John Grehan

John Grehan

Doctor of Philosophy

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134
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Publications

Publications (134)
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The recently described species, Phassus zapalinamensis Grehan, Mielke & Garzon, 2022, marks a new distribution limit in the north of Mexico for Phassus which has a distribution range between the west of Panama and northern Mexico. The northern limit can be correlated with the Jurassic Mojave-Sonora Megashear fault system, while the southern limit i...
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A new species of Phassus Walker, Phassus zapalinamensis sp. n., is described from northeastern Mexico based on a single male and female from the Parque Ecoturístico El Chorro (Coahuila) and the Área Natural Protegida Estatal "Cerro La Mota"(Nuevo León), with supplementary geographic records from photos posted at inaturalist.org. Conspecificity of t...
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A new species, Endoclita makundae sp. nov., from the state of Assam, represents the first new species of Endoclita described for India in the last 60 years. The external female genitalia are illustrated and described. We suggest the species name E. signifer can be applied with confidence only to populations in Meghalaya and northern Bangladesh. Dat...
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The external genitalia of the female holotype of Thitarodes armoricanus (Oberthür, 1909) are illustrated and described for the first time. In addition, the genitalia of a male specimen attributed to this species are also described and illustrated. The lack of any or adequate illustrations of the female genitalia for most Thitarodes species preclude...
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Examples are drawn from regional animal and plant distributions to show how distributions of taxa are spatially correlated with tectonic structures of the Earth. Spatial correlations of distributions with Earth's tectonics are illustrated for the Jurassic Lebombo-Mwenetzi monocline, the plate boundary between Indo-Australia and the Pacific, and the...
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A new species of Thitarodes Viette is described from the montane habitat of Balmiya in the western Himalaya of Uttarakhand, India. Genitalia are described and illustrated for male and female specimens. The species is distinctive for its sinuate-shaped valva of the male genitalia and this feature distinguishes it from all other Thitarodes species wh...
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A new species of Thitarodes Viette is described from the montane habitat of Balmiya in the western Himalaya of Uttarakhand, India. Genitalia are described and illustrated for male and female specimens. The species is distinctive for its sinuate-shaped valva of the male genitalia and this feature distinguishes it from all other Thitarodes species wh...
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A new species of Thitarodes Viette is described from the montane habitat of Balmiya in the western Himalaya of Uttarakhand, India. Genitalia are described and illustrated for male and female specimens. The species is distinctive for its sinuate-shaped valva of the male genitalia and this feature distinguishes it from all other Thitarodes species wh...
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Agripialus gen. n. and Mutipialus gen. n. are described to accommodate the following species: A. campos sp. n., A. variabilis sp. n., A. itatiaia sp. n., A. caparao sp. n., M. dilatus sp. n., and M. monticolus sp. n. All are from southeastern and southern Brazil. Diagnostic characters suggest a closer phylogenetic relationship between these two gen...
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Eudalaca cipollai sp. n. is described from a forest reserve in a Mistbelt forest of KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa. The species is characterized by a dark brown forewing with several prominent white patches. These features are distinct from all other Eudalaca Viette, 1950 species. Inclusion of the species within Eudalaca is justified by the p...
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Details of external and genitalic morphology are described and illustrated for three male specimens of Oxycanus fuliginosa (Rothschild, 1915), a central highland species of Western Papua, New Guinea. Distinguishing features are documented for the genitalia and comparisons are made with other related genera. The absence of subanal sclerites in this...
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Larval feeding by the Central American ghost moth Phassus n-signatus is recorded in the Asian tree Ligustrum lucidum for the first time. Larval feeding and feeding damage was observed on 15 plants in a suburban environment where L. lucidum is widely used as a residential hedge. Larvae feed under a web of silk and frass on callus wound tissue that g...
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In the traditional biogeographic model, the Galápagos Islands appeared a few million years ago in a sea where no other islands existed and were colonized from areas outside the region. However, recent work has shown that the Galápagos hotspot is 139 million years old (Early Cretaceous), and so groups are likely to have survived at the hotspot by di...
