John Hagan

John Hagan
Northwestern University | NU · Department of Sociology

About

282
Publications
37,121
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16,424
Citations
Citations since 2016
38 Research Items
5371 Citations
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20162017201820192020202120220200400600800
20162017201820192020202120220200400600800
20162017201820192020202120220200400600800
Introduction
Skills and Expertise

Publications

Publications (282)
Article
Relatively few theoretical criminologists are recognized for their lasting impact on public policy, and it is therefore instructive to reconsider a scholar whose influence endures. Donald Cressey wrote a theoretically driven Presidential Commission essay that inspired the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act (RICO). He also advanced a...
Article
Objective: To investigate whether maternal violence exposure personally and through her child is associated with an earlier age of menopause, controlling for covariates. Methods: Analyses used merged data from two related sources. Although mothers (n = 1,466) were interviewed in 1995 and then 20 years later (2015-17), their children were intervi...
Chapter
RM Daley mobilized Chicago police, the Cook County courts, and state prisons in a massively punitive assault on crime. This deflected attention from teardowns of housing projects RM’s father built and from the absence of replacement housing in hyper-segregated neighborhoods. RM shifted attention to “gangs, guns, and drugs,” tightening a criminal ju...
Chapter
In 2010, Jon Burge was finally convicted of perjury and obstruction of justice. Yet the case also involved a 30-year cover-up, supervised torture, and the code of silence. An important sidebar ruling by the judge prevented presentation of evidence that Burge had enforced this code of silence to hide his torture crimes. Burge served three years in j...
Chapter
The late 19th and 20th century Great Migration of southern Black Americans permanently changed Chicago, with Mayors RJ and RM Daley overseeing its segregated neighborhoods. The dual Daley dynasty spanned more than four decades, including ML King’s 1960s housing marches and activist Fred Hampton’s assassination. With RM Daley’s apparent knowledge, a...
Chapter
Twenty years after Andrew Wilson’s 1982 torture, Jon Burge remained a free man. From 2002–2006 a “special state’s attorney” with Daley machine connections led a multimillion-dollar investigation that scapegoated Police Superintendent Richard Brzeczek for “dereliction of duty” in neglecting a letter he sent Daley about Burge’s suspected torture. The...
Chapter
In 1992, 15-year-old Joseph White shot and killed DeLondyn Lawson about a gambling debt at Tilden High School on Chicago’s South Side. RM Daley’s Automatic Transfer Act fast-tracked White for a homicide trial in adult court. The media portrayed White as a violent gang member, although neither White’s nor Lawson’s mothers saw their sons as involved...
Book
Chicago is confronting a racial reckoning that we explain with an exclusion-containment theory of legal cynicism. Mayors RJ and RM Daley used public and private funds to exclude and contain South and West Side predominantly Black neighborhoods where Police Detective Jon Burge supervised torture of over 100 Black men. A 1982 case involved Andrew Wil...
Article
We join Eduardo Bonilla-Silva’s structural theory of the racialized U.S. social system with a situational methodology developed by Arthur L. Stinchcombe and Irving Goffman to analyze how law works as a mechanism that connects formal legal equality with legal cynicism. The data for this analysis come from the trial of a Chicago police detective, Jon...
Article
White Americans, on average, do not support Black Lives Matter, while Black Americans generally express strong support. The lack of support among white Americans is striking, and we argue that it matters why this racial gap exists. Using a nationally representative survey collected during the crest of the first wave of widespread attention to the m...
Article
Full-text available
This paper considers the development of international criminal law and as a field of study in American criminology. Despite the important U.S. role in establishing the International Military Tribunal and war crimes trials at Nuremberg following World War II, American politicians and criminologists did little to advance the further development of in...
Article
We call for a further appreciation of the versatility of concepts and methods that increase the breadth and diversity of work on law and social science. We make our point with a review of legal cynicism. Legal cynicism's value, like other important concepts, lies in its versatility as well as its capacity for replication. Several classic works intr...
Article
Research findings show that legal cynicism—a cultural frame in which skepticism about laws, the legal system, and police is expressed—is important in understanding neighborhood variation in engagement with the police, particularly in racially isolated African American communities. We argue that legal cynicism is also useful for understanding neighb...
