John M. Eadie

John M. Eadie
University of California, Davis | UCD · Department of Wildlife, Fish and Conservation Biology

Ph.D.

About

152
Publications
31,701
Reads
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Introduction
John M. Eadie currently works at the Department of Wildlife, Fish and Conservation Biology, University of California, Davis. John does research in waterfowl and wetland ecology & management, behavioral and population ecology, conservation biology and ornithology. One of his current projects focuses on the 'Ecology and evolution of female alternative reproductive tactics.'
Additional affiliations
July 1995 - September 2017
University of California, Davis
Position
  • Chair

Publications

Publications (152)
Article
Full-text available
The wing molt is an important annual life-history event that occurs in waterfowl and molt site selection can play an important role in determining survival. We tracked postbreeding movements of gadwall (Mareca strepera) and mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) females that bred in the Suisun Marsh (Suisun) of California, USA, to determine molt site selecti...
Article
Environmental contamination is widespread and can negatively impact wildlife health. Some contaminants, including heavy metals, have immunosuppressive effects, but prior studies have rarely measured contamination and disease simultaneously, which limits our understanding of how contaminants and pathogens interact to influence wildlife health. Here,...
Article
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Obligate brood parasites depend entirely on other species to raise their offspring. Most avian obligate brood parasites have altricial offspring that require enormous amounts of posthatching parental care, and the large fecundity boost that comes with complete emancipation from parental care likely played a role in the independent evolution of obli...
Article
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Did you know that many birds use the San Francisco Estuary like a hotel, to rest during their long migrations? The Estuary is a major stopover on the Pacific Flyway—a huge path for migrating birds that runs from South America to the Arctic Circle! Tons of waterfowl (ducks, geese, and shorebirds) make this journey every year. On this long, harsh jou...
Article
Agricultural waste grains are significant for providing nutrients for wintering waterfowl in California. Rice and corn comprise 56% of their nutrient needs in the Central Valley and changes to agricultural practices, such as post-harvest treatments, could impact these food resources. Currently, there is limited data on how post-harvest treatments i...
Article
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In 2020, the fire season affecting the western United States reached unprecedented levels. The 116 fires active in September consumed nearly 20,822 km2 (https://inciweb.nwcg.gov/accessible‐view/ Accessed 2020‐09‐29) with eighty percent of this footprint (16,567 km2) from 68 fires occurring within California, Oregon, and Washington. Although the 202...
Article
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Identifying migration routes and fall stopover sites of Cinnamon Teal (Spatula cyanoptera septentrionalium) can provide a spatial guide to management and conservation efforts, and address vulnerabilities in wetland networks that support migratory waterbirds. Using high spatiotemporal resolution GPS-GSM transmitters, we analyzed 61 fall migration tr...
Article
Modern genetic parentage methods reveal that alternative reproductive strategies are common in both males and females. Under ideal conditions, genetic methods accurately connect the parents to offspring produced by extra‐pair matings or conspecific brood parasitism. However, some breeding systems and sampling scenarios present significant complicat...
Article
Extreme changes to key waterfowl habitats in the Klamath Basin (KB) on the Oregon–California border and the Sacramento Valley (SV) in California, USA, have occurred since 1980. The spatial distribution of Pacific greater white‐fronted geese (Anser albifrons sponsa; geese) has likewise changed among these areas and population size has grown from 79,...
Article
The black-headed duck (Heteronetta atricapilla) of South America is the only known avian obligate brood parasite with precocial offspring. In Argentina, it relies on two species of coots as primary hosts, which typically reject 35–65% of duck eggs. We show that environmentally driven increases in host egg rejection behavior lead to substantial redu...
Article
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Birds may use a variety of cues to select a nest site, including external information on habitat structure and nest site characteristics, or they may rely instead on social information obtained directly or indirectly from the actions of conspecifics. We used an experimental manipulation to determine the extent to which a California population of th...
Article
Research into plumage ornaments and plumage signals of individual state has focused primarily on males, while variation among females has received far less attention. White patches of plumage around the eye (eye patches) are a female-specific plumage trait in the wood duck, Aix sponsa, a sexually dimorphic species of cavity-nesting waterfowl in Nor...
Preprint
Birds may use a variety of cues to select a nest site, including external information on habitat structure and nest site characteristics, or they may rely instead on social information obtained directly or indirectly from the actions of conspecifics. We used an experimental manipulation to determine the extent to which a California population of th...