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There is now good evidence for former terrestrial landscapes on the Ontong Java Nui plateau and its derivatives, as well as other Pacific plateaus and intra-plate hotspots (Heads 2012). This geological structure provides a geological and geographic mechanism for the persistence of ancestral terrestrial and coastal marine distributions within the Pa...
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The genus Magnificus Yan, 2000 was originally established to include M. jiuzhiensis Yan, 2000 and M. zhiduoensis Yan, 2000. Here we also include the species M. bouvieri (Oberthür, 1913) comb. n., M. dirschi (Bang-Haas, 1939) comb. n., M. miniatus (Chu & Wang, 1985a) comb. n., M. regius (Staudinger, 1896) comb. n., and M. roseus (Oberthür, 1911) com...
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While the modern Chatham Islands is a geographic outlier, this cannot be said of its biodiversity. The foregoing examples illustrate how the Chatham Islands is an integral component of both regional and global biodiversity. The Alpine Fault correlation shows how an originally contiguous distribution between the mainland and the Chatham Islands has...
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The genus Gazoryctra Hübner comprises 10 species in North America and four in northern Eurasia. The remaining diversity of North American Hepialidae is represented by four species of Sthenopis Packard, three species of Phymatopus Wallengren, and one species of Korscheltellus Börner (Nielsen et al. 2000; Grehan & Knyazev 2019). The North American di...
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The long term survival of Phassodes was only made possible by the ability or opportunity for these species to transfer between older islands that eventually subsided below sea level, and newer emergent islands (Fig. 4). In this sense Phassodes is a persistent weed that was able to survive along the Vitiaz subduction zone
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Miscellaneous comments on John Dugdale's involvement with Hepialidae systematics and with panbiogeography
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We morphologically validate the genus Schausiana Viette, 1950 as a monophyletic group comprising five species-S. phalerus (Druce, 1887) comb. n. and S. trojesa (Schaus, 1901) from Mexico, S. chalciope sp. n. and S. maishei sp. n. from Guatemala and S. pharus (Druce, 1887) comb. n. from Mexico to Costa Rica. Potential morphological monophyly of the...
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In her acknowledgment of Croizat's work, Lucy Cranwell was indeed a pioneer in biogeography who stepped up to the frontier of the discipline – from the shores of Cape Reinga to the islands of Manawatāwhi.
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Abstract. Phassodes Bethune-Baker, 1905 is distributed in Fiji (P. vitiensis (Rothschild, 1895)), the Solomon Islands (P. walteri sp. n.), Samoa (P. samoa sp. n.), and American Samoa (P. tutuila sp. n.). It is the only genus of Hepialidae endemic to oceanic islands. Monophyly of the genus is supported by four unique features, and a sister group rel...
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Four new Aenetus Herrich-Schäffer species are described from northern Australasia; Aenetus simonseni sp. nov. from the top-end of the Northern Territory, Australia, A. maiasinus sp. nov. from the Kimberley region of Western Australia, A. trigonogrammus sp. nov. from south-eastern Queensland, Australia, and A. albadamanteum sp. nov. from eastern Pap...
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In Western Australia the callus feeding stem-borer Aenetus djernaesae Simonsen, 2018 lives entirely or principally within coastal sand dunes where it feeds on the sand dune shrub Myoporum insularae R.Br. (Scrophulareaceae). Only recently made known to taxonomic science (Simonsen 2018), this species attracted the attention of PK and PM who initiated...
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The science of biogeography has profoundly changed our understanding of how animal and plant species diverge in geographic space in response to geological change. These developments have important implications for the conservation of biodiversity, because they highlight a geographic structure for biodiversity that cannot be encapsulated solely by t...