Article
Paternal incarceration leads to educational disparities among children who are innocent of their fathers’ crimes. The scale and concentration of mass paternal incarceration thus harms millions of innocent American children. Current individuallevel analyses neglect the contribution of macro-level variation in responses of punitive state regimes to t...
Article
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A series of deaths of Black Americans at the hands of the police sparked mass protests, received extensive media coverage, and fueled a new civil rights movement in the years leading up to the 2016 presidential election. Both major party nominees campaigned on issues of race and policing in different ways. Drawing on colorblind racism theories and...
Article
The 2014 National Research Council report on American incarceration optimistically anticipated the Affordable Care Act (ACA) would be "a turning point in the nation's health care, and … will provide unprecedented access to care for many people being released from correctional facilities." However, the ACA was not designed to proactively respond to...
Article
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COIN," the counter-terrorism doctrine the U.S. used during the Iraq War, was in criminological terms overly reliant on militarized "incapacitationist" strategies. Based on a competing "societal reactions" or community-level labeling theory, we argue that COIN failed to anticipate but predictably produced state-based "legal cynicism" in Arab Sunni c...
Article
Using a wide array of official and unofficial data spanning two decades in the neighborhoods of Chicago, we explore connections between legal cynicism, the electoral regime of Mayor Richard M. Daley, and citizen calls for police assistance and police reports of drug crime. We find that the disproportionate concentration of legal cynicism about law...
Article
Full-text available
Significance Cynicism about lawlessness and police crime prevention and protection efforts is often high in predominately African-American neighborhoods, but residents persist in calling 911 and requesting police assistance. These calls continue to rise in neighborhoods that have recently experienced further increases in racial isolation, incarcera...
Article
This article introduces a scientific exchange over the status of procedural justice theory and its applicability to policing reform. The introduction notes the long history of sociolegal research on procedural justice and its emergence as a source of ideas for criminal justice reforms and police training programs. The article contrasts the position...
Article
Full-text available
America’s Safest City is an essential addition to the classics of criminological control theory, namely Travis Hirschi’s Causes of Delinquency and Robert Sampson’s Great American City. It provides new ideas about empathy and trust, and how social control is layered across institutions of family, schools, and community. America’s Safest City is also...
Article
There is relatively little research on access to the health care needed by children whose mothers have been incarcerated, and even fewer studies of how effects of lack of access continue and cumulate as these children transition from living with parents, parent surrogates, or foster care into adulthood. We find in a nationally representative U.S. p...
Article
Frequent school shootings are a unique US phenomenon that has defied understanding1,2. Uncovering the aetiology of this problem is hampered by the lack of an established dataset3,4. Here we assemble a carefully curated dataset for the period 1990–2013 that is built upon an exhaustive review of existing data and original sources. Using this dataset,...
Article
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While scholars and journalists have focused important attention on the recent militarization of intensive policing and imprisonment policies in the United States, there is little reciprocal recognition of how militarized versions of these policies were also exported for use in the occupation of Iraq. Intensive policing and imprisonment enabled the...
Article
Full-text available
Scholars have long been interested in the intersection of race, crime, justice, and presidential politics, focusing particularly on the “southern strategy” and the “war on crime.” A recent string of highly-publicized citizen deaths at the hands of police and the emergence of the Black Lives Matter movement have brought renewed visibility to this ra...
Article
This paper presents the results of a 2007 survey of victims of war crimes and crimes against humanity from Bosnia and Herzegovina. We study the level of diffuse and specific support for the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) among its constituency by exploring the respondents’ views about the ICTY and the local courts...
Article
Full-text available
We elaborate a cultural framing theory of legal cynicism—previously used to account for neighborhood variation in Chicago homicides—to explain Arab Sunni victimization and insurgent attacks during the U.S. post-invasion occupation of Iraq. Legal cynicism theory has an unrecognized power to explain collective and interpersonal violence in internatio...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents the results of a 2007 survey of victims of war crimes and crimes against humanity from Bosnia and Herzegovina. Our results show that the ICTY is the primary decision-maker for war crimes and crimes against humanity of their choice, particularly for the trials of military and political leaders. The respondents who reported being...
Article
The United States has entered its fourth decade of high imprisonment levels. It is now possible to assess the impact of parental imprisonment on children who have completed the transition to adulthood. We elaborate the role of parental incarceration from a life course perspective on intergenerational social exclusion in young adulthood. The Nationa...
