John D E Gabrieli

John D E Gabrieli
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | MIT · McGovern Institute for Brain Research and Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences

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507
Publications
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Publications

Publications (507)
Article
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by challenges in social communication and the presence of repetitive behaviors or restricted interests. Notably, males are four times as likely as females to be diagnosed with autism. Despite efforts to increase representation and characterization of autistic females, research studies consistently enr...
Article
Objective: Evidence from psychosomatic and nocebo research has indicated that believing one will develop symptoms makes the experience of such symptoms more likely. We applied this idea in the context of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Specifically, we assessed whether beliefs regarding COVID-19 predict COVID-like symptoms 3-4 weeks later, an...
Preprint
Recent studies suggest that the cross-sectional relationship between reading skills and white matter microstructure, as indexed by fractional anisotropy, is not as robust as previously thought. Fixel-based analyses yield fiber-specific micro- and macrostructural measures, overcoming several shortcomings of traditional DTI approaches. We ran a whole...
Article
Early identification is important for improving reading outcomes for children at risk for reading difficulties, but current methods tend to perform sub-optimally in identifying true risk. One possible reason is that whereas most prediction models assume linear relationships among risk and reading outcome measures, qualitatively different patterns o...
Article
Full-text available
The neural representation of a repeated stimulus is the standard against which a deviant stimulus is measured in the brain, giving rise to the well-known mismatch response. It has been suggested that individuals with dyslexia have poor implicit memory for recently repeated stimuli, such as the train of standards in an oddball paradigm. Here, we exa...
Article
Developmental dyslexia (DD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are two of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders among school-age children. These disorders frequently co-occur, with up to 40-50% of children with one diagnosis meeting criteria for the other, and similar percentages of children with either DD or ADHD exhibiting...
Article
Background Schizophrenia spectrum disorders are heritable illnesses that usually manifest in early adulthood but are increasingly viewed as neurodevelopmental disorders. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies show altered brain activity during performance of working memory (WM) tasks in both individuals with schizophrenia and their fi...
Article
Reading involves the functioning of a widely distributed brain network, and white matter tracts are responsible for transmitting information between constituent network nodes. Several studies have analyzed fiber bundle microstructural properties to shed insights into the neural basis of reading abilities and disabilities. Findings have been inconsi...
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Full-text available
Intervention studies with developmental samples are difficult to implement, in particular when targeting demographically diverse communities. Online studies have the potential to examine the efficacy of highly scalable interventions aimed at enhancing development, and to address some of the barriers faced by underrepresented communities for partici...
Article
According to several influential theoretical frameworks, phonological deficits in dyslexia result from reduced sensitivity to acoustic cues that are essential for the development of robust phonemic representations. Some accounts suggest that these deficits arise from impairments in rapid auditory adaptation processes that are either speech-specific...
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Full-text available
The development of scanners with ultra-high gradient strength, spearheaded by the Human Connectome Project, has led to dramatic improvements in the spatial, angular, and diffusion resolution that is feasible for in vivo diffusion MRI acquisitions. The improved quality of the data can be exploited to achieve higher accuracy in the inference of both...
Article
A perceptual adaptation deficit often accompanies reading difficulty in dyslexia, manifesting in poor perceptual learning of consistent stimuli and reduced neurophysiological adaptation to stimulus repetition. However, it is not known how adaptation deficits relate to differences in feedforward or feedback processes in the brain. Here we used elect...
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Full-text available
Knowledge of the relations among learners' socio-emotional characteristics and competencies as they engage in mathematics and reading is limited, especially for children with academic difficulties. This study examined the relations between anxiety, motivation, and competence in mathematics and reading, within and across domains, in an academically-...
Article
This study aimed to identify white-matter microstructural characteristics associated with risk for pediatric major depressive disorder (MDD) measured by the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) Anxiety/Depression scores. Children (N = 32) of both sexes, aged 6-12, underwent T1-weighted whole-head anatomical and diffusion-weighted imaging. Each participa...
Article
Developmental dyslexia is a common neurodevelopmental disorder that is associated with alterations in the behavioral and neural processing of speech sounds, but the scope and nature of that association is uncertain. It has been proposed that more variable auditory processing could underlie some of the core deficits in this disorder. In the current...
Article
Objective To evaluate the frequency and correlates of needing to switch the initial treatment with a stimulant medication to the alternative family in newly referred, untreated adults with ADHD initiating treatment. Methods Subjects were consecutively referred unmedicated adults with DSM-5 ADHD who initiated stimulant treatment. Before assessment...