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Distribution records for Korescheltellus lupulina in Canada and United States
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The Hepialidae species of Trinidad and Tobago are documented and two species are recognized. The new and monotypic genus Wallacella, gen. n., (Lepidoptera, Hepialidae) is erected to include Phassus guianensis Schaus of Guyana (Wallacella guianensis, comb. n.). The male holotype and genitalia are also illustrated for the first time. Potential generi...
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This study successfully documents, for the first time, the entire life cycle of Aenetus djernaesae Simonsen, 2018 and confirms the efficacy of using supplemental sources of fungi to feed the early instar larvae. Fresh cut pieces of the commercial mushroom Agaricus bisporus (J.E. Lange) and sections of Eucalyptus L'Her. bark were placed around the b...
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Biogeographic and tectonic correlations, as in the northern North Island belt discussed here, contribute important evidence about the origins of biological groups in space and time. The patterns summarized here indicate that present day groups reflect ancestral distributions that have been disturbed by massive tectonic displacement, including subsi...
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The Keurboom Moth, Leto venus (Cramer, 1780) stands out among the Hepialidae because of its large size and prominent markings. It is also the only stem boring species in the southern African hepialid fauna (Grehan et al., 2018; Grehan & Ralston, 2018) and the only hepialid known to have a larva without a prothoracic sensory pit (Grehan & Rawlins, 2...
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An alternative approach to butterfly biogeography does not search for a center of origin, but instead maps distributions and evaluates the degree of overlap or allopatry between sister taxa. Allopatry is consistent with local differentiation of a widespread ancestor by vicariance. Overlap between sister taxa indicates that there has been subsequent...
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After reviewing distributional information for the Exoporia (Lepidoptera) in New Zealand (Gibbs 1990; Dugdale 1994) and Australia (Simonsen in press), it was apparent that this group exhibited many clade boundaries that coincide with tectonic features. We therefore examined these in detail for the ghost moths (Hepialidae) and their close relatives...
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Three new species, E. laosensis nov.sp. and E. collardi nov.sp. from northern Laos, and E. daenlao nov.sp. from Thailand are shown to be distinct from previously described species from the region – E. salvazi Tindale, 1958 and E. topeza Tindale, 1958 also from northeastern Laos, and E. coomani Viette, 1949 from northern Vietnam. The genitalia of th...
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In other words, many plants groups inherited genes for divaricating growth within this region, and as a result there is a higher proportion of divaricating groups or species there now. If moas, other ratites, ungulates or any other browsers found in the same area as the divaricating plants were able to browse these plants, then they would have. Thi...
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Huebneriella rosanti gen. et sp. n. (Lepidoptera: Hepialoidea: Hepialidae) is based on some specimens from the rainforest in French Guiana. The distinct female and male genitalia and wing ornamentation separate this taxon from other genera of Hepialidae although four derived characters states are shared in common with the cibyrine clade. The holoty...
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Larvae of Aenetus (Hepialidae) were presented with pieces of fresh apple slices by carefully cutting open the upper section of the feeding web and inserting 10-30 mm-long rectangular sections of skinned apple into the cavity between the feeding web and callus but leaving enough room to allow the larva to enter and exit the bore freely
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Animal and plant distributions are correlated with tectonic movement of Alpine Fault initiated about 20 Ma. Post Pleistocene dispersal is not responsible for the pattern of these distributions.
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Hepialidae in the Philippines was previously known for only a single species, Endoclita williamsi Tindale, 1958, known from a single female specimen from lLzon Island. here we describe a second species for the Philippines, E. headsi, sp. n., based on a single male specimen from Busuanga Island. Both species share a lack of discal forewing shading a...
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The distributions of genera and species of Hepialidae in Europe are documented and mapped, along with species distributions extending to eastern Asia. Patterns of species allopatry in Korscheltellus, Pharmacis, and Triodia are consistent with vicariance resulting from late Cretaceous and early Cenozoic tectonics along the Alpine-Mediterranean Mobil...