Article
Arab Sunni attacks and casualties in post-invasion Iraq are poorly explained by static ethnic, religious, or sectarian values involving the acceptability of violence. Alternatively, we elaborate a cultural framing theory of legal cynicism previously used to account for neighborhood variation in Chicago homicides: legal cynicism theory has an unreco...
Article
Full-text available
The recession that began at the end of 2007 and lasted until 2009 is often referred to as the Great Recession, because it was the most serious financial crisis in the United States since the Great Depression. The recession affected organizations, individuals, and communities, and its effects are still felt today. As it did in other professions, the...
Article
A social exclusion framework is used to provide a synopsis of literature around the collateral consequences of mass imprisonment for individuals and adult family members. Connections between imprisonment and life course consequences of economic attainments, homelessness, mental health, social disability functioning, subjective status, and political...
Article
What were the socioeconomic consequences for American youth of having a parent incarcerated during the 2008 Great Recession? We analyze a nationally representative panel study of adolescents who, when interviewed during this recession, were transitioning to and through early adulthood. Young adult children who have had a father or mother imprisoned...
Article
Full-text available
The US prison boom has resulted in the mass incarceration of parents in the United States. We review recent scholarship on the relationship between parental incarceration and child inequality and social exclusion over the life course. We develop a multilevel social exclusion framework to stimulate future research on the effects of paternal and mate...
Article
Full-text available
Accounts of mass atrocities habitually focus on one kind of violence and its archetypal victim, inviting uncritical, ungendered misconceptions: e.g., rape only impacts women; genocide is only about dead, battle-aged men. We approach collective violence as multiple, intersecting forms of victimization, targeted and experienced through differential s...
Article
Full-text available
Sociologists have neglected the politically channeled and racially connected role of leveraged debt in mass incarceration. We use qualitative and quantitative data from California, circa 1960-2000, to assess how Republican entrepreneurial leveraging of debt overcame contradictions between parochial preferences for punishment and resistance to payin...
Article
We use two unique Iraq data sets to show how fear and uncertainty served to motivate the self-fulfilling, neighborhood-specific forces that followed the U.S.-led invasion of Iraq. Sectarian criminal violence by armed Shia and Sunni organizations created a situation of ethnic/religious cleansing that reconfigured much of Baghdad. The article focuses...
Article
Full-text available
We use two unique Iraq data sets to show how fear and uncertainty served to motivate the self-fulfilling, neighborhood-specific forces that followed the U.S.-led invasion of Iraq. Sectarian criminal violence by armed Shia and Sunni organizations created a situation of ethnic/religious cleansing that reconfigured much of Baghdad. The article focuses...
Article
Full-text available
In response to the 2006 peak in violence following the U.S. invasion and occupation of Iraq, American politicians debated whether to Surge additional troops or partition the nation into sectarian enclaves. There is little social scientific work that locates the Iraq conflict and the results of these debates in relation to broader theoretical framew...
Book
From the torture of detainees at Abu Ghraib to unnecessary military attacks on civilians, this book is an account of the violations of international criminal law committed during the United States invasion of Iraq. Taking stock of the entire war, it uniquely documents the overestimation of the successes and underestimation of the failings of the Su...
Article
This paper presents the results of a 2007 survey of victims of war crimes and crimes against humanity from Bosnia and Herzegovina. We study the level of diffuse and specific support for the ICTY among its constituency by exploring the respondents' views about the ICTY and the local courts in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, and Serbia. Our results...
Article
Este trabajo revisa la literatura acerca del impacto general del ambiente físico sobre la desorganización social, el crimen y la delincuencia juvenil, centrándose más especificamente en la relación de la densidad por vivienda, la densidad en el diseño del edificio y la delincuencia juvenil. Se muestra que en el contexto ambiental se han desarrollad...
Article
Research on inequality in the legal profession underemphasizes the macro-level factors that structure legal work. This paper introduces two measures that characterize local legal labor markets. The index of gender dissimilarity is the proportion of women required to move into the private law firm sector from the public sector to create gender balan...
Article
Full-text available
Parental incarceration is now prevalent in community samples (e.g., with 11% of children reporting paternal imprisonment and 3% reporting maternal imprisonment in a national sample), pointing to a potentially important childhood trauma that should be included in work on contemporary childhood stressors in this era of mass incarceration. This paper...
