributes to the understanding of the importance of dynamic firm capabilities for company performance in isolating the effect of the creation of core competences on the performance of companies in the international computer industry. It discusses and tests the assumed relation between different dimensions of core competences and perfor...
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This paper synthesizes the academic, professional, and policy literature on research partnerships with an eye toward technology policy. Based on available theory and empirical investigations, there are a variety of important reasons why firms participate in research partnerships and a number of reasons why governments encourage them. We conclude th...
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This paper examines the relevance of both an efficiency-based network strategy and a learning-based network strategy in the context of inter-firm partnering. The effect of these different forms of network behaviour on company performance is analysed for companies in the international computer industry. Strategies associated with learning through so...
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A large part of the literature from industrial organisation and management expects that, compared with unrelated M&As, related M&As show superior economic performance because of synergetic effects that follow from economies of scale and scope. The current contribution takes the debate on the effect of different M&As somewhat further by studying the...
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A large part of the literature from industrial organisation and management expects that, compared with unrelated M&As, related M&As show superior economic performance because of synergetic effects that follow from economies of scale and scope. The current contribution takes the debate on the effect of different M&As somewhat further by studying the...
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Full-text available
This paper explores the preferences that companies have as they use alternative external sources of innovative competences such as strategic technology alliances, mergers and acquisitions, or a mix of these. These alternatives are studied in the context of distinct industrial, technological and international settings. Different strategies followed...