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Biogeographic patterns are reviewed for four widespread Southeast Asia butterfly groups in the superfamily Papilionoidea: Papilio subgenus Achillides Hübner, 1819 (Papilionidae), the birdwing butterflies (Papilionidae tribe Troidini), Genus Polyura Billberg, 1820 (Nymphalidae), and Genus Vanessa Fabricius, 1807 (Nymphalidae). The patterns of allopa...
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Walkeriella miraculosa gen. n. et sp. n. (Lepidoptera: Hepialoidea: Hepialidae) is based on two specimens collected from rainforest southwest of Puerto Maldonado, Tambopata, Madre de Dios department, southeastern Peru. The distinct genitalia and wing venation separate this taxon from other genera of Hepialidae although four derived characters state...
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First field photograph of recently described species Endoclita atayala Buchsbaum & Hsu 2018
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Craw and Heads argued that the extensive parallels between the distributions of organisms and the underlying geological structures indicated that New Zealand's biota is not just a miscellaneous Gondwanan organisms, but comprises actual biogeographic fragments of the former supercontinent. With a 90 + million year history of repeated subsidence, upl...
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Palpifer hampson, 1893 is a poorly known genus distributed across southern and eastern Asia. The new species P. boonei, sp. n. and P. hylandae, sp. n. are each de - scribed from a single male specimen, the first from laos and the second from Malaysia. Their respective genitalia are shown to be distinct from each other and from the Indian species P....
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The genus Druceiella Viette, 1949 (Lepidoptera, Exoporia, Hepialidae), is re-described for seven species. Monophyly of the genus is supported by four autapomorphies: 1) a posteriorly emarginated eighth tergite with extended right lobe in the male; 2) a white-edged cubital spot on the forewing; 3) white scales on cross-vein CuA1-CuA2 in the male for...
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Two species of Endoclita C. &. R. Felder, 1874 from Taiwan are evaluated for their taxonomic status: Endoclita meifenga Buchsbaum & Grehan sp. n. is described as new for a unique male from the central mountains of Taiwan, and E. kosemponis (Strand, 1916), stat. rev. is elevated to species status. We show that the forewing markings and genitalic cha...
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It is difficult to associate species of the wood-boring moth in the genus Aenetus with their host plant, because larvae develop inside live trees. A new method is described for rearing larvae of Aenetus eximia, A. lewinii, A. blackburnii, A. ligniveren and A. scotti in cut stems of trees containing larval tunnels by feeding them apple pieces. Larva...
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A new species Endoclita atayala Buchsbaum & Hsu sp. n. is based on a single female specimen collected at light in the high mountains of northern Taiwan. Comparisons with all other Endoclita (C. & R. Felder, 1874) species confirms that E. atayala sp. n. exhibits distinctive and unique wing pattern characteristics and probably has a sister group rela...
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Details of the external morphology and genitalia of the male of Phassus aurigenus Pfitzner, 1914 are descri­bed for the first time, including illustration of the male ho lo type. Features of the basal forewing pattern and male genitalia show similarities to several other species of Phassus Walker, 1856 from Mexico and Central America. A lecto­type...
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Details of tunneling and feeding by larvae of Leto venus are described and illustrated for the first time. Larval tunnels were examined from a section of lower trunk of the host plant Virgilia oroboides ferruginea from the Garden Route Botanical Gardens. Tunnels were 255-324 mm in length and of irregular cross sectional shape and located in the out...
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Orthogenesis refers to a concept of evolution involving biological processes that establish and spread new variations without requiring differential survival and reproduction. Orthogenesis was originally based on the observation that evolutionary reversals were limited and rare. Some evolutionists applied the concept to teleological modes of evolut...
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Leto venus has at least three host plants – Cyclopia subternata, Virgilia divaricata, and V. oroboides.
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Discovery of Aenetus sumatraensis nov.sp. from northern Sumatra expands the distribution range of this genus well into southeastern Asia along the Greater and Lesser Sunda. The species belongs to the A. tegulatus clade distributed between northern Australia, New Guinea, islands west of New Guinea and the Lesser Sunda that are separated by over 5,00...