Article
Wildlife professionals are tasked with sustainably managing habitats and wildlife for the benefit of a variety of stakeholders, and hunters are an important user group. But the number of hunters in North America has continued to decline, and as a result, new wildlife professionals entering the field are less likely to be hunters than their predeces...
Article
Full-text available
Interspecific hybridization is recognized as an important process in the evolutionary dynamics of both speciation and the reversal of speciation. However, our understanding of the spatial and temporal patterns of hybridization that erode versus promote species boundaries is incomplete. The endangered, endemic koloa maoli (or Hawaiian duck, Anas wyv...
Article
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Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology has been broadly applied in the biological sciences to yield new insights into behavior, cognition, population biology, and distributions. RFID systems entail wireless communication between small tags that, when stimulated by an appropriate radio frequency transmission, emit a weak, short-range wirel...
Article
A study of a cuckoo species that usually shows cooperative nesting behaviour, but sometimes cheats at parenthood by laying eggs in others’ nests, reveals the benefits that have shaped the evolution of this parasitic tactic. How a cheating tactic evolved in cooperatively breeding cuckoos.
Article
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As global climate changes, there is increasing need to understand how changes in the frequencies of environmental variability affect populations. Age-structured populations have recently been shown to filter specific frequencies of environmental variability, favoring generational frequencies, and very low frequencies, a phenomenon known as cohort r...
Article
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Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) are the most abundant breeding waterfowl species in California and are important to waterfowl hunters in the state. California is unique among major North American wintering waterfowl areas, in that most mallards harvested in California are also produced in California, meaning that California must provide both high qua...
Article
Changes in climate, vegetation, and land use are recognized as important drivers of changes in the distribution and abundance of wildlife. However, the behavioral and demographic mechanisms through which these changes affect populations have received less attention. Identifying these mechanisms is an important component of predicting the impacts of...
Article
The North American Waterfowl Management Plan (NAWMP) has established a model for wildlife conservation planning over the last 3 decades. Management at a continental scale, leveraged funding, regional partnerships, and a strong science basis have been notable features. Periodic updates to the NAWMP occurred since implementation in 1986; however, a f...
Article
Waterfowl monitoring, research, regulation, and adaptive planning are leading the way in supporting science-informed wildlife management. However, increasing societal demands on natural resources have created a greater need for adaptable and successful linkages between waterfowl science and management. We presented a special session at the 2016 Nor...
Article
One of the fundamental decisions foragers face is how long an individual should remain in a given foraging location. Typical approaches to modeling this decision are based on the marginal value theorem. However, direct application of this theory would require omniscience regarding food availability. Even with complete knowledge of the environment,...
Article
Although ducks have long been popular research subjects in both North America and Europe, geographical divergences in research orientation have developed during the past several decades for studying foraging ecology. In North America, foraging studies largely focused on the population level with an emphasis on foraging energetics aimed at improving...
Chapter
Full-text available
Conspecific brood parasitism (CBP) resembles interspecific brood parasitism, except that parasitic females lay eggs in the nests of conspecifics. CBP is a female alternative reproductive behavior, and understanding its evolution requires a life history approach. We review studies that investigate life history aspects of CBP. One or more life histor...
Article
Many avian species are behaviorally-plastic in selecting nest sites, and may shift to new locations or habitats following an unsuccessful breeding attempt. If there is predictable spatial variation in predation risk, the process of many individuals using prior experience to adaptively change nest sites may scale up to create shifting patterns of ne...
Article
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The Florida mottled duck (Anas fulvigula fulvigula) is threatened by introgression through hybridization with feral mallards (A. platyrhynchos). An essential component in managing this threat is the ability to accurately distinguish mottled ducks from mallards and hybrids in the wild. We provide a genetically cross-validated phenotype key that accu...
Article
We evaluated the contribution of interspecific interactions, intraspecific processes, and environmental forcing to variation in species' abundance in a habitat undergoing rapid successional change. We applied a Bayesian hierarchical approach to a 29-yr time series of territory density of seven landbird species at a site in coastal California where...
Article
Studies of avian nest success often focus on examining influences of variation in environmental and seasonal factors. However, in-depth evaluations can also incorporate variation in individual incubation behaviour to further advance our understanding of avian reproductive ecology. We examined these relationships in colonially nesting Black-crowned...
Article
Edge effects on nesting success have been documented in breeding birds in a variety of contexts, but there is still uncertainty in how edge type and spatial scale determine the magnitude and detectability of edge effects. Habitat edges are often viewed as predator corridors that surround or penetrate core habitat and increase the risk of predation...