Article
Full-text available
Stephen Biddle, Jeffrey Friedman, and Jacob Shapiro caution that “[t]he decline of violence in Iraq in 2007 does not mean that the war was necessarily a success”. Their implication, however, is that the war was not necessarily a failure either. Biddle et al. write that the 2007 drop in violence from 2006 was a “remarkable reversal”. They ask, “What...
Article
Americans are inclined to remember their nation's wars victoriously. "Let it be remembered," President Barack Obama told the Minneapolis American Legion veterans of the Vietnam War on August 30, 2011, "that you won every major battle of that war." He repeated this message on May 28, 2012, during the commemoration ceremony of the fiftieth anniversar...
Article
Full-text available
Perceptions of the danger of crime are typically discussed in the context of people's fear that they will be harmed by offenders. We shift the focus and examine the association between perceived danger and offending and the contribution of these perceptions to the well-established relationship between violent victimization and crime. We hypothesize...
Chapter
This edited volume focuses on developments in recognizing, investigating, and prosecuting cases of sexual violence in (post-)conflict situations from an interdisciplinary angle. The investigation and prosecution of these cases raises new and challenging questions as to how to build evidence, but also how to address victims? concerns in that process...
Article
Accounts of mass atrocities habitually focus on one kind of violence and its archetypal victim, inviting uncritical, ungendered misconceptions: e.g., rape only impacts women; genocide is only about dead, battle-aged men. We approach collective violence as multiple, intersecting forms of victimization, targeted and experienced through differential s...
Article
This chapter examines the hidden consequences of the Darfur genocide. It focuses on the aftermath of genocide in order to understand the challenges and complexities associated with surviving genocide and becoming a refugee. Surveys and interviews were used to document refugees' experiences with victimization post-genocide, describing their victimiz...
Article
Euphemistic uses of the concept of ethnic cleansing are often traced to “the burning tradition” in the Balkans and the “Final solution” in Nazi Germany. In this chapter, we review the origins of these euphemisms and consider how they form a backdrop for understanding the further metaphorical influence of the imagery of ethnic cleansing. Cherif Bass...
Article
Full-text available
Economic conflict crimes are defined in this paper as violations of international human rights and humanitarian law, as well as domestic law, associated with military and political conflict and producing significant monetary as well as other forms of suffering for civilians. Criminologists are well positioned by disciplinary emphasis to document an...
Book
How did the United States go from being a country that tries to rehabilitate street criminals and prevent white-collar crime to one that harshly punishes common lawbreakers while at the same time encouraging corporate crime through a massive deregulation of business? Why do street criminals get stiff prison sentences, a practice that has led to the...
Article
This paper investigates the relationship between single-family home foreclosures and crime using an instrumental variables approach. Our results suggest that there is a statistically significant and positive effect of foreclosure repossessions on crime. In particular, we find that having one additional foreclosed home repossessed in a neighborhood...
Article
Full-text available
In some American schools, about a fifth of the fathers have spent time in prison during their child’s primary education. We examine how variation across schools in the aggregation and concentration of the mass imprisonment of fathers is associated with their own children’s intergenerational educational outcomes and “spills over” into the attainment...
Article
Full-text available
Formal equality and judicial neutrality can lead to substantive inequality for women and children, with social costs that extend beyond individuals and families and spill over into the larger social settings in which they are located. We consider the uniquely damaging effects of an “equality with a vengeance” (Chesney-Lind & Pollack 1995) that resu...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter explores the effects of perceived criminal injustice on voting behavior as well as on other important outcomes. Using data from the 2006 ANES Pilot Study, the chapter begins by examining the measurement properties of a set of survey items tapping perceptions of criminal injustice and then incorporates those items into a model of voting...
Article
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There is little cross-national empirical research on which to develop our understanding of the relationship between family formation among lawyers and the organization of work in the legal profession. This study compares young German lawyers practicing in Frankfurt and Berlin with young US lawyers practicing in New York and Washington, DC at simila...
Article
The wars in the former Yugoslavia have created thousands of victims of war crimes and crimes against humanity. The International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY), established in 1993, has been in charge of trying individuals accused of war crimes and crimes against humanity and providing justice to the victims. Despite the extent...