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Abstract Discovery of Aenetus sumatraensis nov.sp. from northern Sumatra expands the distribution range of this genus well into southeastern Asia along the Greater and Lesser Sunda. The species belongs to the A. tegulatus clade distributed between northern Australia, New Guinea, islands west of New Guinea and the Lesser Sunda that are separated by...
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Six new Hepialidae species are described from high elevation habitats in the Andes of Peru and Ecuador. One species is assigned to the genus Kozloviella gen. n., K. viazmenskyi sp. n., from Peru, and five to the genus Pfitzneriella Viette, 1951: P. antonkozlovi sp. n., P. olafi sp. n., P. titarenkoi, sp. n., P. yuliyakovalevae sp. n. from Peru and...
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Development of Aenetus virescens larvae involves two distinct feeding stages – mycophagy (fungal feeding) and phytophagy (plant feeding) (Grehan 1987a). The mycophagous stage occurs on the forest floor where larvae graze the fruiting bodies of polypore fungi, usually those that grow as encrustations on the underside of logs or other dead wood (Greh...
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Summary of Australasian ghost moth biogeography with examples of tectonic correlation in New Zealand
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Zootaxa 4415 (2): 243-275 Abstract The biogeographic history of Exoporia (Lepidoptera) in the Southwest Pacific is reconstructed for genera and species that show distributional boundaries corresponding to tectonic structures in the region. Correlations with tectonic formations of Mesozoic origin such as the Whitsunday Volcanic Province and Otway-Ba...
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The genus Druceiella Viette, 1949 (Lepidoptera, Exoporia, Hepialidae), is re-described for seven species. Monophyly of the genus is supported by four autapomorphies: 1) a posteriorly emarginated eighth tergite with extended right lobe in the male; 2) a white-edged cubital spot on the forewing; 3) white scales on cross-vein CuA1-CuA2 in the male for...
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The genus Druceiella Viette, 1949 (Lepidoptera, Exoporia, Hepialidae), is re-described for seven species. Monophyly of the genus is supported by four autapomorphies: 1) a posteriorly emarginated eighth tergite with extended right lobe in the male; 2) a white-edged cubital spot on the forewing; 3) white scales on cross-vein CuA1-CuA2 in the male for...
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Abstract A new species of Yleuxas Viette, 1951 from Madre de Dios, Peru is described. Y. claudiae sp. n., differs from its unique congener, Y. bradleyi Viette, 1951, in some characters in the male genitalia. The male holotype is deposited in the National Museum of Natural History, Washington D.C., USA. Yleuxas brunnea (Schaus, 1901) (Cibyra) is mov...
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The hepialid genus Gymelloxes Viette, 1952 is characterized by, and differs from all other genera, by the male genitalia and a combination of characters. G. terea is redescribed due to the brevity of the original description. The male genitalia of Gymelloxes terea (Schaus, 1892) include two features that are unique within the Hepialidae – a posteri...
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Abstract: Phthius gen. n. is erected for Phthius punctatus sp. n. (type species) from southeastern Minas Gerais and eastern São Paulo. It has features shared with other large bodied hepialids from Central America and Mexico: Pallas Mielke & Grehan, 2015, Phassus Walker, 1856, Schausiana Viette, 1950; and also Viridigigas Grehan & Rawlins, 2016 from...
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The taxonomy of Indian Endoclita C. & R. Felder, 1874 fauna is very poorly known of an Endoclita sp. presented here of a male specimen collected from Kodaikanal in southwestern India may represent (Moore, 1879) or (Tindale, 1942), which are recorded from nearby localities and have a similar external appearance. Conclusive determination is not possi...
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Taxonomic and biological information is reviewed for the forest Hepialidae of northeastern India, a poorly known group of moths in a region known for the global significance of its biodiversity. The taxonomic and biological characteristics are described for genera known from the northeast - Endoclita, Palpifer, and Hepialiscus. A key is provided fo...