Preprint
Full-text available
A bstract Reading involves the functioning of a widely distributed brain network, and white matter tracts are responsible for sending information between constituent network nodes. Several studies have analyzed fiber bundle microstructural properties to shed insights into the neural basis of reading abilities and disabilities. Findings have been in...
Article
Childhood socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with persistent academic achievement gaps, which necessitates evidence-based, scalable interventions to improve children’s outcomes. The present study reports results from a replication and extension of a family-based training program previously found to improve cognitive development in lower-SES p...
Article
Challenges in social cognition and communication are core characteristics of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but in some domains, individuals with ASD may display typical abilities and even outperform their neurotypical counterparts. These enhanced abilities are notable in the domains of reasoning, judgment and decision-making, in which individuals...
Preprint
A perceptual adaptation deficit often accompanies reading difficulty in dyslexia, manifesting in poor perceptual learning of consistent stimuli and reduced neurophysiological adaptation to stimulus repetition. However, it is not known how adaptation deficits relate to differences in feedforward or feedback processes in the brain. Here we used elect...
Article
Full-text available
The mismatch negativity (MMN), an electrophysiological response to an oddball auditory stimulus, is related to reading ability in many studies. There are conflicting findings regarding exactly how the MMN relates to risk or actual diagnosis of dyslexia/reading impairment, perhaps due to the heterogeneity of abilities in children with reading impair...
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Full-text available
Adolescents with anxiety disorders exhibit excessive emotional and somatic arousal. Neuroimaging studies have shown abnormal cerebral cortical activation and connectivity in this patient population. The specific role of cerebellar output circuitry, specifically the dentate nuclei (DN), in adolescent anxiety disorders remains largely unexplored. Res...
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Full-text available
Objective: Although depression and anxiety often have distinct etiologies, they frequently co-occur in adolescence. Recent initiatives have underscored the importance of developing new ways of classifying mental illness based on underlying neural dimensions that cuts across traditional diagnostic boundaries. Accordingly, the aim of the study was to...
Article
Full-text available
Children’s early language environments are associated with linguistic, cognitive, and academic development, as well as concurrent brain structure and function. This study investigated neurodevelopmental mechanisms linking language input to development by measuring neuroplasticity associated with an intervention designed to enhance language environm...
Article
Full-text available
Neural substrates of “mind wandering” have been widely reported, yet experiments have varied in their contexts and their definitions of this psychological phenomenon, limiting generalizability. We aimed to develop and test the generalizability, specificity, and clinical relevance of a functional brain network-based marker for a well-defined feature...
Article
Full-text available
Robust and efficient speech perception relies on the interpretation of acoustically-variable phoneme realizations, yet prior neuroimaging studies are inconclusive regarding the degree to which subphonemic detail is maintained over time as categorical representations arise. It is also unknown whether this depends on the demands of the listening task...
Article
Purpose/background: This study aimed to evaluate the frequency of needing to switch the initial treatment of a stimulant to the alternative family in newly referred, medication-naive adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) initiating treatment with stimulants. Methods/procedures: Subjects were 49 unmedicated adults (18-45 yea...
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Full-text available
Patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders show disturbances in self-referential processing and associated neural circuits including the default mode network (DMN). These disturbances may precede the onset of psychosis and may underlie early social and emotional problems. In this study, we examined self-referential processing in a group of chil...
Article
Full-text available
Retrieval practice, relative to further study, leads to long-term memory enhancement known as the “testing effect.” The neurobiological correlates of the testing effect at retrieval, when the learning benefits of testing are expressed, have not been fully characterized. Participants learned Swahili-English word-pairs and were assigned randomly to e...
Preprint
Neural substrates of "mind wandering" have been widely reported, yet experiments have varied in their contexts and their definitions of this psychological phenomenon, limiting generalizability. We aimed to develop and test the generalizability, specificity, and clinical relevance of a functional brain network-based marker for a well-defined feature...
Article
Full-text available
The traditional view on the cerebellum is that it controls motor behavior. Although recent work has revealed that the cerebellum supports also nonmotor functions such as cognition and affect, only during the last 5 years it has become evident that the cerebellum also plays an important social role. This role is evident in social cognition based on...
Article
Most adults are better at recognizing recently encountered faces of their own race, relative to faces of other races. In adults, this race effect in face recognition is associated with differential neural representations of own- and other-race faces in the fusiform face area (FFA), a high-level visual region involved in face recognition. Previous r...