Article
Parental incubation behavior largely influences nest survival, a critical demographic process in avian population dynamics, and behaviors vary across species with different life history breeding strategies. Although research has identified nest survival advantages of mixing colonies, behavioral mechanisms that might explain these effects is largely...
Article
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With a rapidly changing climate, there is an increasing need to predict how species will respond to changes in the physical environment. One approach is to use historic data to estimate the past influence of environmental variation on important demographic parameters and then use these relationships to project the abundance of a population or speci...
Article
Distinguishing between interspecific and intraspecific coevolution as the selective driver of traits can be difficult in some taxa. A previous study of an avian obligate brood parasite, the black-headed duck, Heteronetta atricapilla, suggested that egg rejection by its two main hosts (two species of coot) is an incidental by-product of selection fr...
Article
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Speciation is regarded primarily as a bifurcation from an ancestral species into two distinct taxonomic units, but gene flow can create different signals of phylogenetic relationships among different loci. We evaluated several hypotheses that could account for phylogenetic discord between mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and nuclear DNA (nuDNA) within Haw...
Article
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The chapters in this volume of Studies in Avian Biology reflect the burgeoning interest in sea ducks, both as study species with compelling and unique ecological attributes and as taxa of conservation concern. In this review, we provide perspective on the current state of sea duck knowledge by highlighting key findings in the preceding chapters tha...
Article
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Sea ducks in tribe Mergini exhibit a wide range of spacing, breeding, and broodrearing behaviors and have provided important insights in both theoretical and applied behavioral ecology. The strength, timing, and duration of pairing vary among species. Longterm pair bonds of more than one year are common but the proportion of birds that repair annua...
Book
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People have long been fascinated by sea ducks because of their spectacular courtship displays, brightly colored and patterned plumage, remarkable variation in life history traits, remote northern breeding locations, unique migrations, and the many mysteries that remain about their ecology and behavior. However, the past decade has witnessed a drama...
Article
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A particular aim of avian ecologists, especially those studying waterfowl Anatidae, in the 20th and early 21st centuries has been to elucidate how organisms use habitats and intrinsic resources to survive, reproduce and ultimately affect fitness. For much of the 20th century, research was mainly on studying species during the breeding season; howev...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background/Question/Methods One of the best known adaptive habitat selection rules is the win-stay, lose-shift rule of thumb that many bird species appear to use to select nest sites in consecutive years. While this is an individual behavior, it may be possible to detect shifting patterns of nest density and predation risk at a population level....
Article
Full-text available
A growing collection of mtDNA genetic information from waterfowl species across North America suggests that larger-bodied cavity-nesting species exhibit greater levels of population differentiation than smaller-bodied congeners. Although little is known about nest-cavity availability for these species, one hypothesis to explain differences in popul...
Article
Since the nineteenth century, much of Suisun Marsh has been managed for waterfowl hunting. The marsh supports among the highest densities of breeding ducks in the world. Ducks banded in the marsh are recovered throughout the Pacific Flyway and North America. The marsh annually hosts over 60,000 wintering waterfowl, but current waterfowl abundance i...
Article
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The impacts of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) on the ecology of the northeast Pacific are well known. However, recently there has been a shift in the dominance of El Niño events from the eastern Pacific (canonical) El Niño, to the central Pacific (Modoki) El Niño, concurrent with a strengthening of...
Article
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Confronted with a rapidly changing world and limited resources for conservation, ecologists are increasingly challenged with predicting the impact of climate and land-use change on wildlife. A common approach is to use habitat-suitability models (HSMs) to explain aspects of species' occurrence, such as presence, abundance, and distribution, utilizi...
Article
Wide-ranging marine birds rely on multiple habitats for wintering, breeding, and migrating, and their conservation may be dependent on protecting networks of key areas. Urbanized estuaries are critical wintering and stopover areas for many declining sea ducks in North America; however, conservation measures within estuaries are difficult to establi...
Article
Full-text available
A growing collection of mtDNA genetic information from waterfowl species across North America suggests that largerbodied cavity-nesting species exhibit greater levels of population differentiation than smaller-bodied congeners. Although little is known about nest-cavity availability for these species, one hypothesis to explain differences in popula...
Article
A growing collection of mtDNA genetic information from waterfowl species across North America suggests that larger- bodied cavity-nesting species exhibit greater levels of population differentiation than smaller-bodied congeners. Although little is known about nest-cavity availability for these species, one hypothesis to explain differences in popu...
