John Gero

John Gero
University of North Carolina at Charlotte | UNC Charlotte · Computer Science and Architecture

About

771
Publications
137,506
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
18,063
Citations
Citations since 2016
96 Research Items
5973 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220200400600800
20162017201820192020202120220200400600800
20162017201820192020202120220200400600800
20162017201820192020202120220200400600800

Publications

Publications (771)
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Immersive Virtual Reality (iVR) systems form a representational medium for student-tutor collaboration in studio crits through a shared presence in a life scale display of the design, making them relevant for design crits where students and tutors interact in developing a solution to a design problem. iVRs are known to support design activity. Howe...
Preprint
Full-text available
This pilot study explores the effects of biophilic design on university students' neurophysiological responses in virtual classrooms through measuring relative alpha and beta power using EEG in two different display conditions: a conventional computer display and an immersive VR Head-Mounted Display. Seventeen male undergraduate students from both...
Article
Full-text available
Co-evolution accounts have generally been used to describe how problems and solutions both change during the design process. More generally, problems and solutions can be considered as analytic categories, where change is seen to occur within categories or across categories. There are more categories of interest than just problems and solutions, fo...
Article
Design space is a common abstraction used in the investigation of design cognition. Characteristic properties of design spaces and how they change are underexplored. Design spaces can vary with the design task and its constraints, which are assumed to result in differences in neuro-cognitive processes. We review general cognition, creative cognitio...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Using digital tools like immersive Virtual Reality (iVR) reduce the carbon footprint by providing collocated and remote communication through virtual design studios. By providing a sense of presence in a digital display, iVR systems impact student-tutor communication during design critiques or crits. Research lacks studies articulating how iVRs cha...
Article
Full-text available
This paper investigates how the core technical processes of the INCOSE model of systems engineering differ from other models of designing used in the domains of mechanical engineering, software engineering and service design. The study is based on fine-grained datasets produced using mappings of the different models onto the function-behaviour-stru...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents the results of a 2-year longitudinal study aimed at characterizing and comparing the design cognition of high school students with and without formal engineering design experiences. The students—working as dyads—engaged in design-only sessions generating solutions in response to the same engineering design challenges. The design...
Chapter
This paper presents results from an experiment studying differences between designing and problem-solving in professional industrial designers, using EEG to measure neurophysiological activations. We compare neurophysiological activation and frequency bands power between three prototypical tasks, a problem-solving layout design task, an open layout...
Chapter
Conceptual Product-Service System (PSS) designing is expected to be inherently different and more complex than designing its discrete product or service elements. This paper presents empirical insights from 10 protocol studies of experienced practitioners, conceptually designing a PSS in a laboratory setting. A coding scheme based on function-behav...
Chapter
This paper explores the effect of the use of digital design representation tools to support design studio pedagogy. We present the results of a case study of three types of architectural design critiques also called design reviews. The first one is a traditional desk critique where common design representations (plans, section, mock-ups) were used...
Article
This paper presents results from a design neurocognition study on the effect of gender on EEG frequency band power when performing constrained and open design. We used electroencephalography to measure the brain activity of 84 professional designers. We investigated differences in frequency power associated with gender of 38 female and 46 male desi...
Article
Ideation is a key phase in engineering design and brainstorming is an established method for ideation. A limitation of the brainstorming process is idea production tends to peak at the beginning and quickly decreases with time. In this exploratory study, we tested an innovative technique to sustain ideation by providing designers feedback about the...
Article
This research explores the effect of the structuredness of design concept generation techniques on temporal network neurocognition. Engineering graduate students (n = 30) completed three concept generation tasks using techniques with different levels of structuredness: brainstorming, morphological analysis, and TRIZ. Students’ brain activation in t...
Conference Paper
The Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ) method and toolkit provides a well-structured approach to support engineering design with pre-defined steps: interpret and define the problem, search for standard engineering parameters, search for inventive principles to adapt, and generate final solutions. The research presented in this paper explore...
Conference Paper
Professionals need to collaborate with multiple stakeholders in product development to stay competitive and to innovate. Through their values and mission, companies develop a specific working environment that can lead to the development of design methods and tools. In this article, we study design team dynamics of professional engineers working in...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we present results from an experiment using EEG to measure brain activity and explore EEG frequency power associated with gender differences of professional industrial designers while performing two prototypical stages of constrained and open design tasks, problem-solving and design sketching. Results indicate no main effect of gende...
Article
Full-text available
The research presented in this paper explores features of temporal design neurocognition by comparing regions of activation in the brain during concept generation. A total of 27 engineering graduate students used brainstorming, morphological analysis, and TRIZ to generate concepts to design problems. Students' brain activation in their prefrontal c...
Article
Full-text available
