John G Grundy

John G Grundy
Iowa State University | ISU · Department of Psychology

Ph.D.

About

38
Publications
23,193
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745
Citations
Introduction
We are constantly dealing with competition from stimuli in our environments, yet appropriate behaviour requires selectively attending to relevant cues and ignoring interfering information. My research program stems from my interest in understanding how our brains and behaviours adapt in response to these conflicting signals – signals that are cognitively demanding and require attentional control. Of particular interest are experiential factors that modify these cognitive processes in dealing with conflict such as bilingualism, exercise, self-esteem, and mindfulness. The ultimate goal is to understand how experience reorganizes brain processes and neural networks across the lifespan to become more efficient.
Additional affiliations
August 2018 - present
Iowa State University
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
June 2014 - December 2017
York University
Position
  • PostDoc Position
January 2013 - September 2014
McMaster University
Position
  • PostDoc Position

Publications

Publications (38)
Article
Full-text available
The present paper reviews the neural correlates of cognitive control associated with bilingualism. We demonstrate that lifelong practice managing two languages orchestrates global changes to both structure and function of the brain. Compared to monolinguals, bilinguals generally show greater gray matter volume, especially in perceptual/motor region...
Article
Full-text available
Three studies examined the hypothesis that bilinguals can more rapidly disengage attention from irrelevant information than monolinguals by investigating the impact of previous trial congruency on performance in a simple flanker task. In Study 1, monolingual and bilingual young adults completed two versions of a flanker task. There were no differen...
Article
Full-text available
Brain signal complexity increases with development and is associated with better cognitive outcomes in older age. Research has also shown that bilinguals are able to stave off cognitive decline for longer periods of time than monolinguals, but no studies to date have examined whether bilinguals have more complex brain signals than monolinguals. Her...
Article
Full-text available
Evidence suggests that bilingualism may contribute to neuroplasticity and cognitive reserve, allowing individuals to resist cognitive decline associated with Alzheimer’s disease progression, although the idea remains controversial. Here we argue that the reason for the discrepancy stems from conflating incidence rates of dementia and the age at whi...
Article
Full-text available
Several researchers have suggested that learning and using a second language requires domain-general executive functions, and many have shown that bilinguals outperform monolinguals on tasks that tap into these processes. However, recent behavioral studies and meta-analyses reporting failed replications have called into question whether or not bili...
Article
Full-text available
Attention has recently been proposed as the mechanism underlying the cognitive effects associated with bilingualism. However, similar to bilingualism, the term attention is complex, dynamic, and can vary from one activity to another. Throughout our daily lives, we use different types of attention that differ in complexity: sustained attention, sele...
Article
Full-text available
Research on the cognitive consequences of bilingualism typically proceeds by labeling participants as “monolingual” or “bilingual” and comparing performance on some measures across these groups. It is well-known that this approach has led to inconsistent results. However, the approach assumes that there are clear criteria to designate individuals a...
Article
Full-text available
Early research that relied on standardized assessments of intelligence reported negative effects of bilingualism for children, but a study by Peal and Lambert (1962) reported better performance by bilingual than monolingual children on verbal and nonverbal intelligence tests. This outcome led to the view that bilingualism was a positive experience....
Article
Full-text available
Researchers have recently begun to question the specificity and reliability of conflict adaptation effects, also known as sequential congruency effects (SCEs), a highly cited effect in cognitive psychology. Some have even used the lack of reliability across tasks (e.g., Flanker, and Stroop) to argue against models of cognitive control that have dom...
Poster
Obesity rates of adults in the United States have increased from 30.5% in 1999‐2000 to 42.4% in 2017‐2018, with a further projected prevalence to nearly 50% by 2030. Greater adiposity has been consistently associated with exacerbated brain atrophy and central glucose hypometabolism in prefrontal cortices that govern executive functions, including i...
Article
This study compared brain and behavioral outcomes for monolingual and bilingual older adults who reported no cognitive or memory problems on three types of memory that typically decline in older age, namely, working memory (measured by n-back), item, and associative recognition. The results showed that bilinguals were faster on the two-back working...
Article
Full-text available
A recent approach to explaining the domain-general cognitive outcomes of bilingualism is to consider the role of disengagement of attention, rather than the engagement of focused attention or inhibition as is typical in most accounts. The present study pursues this approach by examining the neurophysiological changes associated with disengagement o...
Article
Full-text available
On a daily basis, we constantly deal with changing environmental cues and perceptual conflicts and as such, our brains must flexibly adapt to current demands in order to act appropriately. Brains become more efficient and are able to switch states more readily by increasing the complexity of their neural networks. However, it is unclear how brain s...
Article
Full-text available
The importance of replication in psychology, and science more broadly, cannot be overstated given the current state of the literature. The Open Science Collaboration (2015) attempted to replicate 100 studies in three top psychology journals and found that only 36% of effects were replicated. Given this alarmingly low number of successful replicatio...
Article
Full-text available
Monolingual and bilingual young adults performed a task-switching experiment while EEG was recorded to investigate how bilingualism affects cognitive control following conflict. Participants were given pure blocks composed of three intermixed tasks, each consisting of univalent trials in which they responded to one feature of the stimulus - color,...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Fluoride exposures have not been established for pregnant women who live in regions with and without community water fluoridation. Objective: Our aim was to measure urinary fluoride levels during pregnancy. We also assessed the contribution of drinking-water and tea consumption habits to maternal urinary fluoride (MUF) concentrations...
Article
Full-text available
Mindfulness is associated with many positive health and lifestyle outcomes, but its effects on domain-general cognitive control have produced mixed results. Recent studies suggest that mindfulness might lead to better inhibitory control because high mindful individuals often have an advantage over low mindful individuals on conflict resolution task...
