John Frazer

John Frazer
University of Cambridge | Cam

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113
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1,401
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Publications

Publications (113)
Chapter
The title of this essay by John Frazer refers to an article by Gordon Pask, ‘The Architectural Relevance of Cybernetics’, published in the AD issue Design Augmented by Computers in 1969. In the late 1960s, cybernetics, system theory and electronic computers were seen primarily as tools to facilitate the logic of problem solving and decision making...
Data
Wayfinding, the ability to recall the environment and navigate through it, is an essential cognitive skill relied upon almost every day in a person's life. A crucial component of wayfinding is the construction of cognitive maps, mental representations of the environments through which a person travels. Age, disease or injury can severely affect cog...
Article
Full-text available
Emerging from the challenge to reduce energy consumption in buildings is the need for energy simulation to be used more effectively to support integrated decision making in early design. As a critical response to a Green Star case study, we present DEEPA, a parametric modeling framework that enables architects and engineers to work at the same sema...
Chapter
StandardsDesignDistributed systemsIntelligenceCommunicationStandards versus flexibilityAnalysis of current software capabilitiesIncluding clientsConclusion AcknowledgementsReferences
Conference Paper
Full-text available
There is a growing need for parametric design software that communicates building performance feedback in early architectural exploration to support decision-making. This paper examines how the circuit of design and analysis process can be closed to provide active and concurrent feedback between architecture and services engineering domains. It pre...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Emerging from the challenge to reduce energy consumption in buildings is a need for research and development into the more effective use of simulation as a decision-support tool. Despite significant research, persistent limitations in process and software inhibit the integration of energy simulation in early architectural design. This paper present...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
There is a need for decision support tools that integrate energy simulation into early design in the context of Australian practice. Despite the proliferation of simulation programs in the last decade, there are no ready-to-use applications that cater specifically for the Australian climate and regulations. Furthermore, the majority of existing too...
Article
Wayfinding, the ability to recall the environment and navigate through it, is an essential cognitive skill relied upon almost every day in a person's life. A crucial component of wayfinding is the construction of cognitive maps, mental representations of the environments through which a person travels. Age, disease or injury can severely affect cog...
Conference Paper
This paper argues a model of complex system design for sustainable architecture within a framework of entropy evolution. The spectrum of sustainable architecture consists of the efficient use of energy and material resource in life-cycle of buildings, the active involvement of the occupants in micro-climate control within buildings, and the natural...
Article
Sexual offending is a serious and growing problem in our society. The aim of the study was to investigate the main characteristics of people charged with sexual offences who presented before the criminal courts. The survey was conducted retrospectively between August 2001 and August 2006 on pre-trial court reports stored in a computer database shar...
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Full-text available
Decisions made in the earliest stage of architectural design have the greatest impact on the construction, lifecycle cost and environmental footprint of buildings. Yet the building services, one of the largest contributors to cost, complexity, and environmental impact, are rarely considered as an influence on the design at this crucial stage. In or...
Article
This chapter explores the development of concepts of interactive environments by comparing two major projects that frame the period of this book. The Fun Palace of 1960 and the Generator of 1980 both proposed interactive environments responsive to the needs and behaviour of their users, but the contrast in terms of the available technology and what...
Article
Shape or surface optimisation in product design is a very essential and time-consuming process, especially at the conceptual design stage. In this paper, we introduce a research project aiming to develop an evolutionary design system capable of evolving product shape designs that are easy to manufacture and satisfy the given geometric constraints....
Article
Abstract — This title is taken from an article by Gordon Pask in Architectural Design September 1969. It raises a number of questions which this article attempts to answer. How did Gordon come to be writing for an architectural publication? What was his contribution to architecture? How does he now come to be on the faculty of a school of architect...
Article
Buckminster Fuller was born into a non-conformist family in Milton, Massachusetts. Popularly known for his geodesic domes, these and other inventions are only a particular manifestation of his philosophy and approach to design.
