John Crowe

John Crowe
University of California, Davis | UCD · Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology

PhD

About

290
Publications
29,592
Reads
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28,534
Citations
Citations since 2016
2 Research Items
5832 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220200400600800
20162017201820192020202120220200400600800
20162017201820192020202120220200400600800
20162017201820192020202120220200400600800
Additional affiliations
April 1970 - present
University of California, Davis
Position
  • Professor Emeritus

Publications

Publications (290)
Article
Dr. Serge N. Timasheff, our mentor and friend, passed away in 2019. This article is a collection of tributes from his postdoctoral fellows, friends, and daughter, who all have been associated with or influenced by him or his research. Dr. Timasheff is a pioneer of research on thermodynamic linkage between ligand interaction and macromolecular react...
Article
Several approaches to the preservation of biological materials at ambient temperature and the relative impact on sample stability and degradation are reviewed, with a focus on nucleic acids. This appraisal is undertaken within the framework of biobank risk, quality management systems, and accreditation, with a view to assessing how best to apply am...
Chapter
Anhydrobiosis (Life Without Water) has been known for millennia, but the underlying mechanisms have not been understood until recent decades, and we have achieved only a partial understanding. One of the chief sites of damage from dehydration is membranes, and we and others have provided evidence that this damage may be obviated by the production o...
Article
The paper in this issue of Plant, Cell & Environment by Cruz de Carvalho et al. (2014) is a contribution to our understanding of the fundamental mechanisms underlying anhydrobiosis ("life without water"). Investigations on this phenomenon have a long history, dating back to the time of Leeuwenhoek (see Keilin, 1959, for a fascinating, scholarly rev...
Article
It has been a dream of workers in the field of blood cell preservation to find a way to store the cells in a freeze-dried state. In this short symposium we will present results showing that we are getting close to realizing that possibility. We have been taking an unusual approach, utilizing what has been learned from the chemistry of organisms tha...
Article
This presentation will be a summary of work by a large number of laboratories on vitrification and preservation of biological materials, with special attention to the anhydrous state. Some novel methods for measuring glass transitions will be discussed, along with studies on characteristics of glasses above and below the glass transition. Consequen...
Chapter
T rehalose is a disaccharide of glucose that is found at high concentrations in a wide variety of organisms that naturally survive drying in nature. Many years ago we reported that this molecule has the remarkable ability to stabilize membranes and proteins in the dry state. A mechanism for the stabilization rapidly emerged, and it was sufficiently...
Article
Full-text available
We have found that incubation in lactose solutions (0.75 M) of yeast culture Saccharomyces cerevisiae sensitive to dehydration damage increased the stability of the cells during dehydration. Simultaneously with this increase in viability, a decrease in plasma membrane permeability during rehydration was seen. Using Fourier transform infrared spectr...
Article
Full-text available
Membrane properties and the overall protein secondary structure of freeze-dried trehalose-loaded mouse platelets were studied using steady state fluorescence anisotropy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). FTIR results showed that fresh control mouse platelets have a main phase transition at approximately 14 degrees C, whereas, freez...
Article
There has been ample debate on whether cell membranes can present macroscopic lipid domains as predicted by three-component phase diagrams obtained by fluorescence microscopy. Several groups have argued that membrane proteins and interactions with the cytoskeleton inhibit the formation of large domains. In contrast, some polarizable cells do show l...
Article
Full-text available
![Figure][1] The brine shrimp, Artemia salina , produces encysted embryos that are capable of surviving complete dehydration – or at least as complete as is technically feasible; according to the best measurements available, they can be reduced to <0.007 g water g–1 dry mass ([Clegg, 1978
Article
Full-text available
Trehalose is a disaccharide of glucose that is found at high concentrations in a wide variety of organisms that naturally survive drying in nature. Many years ago we reported that this molecule has the remarkable ability to stabilize membranes and proteins in the dry state. A mechanism for the stabilization rapidly emerged, and it was sufficiently...
Article
In situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used in order to obtain more insights in the underlying protective mechanisms upon freezing and drying of ABA-treated tissues of the moss Physcomitrella patens. The effects of different treatments on the membrane phase behaviour, glassy state, and overall protein secondary structure were st...
Chapter
T rehalose is a disaccharide of glucose that is found at high concentrations in a wide variety of organisms that naturally survive drying in nature. Many years ago we reported that this molecule has the remarkable ability to stabilize membranes and proteins in the dry state. A mechanism for the stabilization rapidly emerged, and it was sufficiently...
Article
Full-text available
Long-term storage of platelets (PLTs) in the dry state would greatly improve options for PLT storage. Whether trehalose-loaded freeze-dried and rehydrated PLTs could regulate intracellular pH (pHi) was evaluated. Previously it was shown that human PLTs can be successfully preserved by freeze-drying with trehalose. Trehalose-loaded freeze-dried rehy...