When observing a design space expansion during teamwork, several studies found that cumulative solution-related issues' occurrence follows a linear trend. Such findings contradict the hypothesis of solution-related issues being characteristic for the later design stages. This work relies on agent-based simulations to explore the emerging patterns i...
Article
Full-text available
Designers faced with complex design problems use decomposition strategies to tackle manageable sub-problems. Recomposition strategies aims at synthesizing sub-solutions into a unique design proposal. Design theory describes the design process as a combination of decomposition and recomposition strategies. In this paper, we explore dynamic patterns...
Article
Full-text available
This exploratory case study investigates a novel adaptation of the virtual studio pedagogy. Students are located in authentic professional practice settings, while tutors remain on campus. Verbalisations of tutors' and students' discussions in 13 weekly sessions were characterized and measured using topic modelling and FBS analysis. Tutors and stud...
Article
Full-text available
This paper proposes a relationship between design thinking and computational thinking. It describes design thinking and computational thinking as two prominent ways of understanding how people address design problems. It suggests that, currently, each of design thinking and computational thinking is defined and theorized in isolation from the other...
Conference Paper
This paper presents results from an experiment studying differences between designing and problem-solving in professional industrial designers, using EEG to measure neurophysiological activations. We compare neurophysiological activation and frequency bands power between three prototypical tasks, a problem-solving layout design task, an open design...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper explores the effect of the use of digital design representation tools to support design studio pedagogy. We present the results of a case study of three types of architectural design critiques also called design reviews. The first one is a traditional desk critique where common design representations (plans, section, mock-ups) were used...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents the results of a study that explores the effect of a visual constraint on design behaviors of architecture students. To examine this effect, 24 second-year architecture students volunteered to participate. Each of them undertook similar conceptual design briefs in two different conditions, one with and another without a visual c...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents the results of studying the brain activations of 30 engineering students when using three different design concept generation techniques: brainstorming, morphological analysis, and TRIZ. Changes in students’ brain activation in the prefrontal cortex were measured using functional near-infrared spectroscopy. The results are based...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents results from an experiment using electroencephalography to measure neurophysiological activations of mechanical engineers and industrial designers when designing and problem-solving. In this study, we adopted and then extended the tasks described in a previous functional magnetic resonance imaging study reported in the literatur...
Preprint
Full-text available
This paper presents results from an experiment using EEG to measure neurophysiological activations of mechanical engineers and industrial designers when designing and problem-solving. In this study, we adopted and then extended the tasks described in a previous fMRI study reported in the literature. The block experiment consists of a sequence of 3...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Limit: 350 words + References + Figures) In the last 10 years, domain-related EEG design studies (Nguyen & Zheng 2010; Liu et al. 2018; Liang et al. 2017), functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) design studies (Shealy and Gero, 2019) and fMRI studies (Goucher-Lambert et al. 2019) of mechanical engineers, graphic designers (Elamil et al. 2011...
Article
Full-text available
Product/service systems (PSSs) are increasingly found in markets, and more resources are being invested in PSS design. Despite the substantial research into PSS design, the current literature exhibits an incomplete understanding of it as a cognitive activity. This article demonstrates that the methods used to analyze product designers’ cognitive be...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Creativity is recognized as essential for changing the design space from constrained to open spaces. This study compares the neurophysiological activations of 18 professional industrial designers in two prototypical tasks, a problem-solving constrained layout task and an open design task. The analysis focused on measuring the cognitive demand in th...
Article
Full-text available
Cognitive neuroscience research has traditionally focused on understanding the brain mechanisms that enable cognition by means of experimental laboratory tasks. With a budding literature, there is growing interest in the application of the related methods and findings to real-world settings. In this opinion paper we explore the potential and promis...
Conference Paper
The research results presented in this paper explore the temporal changes in central regions of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) during design brainstorming. Design mobilizes a range of cognitive processes such as problem analysis and framing, concept generation, decision-making, visual reasoning and creative problem solving. Concept generation is suppo...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents a framework for studying design thinking. Three paradigmatic approaches are described to measure design cognitive processes: design cognition, design physiology and design neurocognition. Specific tools and methods serve each paradigmatic approach. Design cognition is explored through protocol analysis, black-box experiments, su...
Article
Full-text available
We present results from an EEG experiment EEG to measure neurophysiological activation to study novice and experienced designers when designing and problem-solving. We adopted and extended the tasks described in a previous fMRI study. The block experiment consists of 3 tasks: problem-solving, basic design, and open layout design. The block is prece...
Chapter
Full-text available
This paper presents results from an experiment to determine brain activation differences between problem-solving and designing of industrial designers. The study adopted and extended the tasks described in an fMRI study of design cognition and measured brain activation using electroencephalography (EEG). By taking advantage of EEG's high temporal r...
Article
Full-text available
This paper explores the notion of mentored reflective practice to describe design studio pedagogy. Students learn how to design by doing design in the studio. Design critiques are a key element in design studio pedagogy as they capture a moment where students get feedback from their tutors on their designs. The research questions addressed concern...