Article
For the first time in legal history, an indictment was filed against an acting head of state, Slobodan Miloševic, for crimes that Miloševic allegedly committed while he was in office. Seeking to change the concept of ethnic cleansing from a rationalizing euphemism to an incriminating metaphor, the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugo...
Article
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The millions of survivors who fled from attacks to Sudanese-controlled displacement camps and the refugee camps in Chad are the living ghosts of the Darfur genocide. The 1948 Genocide Convention incorporates extermination by mass killing and elimination through forced migration as two distinct elements of genocide. Genocide scholars and public disc...
Article
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The focus of the 1948 Genocide Convention on the destruction of groups, in part, encourages consideration of extermination through mass killing and elimination through forced migration and displacement.Yet genocide scholars and the public have given much more attention to extermination than elimination. We seek to remedy this imbalance by giving fu...
Article
Internal and international conflicts can often involve a level of impunity that allows sexual violence to persist unchecked by military and political leaders. The recent reversal by an appeals panel at the International Criminal Court of a pretrial decision not to charge President al-Bashir of Sudan with genocide in Darfur offers an important found...
Article
Although the number of racial and ethnic minority lawyers in the legal profession has greatly increased, concern remains about their low percentage among partners in elite law firms. Using a nationally representative sample of young American lawyers, we compare a human capital–based theory, which emphasizes measures of merit, and an institutional d...
Article
:The careers of male lawyers are radically altered by their experiences in the formation of families. These understudied male experiences fuel income differences, creating a highly hierarchical profession focused around a male mystique of "living large." This study traces these processes across a 20-year longitudinal study of Toronto lawyers. We ar...
Article
This article examines family stress dynamics and conduct disorder trajectories prospectively in the lives of adolescents from the Great Smoky Mountains Study of Youth (n = 1,319). Semi-parametric mixture models are used to identify distinct trajectories of conduct disorder, poverty, and family structure. We specify criminogenic features of dynamic...
Article
Full-text available
Xenophobia is a widespread phenomenon around the world. Xenophobic incidents occurring in Germany, however, have always drawn high media attention for obvious historical reasons. The current article elaborates on the development of xenophobia among German adolescents in the 1990s. Using survey data from a large, ongoing longitudinal study of youth...
Article
More than half a century after the first Jim Crow laws were dismantled, the majority of urban neighborhoods in the United States remain segregated by race. The degree of social and economic advantage or disadvantage that each community experiences-particularly its crime rate-is most often a reflection of which group is in the majority. As Ruth Pete...
Article
This paper argues that the occurrence of ethnic cleansing can be effectively documented through a mixture of social scientific criminological and legal evidence, with criminological evidence playing a leading edge role. A major challenge is to delineate the boundaries of ethnic cleansing in relation to genocide. I adopt a distinction between atroci...
Article
Full-text available
This research focuses on immigration and youthful illegalities in the Toronto area, one of the world’s most ethnically diverse global cities. While current research documents a negative relationship between crime and immigration, there is little attention to individual-level mechanisms that explain the paths through which immigrant youth refrain...
Article
Based on the seven surveys we conducted in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Serbia, and Kosovo, we explore the views about the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY).Our findings indicate a shift in public opinion concerning the ICTY. Compared to the pre-2003 surveys, the post-2003 surveys reveal substantially more negativ...
Article
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We used the Atrocities Documentation Survey to determine whether Sudanese government forces were involved in racially targeting sexual victimization toward ethnically African women in the Darfur region of western Sudan. The US State Department conducted the survey by interviewing a randomized multistage probability sample of 1136 Darfur refugees at...
Article
The authors discuss social selection, stigmatization, and socialization/strain theoretical explanations for the intergenerational influences of parental incarceration on their children. Results with national survey data reveal that net of selection factors, paternal imprisonment decreases the educational attainment of children in emerging adulthood...
Article
In this article we empirically assess the benefits of mentorship across a diverse range of extrinsic and intrinsic career rewards. Using an integrated model, we investigate the ways in which characteristics of the organization, as well as characteristics of both protégés and mentors affect the outcomes of mentoring relationships. Our study includes...
Article
Cette communication traite d'une étude dans laquelle l'auteur met à l'épreuve une théorie relative à la protection contre le crime en fonction de la classe sociale. La théorie explique, sur les plans conceptuel et opérationnel, comment les intérêts de classe et les phébnomènes qui les menacent conduisent à une société qui ‘se fortifie’ contre le cr...