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Frank Gehry has been at the forefront of those seeking to liberate architecture from the straitjacket of the arbitrary formalism of the rectilinear geometry and the jingoistic tedium of the dictum that 'form follows function' that dominated the modern movement of the twentieth century.
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Yeang pioneered a radically new climatically responsive architecture for the tropics which was to have a global influence on the debate about an ecologically responsible world architecture and which challenges the very notion of an 'international style'.
Article
Interactive Evolutionary Systems (IES) are capable of generating and evolving large numbers of alternative designs. When using such systems, users are continuously required to interact with the system by making evaluations and selections of the designs that are being generated and evolved. The evolutionary process is therefore led by the visual aes...
Article
I am suspicious of tools without a purpose - tools that are not developed in response to a clearly defined problem. Of course tools without a purpose can still be useful. However the development of first generation CAD was seriously impeded because the solution came before the problem. We are in danger of repeating this mistake if we do not clarify...
Article
This paper describes a comprehensive framework for generative evolutionary design. The key problem that is identified is generating alternative designs with an appropriate level of variability. Within the proposed framework, the design process is split into two phases: in the first phase, the design team develops and encodes the essential and ident...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper describes a comprehensive framework for generative evolutionary design. The key problem that is identified is generating alternative designs that vary in a controlled manner. Within the proposed framework, the design process is split into two phases: in the first phase, the design team develops and encodes the essential and identifiable...
Article
In this paper, we discuss recent developments in the ongoing implementation of a toolkit for developmental generative design and form-finding. We examine tissues of face-centered cubically close-packed voxel cells and topologically related structures for the possibility of 3D data conversion and of rapid prototyping applications. We also demonstrat...
Article
John Frazer trained as an architect in London and at Cambridge during the 1960s and 1970s. He identified at the very earliest stages of their development how the processing power of computers might assist the design process, and then tried to imagine the effects of this on the role of the architect, the client/user and the environment. For 30 years...
Article
The purpose of this paper is to investigate generative and evolutionary design models by the new idea of co-evolution. Multi-objective optimization is our main concern. A dynamic co-evolution model is presented with detailed description of its application in eco-conscious housing design. Area and solar constraints of housing design problems are con...
Article
This paper describes a comprehensive framework for generative evolutionary design. The key problem that is identified is generating alternative designs with an appropriate level of variability. Within the proposed framework, the design process is split into two phases: in the first phase, the design team develops and encodes the essential and ident...
Article
This chapter summarizes some key developments in the history of a unique "smart environment" the Universal Constructor. It concentrates on the system's function as a self-evaluating system for spatial modeling. The Universal Constructor aims at higher levels of abstracting the nature of architectural design.
Article
This paper describes a generative evolutionary design system that aims to fulfil two key requirements: customisability and scalability. Customisability is required in order to allow the design team to incorporate personalised and idiosyncratic rules and representations. Scalability is required in order to allow large complex designs to be generated...
Article
In this paper, we propose a multi-agent collaborative design system in which human designers and software agents interact with each other, exchange design information and keep track of state information to assist with collaborative design. The hierarchical multi-agent system architecture offers a promising framework with their novel approaches for...
Conference Paper
Increasingly complex design tasks and globally distributed designers require a design environment to be intelligent and collaboration-supported. However, as today's CAD tools are becoming more powerful in helping designers draw geometric graphs, they have little intelligence and weak capability in supporting design collaboration. In such a context,...
Article
In product design, sketches and images are strong devices for stimulating creativity. This paper presents a novel visual evolutionary computing environment to provide support for creative design. The 2D sketches and 3D images can be generated by combination of evolutionary computing technology and visualization technology in this environment. A tre...
Conference Paper
This paper proposes a software and hardware architecture for an evolutionary design exploration system for building design. First, the typical architecture for such systems is described. Certain limitations of this typical architecture are identified. The proposed architecture is then described and the advantages of this architecture are highlighte...
