John M Fryxell

John M Fryxell
University of Guelph | UOGuelph · Department of Integrative Biology

About

223
Publications
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14,153
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Publications

Publications (223)
Article
Full-text available
Macroecological studies that require habitat suitability data for many species often derive this information from expert opinion. However, expert‐based information is inherently subjective and thus prone to errors. The increasing availability of GPS tracking data offers opportunities to evaluate and supplement expert‐based information with detailed...
Article
Full-text available
Harvesting can magnify the destabilising effects of environmental perturbations on population dynamics and, thereby, increase extinction risk. However, population‐dynamic theory predicts that impacts of harvesting depend on the type and strength of density‐dependent regulation. Here, we used logistic population growth models and an empirical reinde...
Preprint
Resource selection analysis (RSA) is a cornerstone approach for understanding animal distributions, yet there exists no rigorous quantification of sample sizes required to obtain reliable results. We provide closed-form mathematical expressions for both the number of animals and relocations per animal required for parameterising RSA to a given degr...
Preprint
Harvesting can magnify the destabilizing effects of environmental perturbations on population dynamics and, thereby, increase extinction risk. However, population-dynamic theory predicts that impacts of harvesting depend on the type and strength of density-dependent regulation. Here, we used logistic population growth models and an empirical reinde...
Article
Full-text available
Environmental DNA (eDNA) holds notable potential for biomonitoring and ecological research. However, its utility for quantifying temporal changes in abundance, biomass, and diversity remains contentious. We investigated biotic and abiotic factors influencing temporal variation in eDNA concentration in large, 28,000 L experimental mesocosms. Time se...
Article
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Arthropod abundance, biomass and taxonomic diversity are key metrics often used to assess the efficacy of restoration efforts. Gathering these metrics is a slow and laborious process, quantified by an expert manually sorting and weighing arthropod specimens. We present a tool to accelerate bulk arthropod classification and biomass estimates utilizi...
Article
Predation is a fundamental ecological process influencing the distribution and abundance of animal populations and underlying how prey species perceive risk. The predation process is composed of four sequential stages – search, encounter, attack and kill – each of which has been used to describe risk across the landscape. Here, we used direct obser...
Article
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The forage maturation hypothesis (FMH) states that energy intake for ungulates is maximised when forage biomass is at intermediate levels. Nevertheless, metabolic allometry and different digestive systems suggest that resource selection should vary across ungulate species. By combining GPS relocations with remotely sensed data on forage characteris...
Article
1. Sample size sufficiency is a critical consideration for estimating Resource‐Selection Functions (RSFs) from GPS‐based animal telemetry. Cited thresholds for sufficiency include a number of captured animals M ≥ 30 and as many relocations per animal N as possible. These thresholds render many RSF‐based studies misleading if large sample sizes were...
Article
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Integrating diverse concepts from animal behavior, movement ecology, and machine learning, we develop an overview of the ecology of learning and animal movement. Learning-based movement is clearly relevant to ecological problems, but the subject is rooted firmly in psychology, including a distinct terminology. We contrast this psychological origin...
Article
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Migration of ungulates (hooved mammals) is a fundamental ecological process that promotes abundant herds, whose effects cascade up and down terrestrial food webs. Migratory ungulates provide the prey base that maintains large carnivore and scavenger populations and underpins terrestrial biodiversity (fig. S1). When ungulates move in large aggregati...
Article
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Almost 50 years ago, Michael Rosenzweig pointed out that nutrient addition can destabilise food webs, leading to loss of species and reduced ecosystem function through the paradox of enrichment. Around the same time, David Tilman demonstrated that increased nutrient loading would also be expected to cause competitive exclusion leading to deleteriou...
Preprint
Sample size sufficiency is a critical consideration for conducting Resource-Selection Analyses (RSAs) from GPS-based animal telemetry. Cited thresholds for sufficiency include a number of captured animals M ≥ 30 and as many relocations per animal N as possible. These thresholds render many RSA-based studies misleading if large sample sizes were tru...
Preprint
Full-text available
A growing challenge with industrialized agriculture is compensating farmers for devoting land towards producing ecosystem services, at a time when global food demands are accelerating. Here, we explore revenue thresholds that Payment for Ecosystem Service programs (PES) must approach to be competitive in present-day crop markets, amalgamating long-...
Article
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Many animal populations providing ecosystem services, including harvest, live in seasonal environments and migrate between seasonally distinct ranges. Unfortunately, two major sources of human-induced global change threaten these populations: climate change and anthropogenic barriers. Anthropogenic infrastructure developments present a global threa...