Preprint
Full-text available
Children’s early language environments are associated with linguistic, cognitive, and academic development, as well as concurrent brain structure and function. This study investigated neurodevelopmental mechanisms linking language input and development by measuring neuroplasticity associated with an intervention designed to enhance language environ...
Article
Full-text available
Mindfulness training can enhance cognitive control, but the neural mechanisms underlying such enhancement in children are unknown. Here, we conducted a randomized controlled trial (RCT) with sixth graders (mean age 11.76 years) to examine the impact of 8 weeks of school-based mindfulness training, relative to coding training as an active control, o...
Article
Maturation of basal ganglia (BG) and frontoparietal circuitry parallels developmental gains in working memory (WM). Neurobiological models posit that adult WM performance is enhanced by communication between reward-sensitive BG and frontoparietal regions, via increased stability in the maintenance of goal-relevant neural patterns. It is not known w...
Article
Recent efforts have focused on screening methods to identify children at risk for dyslexia as early as preschool/kindergarten. Unfortunately, while low sensitivity leads to under‐identification of at‐risk children, low specificity can lead to over‐identification, resulting in inaccurate allocation of limited educational resources. The present study...
Article
In non-habitual situations, cognitive control aligns actions with both short- and long-term goals. The capacity for cognitive control is tightly tied to the prefrontal cortex, whose expansion in humans relative to other species is thought to support our superior cognitive control. However, the posterolateral cerebellum has also expanded greatly rel...
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Full-text available
Emotional dysregulation symptoms in youth frequently predispose individuals to increased risk for mood disorders and other mental health difficulties. These symptoms are also known as a behavioral risk marker in predicting pediatric mood disorders. The underlying neural mechanism of emotional dysregulation, however, remains unclear. This study used...
Article
Full-text available
Developmental dyslexia affects 40–60% of children with a familial risk (FHD+) compared to a general prevalence of 5–10%. Despite the increased risk, about half of FHD+ children develop typical reading abilities (FHD+Typical). Yet the underlying neural characteristics of favorable reading outcomes in at‐risk children remain unknown. Utilizing a retr...
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Full-text available
Developmental dyslexia affects 40-60% of children with a familial risk (FHD+) compared to a general prevalence of 5-10%. Despite the increased risk, about half of FHD+ children develop typical reading abilities (FHD+Typical). Yet the underlying neural characteristics of favorable reading outcomes in at-risk children remains unknown. Utilizing a ret...
Article
Full-text available
A patient diagnosed with developmental delay, intellectual disability, and autistic and obsessive-compulsive symptoms was found to have a posterior fossa arachnoid cyst (PFAC) compressing the cerebellum. The patient was referred to our Ataxia Unit for consideration of surgical drainage of the cyst to improve his clinical constellation. This scenari...
Article
Purpose Child language acquisition is marked by an optional infinitive period (ages 2–4 years) during which children use nonfinite (infinitival) verb forms and finite verb forms interchangeably in grammatical contexts that require finite forms. In English, children's errors include omissions of past tense /– ed / and 3rd-person singular /– s /. Thi...
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Full-text available
Although numerous survey studies have reported connections between sleep and cognitive function, there remains a lack of quantitative data using objective measures to directly assess the association between sleep and academic performance. In this study, wearable activity trackers were distributed to 100 students in an introductory college chemistry...
Article
Multiple lines of evidence suggest that illness development in schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders predates the first psychotic episode by many years. In this study, we examined a sample of 15 pre-adolescent children, ages 7 through 12 years, who are at familial high-risk (FHR) because they have a parent or sibling with a history of schizop...
Article
Prefrontal cortex (PFC) activation during encoding of memoranda (proactive responses) is associated with better working memory (WM) compared to reactive/retrieval-based activation. This suggests that dynamic PFC activation patterns may be fixed, based upon one’s WM ability, with individuals who have greater WM ability relying more on proactive proc...
Article
Anatomical connections link the cerebellar cortex with multiple sensory, motor, association, and paralimbic cerebral areas. The majority of fibers that exit cerebellar cortex synapse in dentate nuclei (DN) before reaching extracerebellar structures such as cerebral cortex, but the functional neuroanatomy of human DN remains largely unmapped. Neuroi...
Chapter
Developmental Dyslexia across Languages and Writing Systems - edited by Ludo Verhoeven October 2019
Article
There is a fundamental psychological and neuropsychological distinction between explicit and implicit memory, and it has been proposed that whereas there are stable trait individual differences in explicit memory ability, there are not such differences across people for implicit learning. There is, however, little evidence about whether or not ther...