Article
This paper documents the empowering process of a group of public housing residents through different design probing exercises. These exercises worked along with existing social processes without any involvement of designers. This paper shows how a design researcher devised a series of probing tools called "empowerment games" with a group of active...
Chapter
The application of evolutionary algorithms in an aesthetic domain involves human subjective judgment and artificial selection. Evolutionary systems that facilitate this selection strategy are referred to as Interactive Evolutionary Systems (IES). One of the crucial problems for IES is that artificial selection is a time consuming process during whi...
Article
A novel CAD environment to generate free form curves and artistic flowers is presented. Mathematical expressions to form 2D generatrix and complex functions to form 3D artifacts are presented as binary trees with variables or constants contained in the leafs, and various operators, including trigonometric and hyperbolic functions contained in the i...
Article
This experimental study investigated how users perceived product form. The semantic differential (SD) method, cluster analysis and protocol analysis were employed to examine users' form perception of mobile phone samples with 20 subjects. The total number of samples was 75, and the image-word pairs were 20. Completed in computer by general statisti...
Article
This paper summarises the development of a machine-readable model series for explaining Gaudı́'s use of ruled-surface geometry in the Sagrada Familia in Barcelona, Spain. The first part discusses the modeling methods underlying the columns of the cathedral and the techniques required to translate them into built structures. The second part discusse...
Article
This paper summarises the development of a machine-readable model series for explaining Gaudi's use of ruled surface geometry in the Sagrada Familia in Barcelona, Spain. The first part discusses the modeling methods underlying the columns of the cathedral and the techniques required to translate them into built structures. The second part discusses...
Conference Paper
One of the problems in building collaborative and intelligent design systems is the difficulty in integrating Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Computer Supported Collaborative Work (CSCW) with design knowledge to generate results to the satisfaction of designers who often have high demands on aesthetics as well as scientific aspects of a supporting...
Article
Full-text available
The Cognitive Map Probe (CMP) is a novel TUI-based automatic cognitive assessment tool attempting to measure the cognitive mapping abilities of its users. The CMP uses a TUI-based environment we call Assessmentville in order to support natural acquisition and straightforward assessment of cognitive maps. The CMP assesses early Alzheimer Disease (AD...
Article
This paper presents a new surface reconstruction method based on complex form functions, genetic algorithms and neural networks. Surfaces can be reconstructed in an analytical representation format. This representation is optimal in the sense of least-square fitting by predefined subsets of data points. The surface representations are achieved by e...
Article
In this paper, evolution and visualization of the existence of saddle points of nonlinear functionals or multi-variable functions in finite dimensional spaces are presented. New algorithms are developed based on the mountain pass lemma and link thery in nonlinear analysis. Further more, a simple comparison of the steepest descent algorithm and the...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper we discuss recent developments in the ongoing implementation of a toolkit for developmental generative design and form finding. We examine tissues of face-centered cubically close-packed voxel cells and topologically related structures for the possibility of 3D data conversion and of rapid prototyping applications. We also demonstrate...
Article
The paper describes three design models that make use of generative and evolutionary systems. The models describe overall design methods and processes. Each model defines a set of tasks to be performed by the design team, and in each case one of the tasks requires a generative or evolutionary design system. The architectures of these systems are al...
Article
Existing computational design technologies are insufficiently developed to integrate the design activities during the product lifecycle. The main reason is three fold: inhomogeneous requirement, function and form definition in the general design context, ill nature of function-to-form mapping and difficulties of design synthesis with qualitative in...
Article
New architectures for next-generation of computer-aided design environments need to be distributed, evolutive, and cooperative. This paper presents a multi-agent design environment that supports cooperative and evolutionary design by cooperation of a group of agents. Multi-agent system architecture offers a promising framework with its novel approa...
Article
Design tools that aim not only to analyse and evaluate, but also to generate and explore alternative design proposals are now under development. An evolutionary paradigm is presented as a basis for creating such tools. First, the evolutionary paradigm is shown to be the only successful design system on which this new phase of design tool could be b...