Article
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Adult female survival and calf recruitment influence population dynamics, but there is limited information on calving and neonatal mortality of boreal woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou; caribou) in Ontario, Canada. We identified calf parturition sites and 5‐week neonatal mortality using a movement‐based approach across 3 northern Ontario...
Article
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Despite being widely used, habitat selection models are rarely reliable and informative when applied across different ecosystems or over time. One possible explanation is that habitat selection is context-dependent due to variation in consumer density and/or resource availability. The goal of this paper is to provide a general theoretical perspecti...
Article
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Phenotypic plasticity is an important way by which organisms respond to changes in their local environment, but it is not clear whether parents can buffer the negative impacts of high temperature on offspring fitness. To investigate this question, we exposed the waterflea Daphnia magna (Straus 1820) and their offspring to either low (15oC) or high...
Article
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Multi-scale selection patterns can be understood from two perspectives: coarse scale patterns as the summation of fine scale patterns (scaling-up), or as a hierarchy produced from multiple contributory factors with differential effects on organismal fitness (hierarchical). We examined caribou ( Rangifer tarandus caribou Gmelin, 1788) selection of f...
Article
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One of the most challenging tasks in wildlife conservation and management is to clarify how spatial variation in land cover due to anthropogenic disturbance influences wildlife demography and long‐term viability. To evaluate this, we compared rates of survival and population growth by woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) from 2 study sites...
Article
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Reduced body size and accelerated life cycle due to warming are considered major ecological responses to climate change with fitness costs at the individual level. Surprisingly, we know little about how relevant ecological factors can alter these life history trade‐offs and their consequences for individual fitness. Here, we show that food modulate...
Article
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Although temperature is recognized as a major determinant of many ecological processes, it is still not clear whether temperature increase caused by climate change will strengthen or weaken species interactions. One hypothesis is that interactions will respond non‐monotonically to temperature because thermal performance curves, which determine the...
Article
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Aim: The influence of humans on large carnivores, including wolves, is a worldwide conservation concern. In addition, human-caused changes in carnivore density and distribution might have impacts on prey and, indirectly, on vegetation. We therefore tested wolf responses to infrastructure related to natural resource development (i.e., human footpri...
Article
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Aim Animal movement is an important determinant of individual survival, population dynamics and ecosystem structure and function. Nonetheless, it is still unclear how local movements are related to resource availability and the spatial arrangement of resources. Using resident bird species and migratory bird species outside the migratory period, we...
Article
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Context: Differences in body size and mouth morphologies influence dietary resource separation among savanna ungulates, and this influences their distribution across landscape. Aim: The aim was to understand the influence of body size and mouth morphology differences on both diet and patch selection by ungulate species in western Serengeti. Two hyp...
Article
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Collective behaviours contributing to patterns of group formation and coordinated movement are common across many ecosystems and taxa. Their ubiquity is presumably due to altering interactions between individuals and their predators, resources and physical environment in ways that enhance individual fitness. On the other hand, fitness costs are als...
Article
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The ideal free distribution assumes that animals select habitats that are beneficial to their fitness. When the needs of dependent offspring differ from those of the parent, ideal habitat selection patterns could vary with the presence or absence of offspring. We test whether habitat selection depends on reproductive state due to top‐down or bottom...
Article
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Habitat loss has been implicated in the decline of forest-dwelling caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou), but it is unknown how biting insects, potentially important components of boreal forest habitat for caribou, influence the activity of this threatened species. During summers in 2011 and 2012 in northern Ontario, Canada, we quantified the relativ...
Article
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Animal movement is fundamental for ecosystem functioning and species survival, yet the effects of the anthropogenic footprint on animal movements have not been estimated across species. Using a unique GPS-tracking database of 803 individuals across 57 species, we found that movements of mammals in areas with a comparatively high human footprint wer...
Article
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Variation in movement across time and space fundamentally shapes the abundance and distribution of populations. Although a variety of approaches model structured population dynamics, they are limited to specific types of spatially structured populations and lack a unifying framework. Here, we propose a unified network-based framework sufficiently n...
Article
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Woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) in Ontario are a threatened species that have experienced a substantial retraction of their historic range. Part of their decline has been attributed to increasing densities of anthropogenic linear features such as trails, roads, railways, and hydro lines. These features have been shown to increase the s...