Article
The impact of mindfulness training on stress and associated brain plasticity has been shown in adults, whereas the impact of such training in the developing brain remains unknown. To address this open question, 40 middle-school children were randomized to either mindfulness or coding training (active control) interventions during the school day for...
Preprint
Full-text available
Developmental dyslexia is a learning disability characterized by difficulties in word reading. While the prevalence in the general public is around 10-12%, an increased prevalence of 40-60% has been reported for children with a familial risk. Neural atypicalities in the reading network have been observed in children with (FHD+) compared to without...
Preprint
Full-text available
Developmental dyslexia is a learning disability characterized by difficulties in word reading. While the prevalence in the general public is around 10-12%, an increased prevalence of 40-60% has been reported for children with a familial risk. Neural atypicalities in the reading network have been observed in children with (FHD+) compared to without...
Article
Despite increasing interest in improving academic outcomes for students by enhancing mindfulness, there is a paucity of evidence that greater mindfulness is associated with success in school. We measured mindfulness with the short‐form Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) in over 2,000 urban students in Grades 5–8. The MAAS had good internal co...
Preprint
Full-text available
Recent efforts have focused on screening methods to identify children at risk for dyslexia as early as preschool/kindergarten. Unfortunately, while low sensitivity leads to under-identification of at-risk children, low specificity can lead to over-identification, resulting in inaccurate allocation of limited educational resources. The present study...
Article
Full-text available
Although lower socioeconomic status (SES) is generally negatively associated with performance on cognitive assessments, some children from lower-SES backgrounds perform as well as their peers from higher-SES backgrounds. Yet little research has examined whether the neural correlates of individual differences in cognition vary by SES. The current st...
Article
Although research highlights neural correlates of MDD, it is unclear whether these correlates reflect the state of depression or a pre-existing risk factor. The current study examined whether baseline differences in brain activations, resting-state connectivity, and brain structural differences between non-symptomatic children at high- and low-risk...
Article
Children with familial risk for major depressive disorder (MDD) have elevated risk for developing depression as adolescents. Here, we investigated longitudinally whether resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) could predict the onset of MDD. In this pilot study, we followed a group of never-depressed children with familial risk for MDD and a g...
Preprint
Foreign language learning in adulthood often takes place in classrooms where learning outcomes vary widely among students, for both initial learning and long-term retention. Despite the fundamental role of speech perception in first language acquisition, its role in foreign language learning outcomes remains unknown. Using a speech discrimination f...
Article
Full-text available
Gradient-based approaches to brain function have recently unmasked fundamental properties of brain organization. Diffusion map embedding analysis of resting-state fMRI data revealed a primary-to-transmodal axis of cerebral cortical macroscale functional organization. The same method was recently used to analyze resting-state data within the cerebel...
Article
Full-text available
Reading is a learned skill crucial for educational attainment. Children from families of lower socioeconomic status (SES) tend to have poorer reading performance and this gap widens across years of schooling. Reading relies on the orchestration of multiple neural systems integrated via specific white‐matter pathways, but there is limited understand...
Article
Full-text available
Reading is a learned skill crucial for educational attainment. Children from families of lower socioeconomic status (SES) tend to have poorer reading outcomes and this gap widens across years of schooling. Reading relies on the orchestration of multiple neural systems integrated via specific white-matter pathways, but there is limited understanding...
Article
Full-text available
A central principle for understanding the cerebral cortex is that macroscale anatomy reflects a functional hierarchy from primary to transmodal processing. In contrast, the central axis of motor and nonmotor macroscale organization in the cerebellum remains unknown. Here we applied diffusion map embedding to resting-state data from the Human Connec...
Article
Full-text available
Neuroscience research has elucidated broad relationships between socioeconomic status (SES) and young children’s brain structure, but there is little mechanistic knowledge about specific environmental factors that are associated with specific variation in brain structure. One environmental factor, early language exposure, predicts children’s lingui...
Article
Full-text available
There is growing interest in the link between implicit statistical learning (SL) and reading ability. Although learning to read involves both auditory and visual modalities, it is not known whether reading skills might be more strongly associated with auditory SL or visual SL. Here we assessed SL across both modalities in 36 typically developing ch...
Article
Musical training confers advantages in speech-sound processing, which could play an important role in early childhood education. To understand the mechanisms of this effect, we used event-related potential and behavioral measures in a longitudinal design. Seventy-four Mandarin-speaking children aged 4-5 y old were pseudorandomly assigned to piano t...