Article
We present results from an EEG experiment EEG to measure neurophysiological activation to study novice and experienced designers when designing and problem-solving. We adopted and extended the tasks described in a previous fMRI study. The block experiment consists of 3 tasks: problem-solving, basic design, and open layout design. The block is prece...
Article
Full-text available
Sarcasm in verbal and nonverbal communication is known to attract higher attention and create deeper influence than other negative responses. Many people are adept at including sarcasm in written communication thus sarcastic comments have the potential to stimulate the virality of social media content. Although diverse computational approaches have...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents the situated Function-Behavior-Structure (sFBS) model of co-design, developed within the FBS ontology. In co-design, designers interact with their co-designers and with their own cognitive experiences. In this model, we describe a representation of the overall co-design activity, while preserving a fine-grained representation of...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper presents results from an experiment to determine brain activation differences between problem-solving and designing of mechanical engineers. The study is part of a research project whose goal is to correlate design cognition with brain behavior across design domains. The study adopted and extended the tasks described in a fMRI study of d...
Poster
Full-text available
The design neurocognition field emerges as promising to further a better understanding of the acts of designing and perhaps a more in-depth distinction of creativity in higher order mental processes. Reference Alexiou, K, Zamenopoulos, T, Johnson, J.H, Gilbert S.J (2009). The objective of the study is: Distinguish design from problem-solving usin...
Article
Full-text available
Techniques and processes used for concept generation rely on composing new concepts and analysis given situational context. Composition and analysis require distinct neurocognitive function. For instance, jazz composition relies heavily on the right brain, while math relies on the left. Similar to music and math, is concept generation hemisphere do...
Article
Full-text available
Academics teach engineering design based on design theory and best practices, practitioners teach design based on their experience. Is there a difference between them? There appears to be little prior work in comparing the design processes of design academics and practitioners. This paper presents a case study in which the design activity of a team...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents the results of computational experiments aimed at studying the effect of experience on design teams’ exploration of problem-solution space. An agent-based model of a design team was developed and its capability to match theoretically-based predictions is tested. Hypotheses that (1) experienced teams need less time to find a solu...
Article
Full-text available
New tools from neuroscience allow design researchers to explore design neurocognition. By taking the advantage of EEG's temporal resolution we give up spatial resolution to focus on the performance of time-related design tasks. This paper presents results from an experiment using EEG to measure brain activation to study mechanical engineers and arc...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents results from a study exploring the relationship between design education and creative design cognition in high school students. Data from coded protocols of high school students with and without design education serve as the source. Audio/video recordings of student pairs engaged in a design task captured both their design appro...
Conference Paper
This paper furthers the study of creative design by taking a situated view of novelty. A set of computational experiments is performed utilizing an agent-based model of a design team, and resulting data is used to examine the influence of a change in a situation (or a design frame) on the perception of a design's novelty in terms of its difference...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper analyses design protocols of professional engineers and engineering students using the FBS schema, testing two hypotheses related to the use of system 1 and system 2 thinking. These two modes of thinking are characterised as: one that is fast and intuitive (system 1), and one that is slow and tedious (system 2). Their relevance for desig...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This article introduces and applies a methodology to analyze the effect of team diversity on team design cognition. We explore team diversity in relation to team members’ gender. We studied two types of teams: heterogeneous teams composed of one female and one male mechanical engineering students and homogeneous teams of two male mechanical enginee...
Chapter
Full-text available
The paper presents the results of research aimed at contributing to a better understanding of the effect of team experience and learning on the performance of a design team. An agent-based model of the design team was developed, and computational simulations were utilized to study how agent’s knowledge changes by its use and what are the effects of...
Chapter
This paper presents empirical results aimed at increasing the understanding of conceptual activities of Product/Service Systems (PSS) design by experienced designers from industry. Results are derived from a protocol analysis of five PSS design sessions, using the Function–Behavior–Structure coding scheme. Sessions included five pairs of profession...
Chapter
Full-text available
This paper introduces the notion of ekphrasis in the arts as a basis for developing a framework of creative designing. Ekphrasis is the transformation of a concept from one medium or domain (e.g. sculpture) to another medium or domain (e.g. music). When used in design, ekphrasis enables the use of new processes afforded within the new domain that c...
Book
This is the proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Design Computing and Cognition (DCC’18) held at the Polytecnico di Milano in Italy. This volume presents both advances in theory and applications and demonstrates the depth and breadth of design computing and design cognition. Design thinking, the label given to the acts of designing...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper presents the results of an experimental study comparing cortical activation in the brain when generating solutions using brainstorming, morphological analysis, and TRIZ. Twelve engineering students were given the same three design tasks, respectively, using the three solution generation techniques. Students generated solutions while chan...