Data
Season delineation, tortuosity and velocity of resident adult wolves in northern Ontario, Canada, 2010–2014. Season limits are shown with a thin grey line. (PDF)
Data
Mean and range of number of used or available locations for each wolf-year-season combination. (PDF)
Data
Summary of how many wolf-season-year combinations did not have a feature available within a seasonal range. (PDF)
Data
Results for the Maximum Distance method. Comparison of the Maximum Distance vs Functional Availability methods. (PDF)
Article
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There is growing awareness of the need for fishery management policies that are robust to changing environmental, social, and economic pressures. Here we use conventional bioeconomic theory to demonstrate that inherent biological constraints combined with nonlinear supply-demand relationships can generate threshold effects due to harvesting. As a r...
Article
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The dynamic aspects of human harvesting behaviour are often overlooked in resource management, such that models often neglect the complexities of dynamic human effort. Some researchers have recognized this, and a recent push has been made to understand how human behaviour and ecological systems interact through dynamic social-ecological systems. He...
Article
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Understanding and conserving migratory species requires a method for characterizing the seasonal flow of animals among habitats. Source-sink theory describes the metapopulation dynamics of species by classifying habitats as population sources (i.e. net contributors) or sinks (i.e. net substractors). Migratory species may have non-breeding habitats...
Article
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Every year, migratory species undertake seasonal movements along different pathways between discrete regions and habitats. The ability to assess the relative demographic contributions of these different habitats and pathways to the species’ overall population dynamics is critical for understanding the ecology of migratory species, and also has prac...
Article
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Restoration of degraded landscapes has become necessary to reverse the pervasive threats from human exploitation. Restoration requires first the monitoring of progress towards any chosen goals to determine their resilience and persistence, and second to conduct in a comparable adjacent area but with less human impact the restoration of trophic stru...
Article
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Predator space use influences ecosystem dynamics, and a fundamental goal assumed for a foraging predator is to maximize encounter rate with prey. This can be achieved by disproportionately utilizing areas of high prey density or, where prey are mobile and therefore spatially unpredictable, utilizing patches of their prey's preferred resources. A th...
Article
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There is strenuous debate among ecologists regarding the inclusion of predator density into the originally prey-dependent functional response. We provided comprehensive empirical comparisons of alternative functional response models for the predatory ostracod Heterocypris incongruens (Ramdohr, 1808) and the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus (Pallas,...
Article
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Spatial self-organization can occur in many ecosystems with important effects on food web dynamics and the maintenance of biodiversity. The consumer-resource interaction is known to generate spatial patterning, but only a few empirical studies have investigated the effect of the consumer on resource distribution. Here we report results from a large...
Article
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Resource selection of herbivores is a complex ecological process that operates in relation to biological or non-biological factors, which may affect the feeding and movement, and subsequently their spatial distribution and environmental stress. Here, we estimated moose (Alces alces cameloides) resource selection for habitat variables and the effect...
Article
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The use of multiple working hypotheses to gain strong inference is widely promoted as a means to enhance the effectiveness of scientific investigation. Only 21 of 100 randomly selected studies from the ecological and evolutionary literature tested more than one hypothesis and only eight tested more than two hypotheses. The surprising rarity of appl...
Article
We would like to express our thanks to all commentators for their important and thought-provoking commentaries. We appreciate that commentators from a diverse array of expertise including mathematics [1], statistical physics and biological physics [2], biomathematics [1,3], computational and systems biology [4], evolutionary biology and ecology [5]...
Article
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Predicting the ecological responses to climate change is particularly challenging, because organisms might be affected simultaneously by the synergistic effects of multiple environmental stressors. Global warming is often accompanied by declining calcium concentration in many freshwater ecosystems. Although there is growing evidence that these chan...
Article
While collective decision-making is recognised as a significant contributor to fitness in social species, the opposite outcome is also logically possible. We show that collective movement decisions guided by individual bison sharing faulty information about habitat quality promoted the use of ecological traps. The frequent, but short-lived, associa...
Article
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Understanding carnivore distribution is important for management decisions that aim to restore naturally regulated ecosystems and preserve biodiversity. Eastern Wolves, a species at risk in Canada, are centralized in Algonquin Provincial Park and their ability to disperse and establish themselves elsewhere is limited by human-caused mortality assoc...
Article
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Habitat-based prediction of population density relies on relationships between landscape configuration (i.e., abundance of land-cover types) and equilibrium density. This may be accomplished by estimating resource selection probability functions (RSPFs) based on presence–absence data, or by relating carrying capacity to landscape covariates. We use...
Article
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Earth's surface temperatures are projected to increase by ~1–4°C over the next century, threatening the future of global biodiversity and ecosystem stability. While this has fueled major progress in the field of physiological trait responses to warming, it is currently unclear whether routine population monitoring data can be used to predict temper...
Data
Figure S1. Three possible temperature responses of maximum growth rate (r) and carrying capacity (K). Table S1. AIC scores for r‐ and K‐ temperature models.