Article
Book summary: Cyber Reader is an anthology of extracts from key texts related to the theme of cyberspace – the virtual communicative space created by digital technologies. Approaching the subject from a variety of fields, including science fiction, this book reflects the multidisciplinary basis of cyberspace and illustrates how different discipline...
Article
Previous work by Professor John Frazer on Evolutionary Architecture provides a basis for the development of a system evolving architectural envelopes in a generic and abstract manner. Recent research by the authors has focused on the implementation of a virtual environment for the automatic generation and exploration of complex forms and architectu...
Article
A computational framework for enhancing design in an evolutionary approach with a dynamic hierarchical structure is presented in this paper. This framework can be used as an evolutionary kernel for building computer-supported design systems. It provides computational components for generating, adapting and exploring alternative design solutions at...
Article
Facing with the difficulty in information propagation and synthesizing from conceptual to embodiment design, this paper introduces a function-oriented, axiom based conceptual modeling scheme. Default logic reasoning is exploited for recognition and reconstitution of conceptual product geometric and topological information. The proposed product mode...
Article
Creative Stimulator (CreaStim) is an intelligent interface for pattern design that behaves as a semiactive partner to human designers rather than as a passive graphical or computational tool. By making adjustments to psychological differentials and/or design parameters, CreaStim is able to help designers to explore innovative pattern designs and to...
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This paper presents a computational definition of design context and discusses its role for collaborative design. A brief review of design representation and modeling approaches is given first. This is followed by a discussion on the necessity for modeling design context in collaborative design. This discussion provides a basis for a definition of...
Article
Discusses the relation between cybernetics and architecture and pays tribute to Gordon Pask's role and influence. Indicates Pask's contribution to an increasingly environmentally responsive architectural theory that may lead to a more humane and ecologically conscious environment.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Cognitive Map Probe (CMP) is a novel Virtual Reality interface that attempts to assess the cognitive mapping abilities of its users. The CMP uses a tangible user interface (TUI) in order to support natural acquisition and straightforward assessment of cognitive maps. It is directed at the assessment of early Alzheimer Disease (AD) by measuring...
Article
Design is a complex problem solving and knowledge refinement process. Learning is a part of this process that can improve computer based design support systems by using the knowledge representing the experience and expertise of designers. Learning from past design examples, and acquiring new knowledge during the process of design are closely relate...
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Full-text available
Why is computer interaction using a 3D CAD (Computer Aided Design) tool such a hard task while an untrained child can easily build 3D buildings out of a LegoTM set? We believe that the reason lies in the current Human Computer interface (HCI). TUIs (Tangible User Interfaces) offer natural means of interaction with computers and have already been sh...
Conference Paper
This paper describes work on mapping from an abstract intelligent physical modelling system to a virtual modelling environment for design visualization. It also addresses related questions: Why is there a current revival of interest in these techniques? What is different now? Why use abstract representations? What were these systems for in the firs...
Article
Design as seen from the designer's perspective is a series of amazing imaginative jumps or creative leaps. But design as seen by the design historian, is a smooth progression or evolution of ideas that seems inevitable with hindsight. It is a characteristic of great ideas that they seem self-evident and inevitable after the event. But the next step...
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Full-text available
Tangible interfaces offer natural means of human computer interaction and have already been shown to simplify existing computerized applications and offer solutions for tasks that were considered to be "out of the scope" of human-computer interaction. We are currently perusing new applications for 3D geometry defining tangible interfaces. In this p...
Conference Paper
This a position paper outlining the way thinking about co-operative buildings has developed over the last 30 years. It does not attempt to review the field in an objective manner but summarises the particular viewpoint of the author by reviewing selected co-operative projects. Starting briefly with the author’s final year thesis, the paper touches...
Article
In "An Evolutionary Architecture", John Frazer presents an overview of his work for the past 30 years. Attempting to develop a theoretical basis for architecture using analogies with nature's processes of evolution and morphogenesis. Frazer's vision of the future of architecture is to construct organic buildings. Thermodynamically open systems whic...