Article
Full-text available
Population-based habitat conservation planning for migrating and wintering waterfowl in North America is carried out by habitat Joint Venture (JV) initiatives and is based on the premise that food can limit demography (i.e. food limitation hypothesis). Consequently, planners use bioenergetic models to estimate food (energy) availability and populat...
Article
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In 2007, several important initiatives in the North American waterfowl management community called for an integrated approach to habitat and harvest management. The essence of the call for integration is that harvest and habitat management affect the same resources, yet exist as separate endeavours with very different regulatory contexts. A common...
Article
Full-text available
Conspecific brood parasitism (CBP) occurs in various insects, fishes and birds, but it is disproportionately common in waterfowl (Anatidae). Studies of CBP in Anatids therefore have helped to develop a fundamental conceptual framework with which to explain this intriguing behaviour. Yom-Tov (1980) first drew attention to CBP, and Andersson and Erik...
Article
Juvenile survival is often found to be more sensitive than adult survival to variation in environmental conditions, and variation in juvenile survival can have significant impacts on population growth rates and viability. Therefore, understanding the population-level effects of environmental changes requires understanding the effects on juvenile su...
Article
Few studies have quantitatively projected changes in demography in response to climate change, yet doing so can provide important insights into the processes that may lead to population declines and changes in species distributions. Using a long-term mark-recapture data set, we examined the influence of multiple direct and indirect effects of weath...
Article
Full-text available
The Black-headed Duck (Heteronetta atricapilla) is unique among obligate avian brood parasites because its highly precocial young leave the host nest shortly after hatching and impose no post-hatching costs on their hosts. Accordingly, we might expect host-parasite interactions in this parasite to differ strikingly from those of other brood parasit...
Article
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The management of North American waterfowl is widely recognized as a premier example of a successful conservation program. Conservation managers on the wintering grounds typically use simple estimates of food availability and population-wide cumulative energy demand to determine how many birds can be supported on a given landscape. When attempting...
Article
Density‐dependent population regulation is observed in many taxa, and understanding the mechanisms that generate density dependence is especially important for the conservation of heavily‐managed species. In one such system, North American waterfowl, density dependence is often observed at continental scales, and nest predation has long been implic...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background/Question/Methods In the central California Current, annual productivity is primarily determined by the wind-driven upwelling of nutrients. In this bottom-up system, we expect parallel trends in productivity across trophic levels. For this study, we utilized 41 years of data from the Farallon Islands in California, to examine recent con...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods The survival of juveniles to reproductive age is a critical component of population dynamics, and variation in juvenile survival can have significant impacts on population growth rates and contribute to population declines. A growing number of studies on the initial post-fledging period in passerines have shown that su...
Article
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We studied the association between space sharing and kinship in a solitary rodent, the dusky-footed woodrat (Neotoma fuscipes). Genetic relatedness was inversely correlated with geographic distance for female woodrats but not for males, a pattern consistent with female philopatry and male dispersal. However, some female neighbors were unrelated, su...
Article
We developed and evaluated the performance of a metapopulation model enabling managers to examine, for the first time, the consequences of alternative management strategies involving habitat conditions and hunting on both harvest opportunity and carrying capacity (i.e., equilibrium population size in the absence of harvest) for migratory waterfowl...
Article
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When nest predation levels are very high or very low, the absolute range of observable nest success is constrained (a floor/ceiling effect), and it may be more difficult to detect density-dependent nest predation. Density-dependent nest predation may be more detectable in years with moderate predation rates, simply because there can be a greater ab...
Article
Conspecific brood parasites lay their eggs in the nests of other females in the same population, leading to a fascinating array of possible games among parasites and their hosts (Davies 2000; Lyon & Eadie 2008). Almost 30 years ago, Andersson & Eriksson (1982) first suggested that perhaps this form of parasitism was not what it seemed-indeed, perha...
Article
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We evaluated predation on nests and methods to detect predators using a combination of infrared cameras and plasticine eggs at nests of American avocets (Recurvirosta americana) and black-necked stilts (Himantopus mexicanus) in Don Edwards San Francisco Ray National Wildlife Refuge, San Mateo and Santa Clara counties, California. Each technique ind...
Article
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Foraging behavior of six Anas species was studied during autumn at Long Point Bay. southwestern Ontario. Data were collected using Cody's technique, but statistical analyses identified significant differences among species that could not be discerned from qualitative examination of foraging-behavior curves alone. A relationship between similarity i...