Article
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Evaluation of the cognitive level of older adults, including decisions about meeting clinical thresholds for dementia, is typically based on behavioral levels of performance. However, individuals with high cognitive reserve will outperform the levels typically associated with their brain structure, providing inaccurate assessments of their status....
Chapter
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The strength of each representation in the mental lexicon depends on factors such as word frequency and conceptual concreteness. For bilinguals, each concept has two lexical representations, and so representational strength also depends on the salience of first-and second-language activation and the dominance of each language. The relative salience...
Article
Full-text available
Bilingualism can delay the onset of dementia symptoms and has thus been characterized as a mechanism for cognitive or brain reserve, although the origin of this reserve is unknown. Studies with young adults generally show that bilingualism is associated with a strengthening of white matter, but there is conflicting evidence for how bilingualism aff...
Article
Full-text available
In a recent commentary, Goldsmith and Morton (in press) argue that the results of a study demonstrating smaller sequential congruency effects (SCEs) for bilinguals than for monolinguals (Grundy, Chung-Fat-Yim, Friesen, Mak, & Bialystok, 2017) is incorrect in its interpretation of SCEs. Moreover, their overall framework is that there is no evidence...
Article
Full-text available
Evidence suggests that lifelong bilingualism reshapes the brain and helps to prevent cognitive decline in older age (e.g., Bialystok, 2017). For example, Klein et al. (2016) showed bilingual countries have lower incidence rates of dementia than monolingual countries. Mukadam et al. (2017) conducted a meta-analysis examining the strength of the prot...
Article
Full-text available
The present study investigated processing differences between young adults who were English monolinguals or English-French bilinguals on a task- and language-switching paradigm. The mechanisms responsible for task switching and language switching were investigated using electrophysiological (EEG) measures. In nonverbal task switching, monolinguals...
Article
Full-text available
Bilinguals often outperform monolinguals on executive function tasks, including tasks that tap cognitive flexibility, conflict monitoring, and task-switching abilities. Some have suggested that bilinguals also have greater working memory capacity than comparable monolinguals, but evidence for this suggestion is more mixed. We therefore conducted a...
Article
Full-text available
Previous research has shown that bilingual children outperform their monolingual peers on a wide variety of tasks measuring executive functions (EF). However, recent failures to replicate this finding have cast doubt on the idea that the bilingual experience leads to domain-general cognitive benefits. The present study explored the role of disengag...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: This article examines whether strategies and performance differed depending on whether naive participants were exposed to motion disturbance during practice of a tracking task. Background: Despite several decades of research, there is still debate regarding whether physical motion during flight simulation training improves later performa...
Chapter
Full-text available
Lifelong experience with multiple languages is believed to produce a number of executive function advantages including enhanced top-down control, improved attention, and greater working memory capacity. This bilingual advantage is generally believed to be the result of having multiple lexical representations in each language that compete for select...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we use behavioural methods and event-related potentials (ERPs) to explore the relations between informational and instantiated features, as well as the relation between feature abstraction and rule type. Participants are trained to categorize two species of fictitious animals and then identify perceptually novel exemplars. Critically...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To examine the importance of platform motion to the transfer of performance in motion simulators. Background: The importance of platform motion in simulators for pilot training is strongly debated. We hypothesized that the type of motion (e.g., disturbance) contributes significantly to performance differences. Methods: Participants use...
Article
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Implicit measures have revealed that cognitive representations of familiar individuals share associations with self-concept; however, this has yet to be established for novel individuals. We examined how self-similarity affects representation of information learned about new individuals. A novel version of the implicit association test (IAT), the s...
Article
Full-text available
We provide the first high-temporal resolution account of the self-esteem implicit association test (IAT; Greenwald & Farnham, 2000) to highlight important similarities and differences between the cognitive processes corresponding to implicit valenced self-processing in high vs. low self-esteem individuals. We divided individuals into high and low s...
Article
Full-text available
The bivalency effect is a block-wise response slowing that is observed during task switching when rare stimuli that cue two tasks (bivalent stimuli) are encountered. This adjustment in response style affects all trials that follow bivalent stimuli, including those trials that do not share any features with bivalent stimuli. However, the specific st...
Article
Full-text available
In the present study, we examine electrophysiological correlates of factors influencing an adjustment in cognitive control known as the bivalency effect. During task-switching, the occasional presence of bivalent stimuli in a block of univalent trials is enough to elicit a response slowing on all subsequent univalent trials. Bivalent stimuli can be...
Article
Full-text available
During task switching, if we occasionally encounter stimuli that cue more than one task (i.e., bivalent stimuli), response slowing is observed on all univalent trials within that block, even when no features overlap with the bivalent stimuli. This observation is known as the bivalency effect. Previous fMRI work (Woodward et al., 2008) clearly sugge...

Projects

Projects (3)
Project
My goal is to elucidate the effects of second-language experience on domain-general cognitive outcomes. Accumulating evidence suggests that bilingualism leads to domain-general adaptations on cognitive function tasks, but these findings are not always replicated. Another line of evidence suggests that bilingualism leads to structural and functional brain changes that helps to delay cognitive decline in old age. The underlying mechanisms involved in producing these outcomes in both of these lines of research are not clearly understood. I hope to shed light on these issues.
Project
We are examining cognitive reserve in healthy and abnormal aging populations with a view to examining the role of bilingualism. The project uses a variety of imaging techniques and behavioural measures.