Article
Leucine enkephalin (Leu-enk) was coupled to both T and B cell antibodies in order to investigate the possibility of enhanced immunogenicity via targeted immunization. The two antibodies used were Hm x Mo CD3 and Gt x Mo Ig, respectively. The data indicate that while both antibody carriers enhanced the immunogenicity of Leu-enk, the use of the Hm x...
Conference Paper
The paper first briefly reviews the development of geometrical design datastructures from simple locational geometry through to the inclusion of properties and materials and now to the inclusion of the design logic. It is argued that existing geometrical datastructures have severe limitations, distort the design process and are inhibiting the devel...
Chapter
This paper attempts to identify some of the characteristics of hardware and software which facilitate the introduction of computer-aided design. The paper begins by relating the background and experience of introducing computer-aided design techniques into an art and design college. Problems of suitable hardware and software are discussed and a jus...
Article
Generative systems are now being proposed for addressing major ecological problems. The Complex Urban Systems Project (CUSP) founded in 2008 at the Queensland University of Technology, emphasises the ecological significance of the generative global networking of urban environments. It argues that the natural planetary systems for balancing global e...
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Full-text available
The authors have been involved in the use of generative techniques for building envelope design since 1968 and the use of genetic algorithms since 1990. Recent work has focused on incorporating optimisation functions into form generating processes in order for new forms responding to varied design environments to be created and determined. This pap...
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Archigram exploded into the sleepy architectural world of the 1960s with an eponymous broadsheet that voiced frustration with the complacency and irrelevance of an architectural profession still building in the socially and technically irrelevant style of international modernism and disengaged from the explosive impact of the pop phenomena.
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This part provides one of the links to the sister book 'Evolutionary Design by Computers' (Morgan Kaufmann,1999) by returning to the subject of creative evolutionary design. As before, this part explores the abilities of evolution to aid designers by generating novel and "creative" design solutions. Here we see both types of creative evolutionary s...
Article
Full-text available
Although a current hot topic, tangible user interfaces (TUIs) have been studied for quite some time. One particular kind of TUI has been investigated repeatedly: during the past 20 years several groups have developed intelligent' building blocks that can self-describe the geometric structures into which they are assembled. These computational const...
Article
This paper describes the design, implementation and first application of a new haptic programming language design paradigm currently being developed at the School of Design of the Hong Kong Polytechnic University. This abstract toolkit provides means for flexible translations of tangible models into textual programs. It is most useful for learning...
Article
Design research must be concerned with providing industry with significant competitive advantages in product and process design by developing advanced design methods and computer-based design tools, techniques, systems ad applications that support the creation of reliable, high quality, cost-effective, innovation and competitive products. The Desig...
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Evolution and visualization of primitive as well as complex forms in a computer based enhanced design process is essential for designers to create and evaluate the concepts and 3D forms being generated. The issue is more complicated in a virtual environment where a full immersive and interactive effect is to be expected. This paper aims at developi...
Article
Design is a team effort in which groups of software agents and human designers work together. This paper presents an architecture of multi-agent cooperative design environment, design knowledge representation and learning algorithm. The purpose of investigation is to bridge the gap between existing AI-based design techniques and Internet techniques...
Article
Problems of communication in a global co-operative network are identified in relation to the lack of software support. The question of the context for design decisions in a collaborative design environment is explored. This raises broader issues of design knowledge representations in computer-based environment. For example, how are multiple conflic...
Article
Design as an intelligent behaviour has been the subject for researches in ArtificialIntelligence, Cognitive Sciences, Computer Sciences for several decades. Theemergence of a new field in computational design or design computing has an impact ondesign education, especially at postgraduate level. The Design Technology ResearchCentre in the School of...
Article
One of the problems in building collaborative and intelligent design systems is the difficulty in integrating Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Computer Supported Collaborative Work (CSCW) with design knowledge to generate results to the satisfaction of designers who often have high demands on aesthetics as well as scientific aspects of a supporting...

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