Article
CANARY cells are genetically engineered murine B cells that serve as a rapid detection system for various infectious pathogens. We are attempting to produce a stable dehydrated cellular product to make this system practical. A major source of damage to these cells during drying was identified as apoptosis. Trehalose, which protects mammalian cells...
Article
The plasma membrane of sperm can undergo lipid phase separation during freezing, resulting in irreversible damage to the cell. The objective of our study was to examine the membrane phase behavior of equine spermatozoa in the absence and presence of lipid-based cryoprotectants. Biophysical properties of sperm membranes were investigated with Fourie...
Article
In a previous report [Z. Török, G. Satpathy, M. Banerjee, R. Bali, E. Little, R. Novaes, H. Van Ly, D. Dwyre, A. Kheirolomoom, F. Tablin, J.H. Crowe, N.M. Tsvetkova, Preservation of trehalose loaded red blood cells by lyophilization, Cell Preservation Technol. 3 (2005) 96-111.], we presented a method for preserving human red blood cells (RBCs) by l...
Article
Full-text available
The potential for use of human mesenchymal stem cells in regenerative medicine has been widely discussed, because these cells are capable of differentiating into bone, muscle, cartilage, adipose, and possibly neural tissues. However, current storage methods could limit the accessibility of stem cell therapy. At present, cells must be stored frozen...
Article
Full-text available
The Center for Biostabilization at UC Davis is attempting to stabilize mammalian cells in the dry state. We review here some of the lessons from nature that we have been applying to this enterprise, including the use of trehalose, a disaccharide found at high concentrations in many anhydrobiotic organisms, to stabilize biological structures, both i...
Article
Stabilization of living cells during dehydration could facilitate the storage and transport of nucleated cells. HeLa cells, known for their resilience and insensitivity to environmental stresses, provide a useful platform for the investigation of resistance to dehydration-induced damage. HeLa cells from two sources [the American Type Culture Collec...
Article
The ability to desiccate mammalian cells while maintaining a high degree of viability would be very important in many areas of biological science, including tissue engineering, cell transplantation, and biosensor technologies. Certain proteins and sugars found in animals capable of surviving desiccation might aid this process. We report here that h...
Article
Full-text available
A method for freeze-drying red blood cells (RBCs) while maintaining high viability has important implications in blood transfusion and clinical medicine. RBCs loaded with the disaccharide trehalose can be freeze-dried in a formulation of hydroxyethyl starch, human serum albumin, and trehalose to residual water contents between 2% and 4%. Rehydratio...
Article
Maintenance of intracellular pH, a critical cellular function, is required for generation of proton gradients and platelet response to agonist. Previously, we have demonstrated that freeze-dried rehydrated platelets are able to respond to agonists generate a rise in intracellular calcium (Auh et al. 2004 Calcium mobilization in freeze-dried platele...
Article
Sphingomyelin and cholesterol rich platelet membrane domains are organized into lipid rafts, which are present in the liquid ordered state, and which have been suggested to be key membrane components both during cold-induced human platelet activation (Gousset et al. 2002 Evidence for a physiological role for membrane rafts in human platelets. J. Ce...
Article
A 3 year old Thoroughbred horse presented to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital with a three week history of bleeding. Clinical laboratory findings showed normal complete blood count including a normal platelet count. In addition the horse had normal prothrombin and partial thromboplastin times, as well as normal coagulation factors. These data sugge...
Article
A method for freeze-drying red blood cells (RBCs) while maintaining a high degree of viability, has important implications in blood transfusion and clinical medicine. The disaccharide trehalose, found in animals capable of surviving dehydration can aid in this process. We are reporting a method for loading RBCs with trehalose followed by subsequent...
Article
Post-rehydration membrane properties are an important indicator of effective freeze-drying of mammalian blood cells. In general, cellular membranes are extremely susceptible to damage during freezing and drying. The disaccharide trehalose, naturally occurring in anhydrobiotic organisms, has been shown to prevent such damage through direct interacti...
Article
A wide variety of medical procedures require transfusion of red blood cells (RBCs). RBCs are currently preserved either at 4°C, at a higher hematocrit (70%) for up to 7–12 weeks or in a frozen state in the presence of glycerol at −80°C for several years. However, each procedure has its demerits. Storage in the dry state offers a possibility for sto...
Article
The in-situ thermal protein denaturation and its correlation with direct hyperthermic cell injury in Dunning AT-1 prostate tumor cells were investigated. The in situ thermal protein denaturation was studied using both Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The FTIR spectra at different temperatur...
Article
Full-text available
A method for freeze-drying red blood cells (RBCs) while maintaining a high degree of viability has important implications in blood transfusion and clinical medicine. The disaccharide trehalose, found in animals capable of surviving dehydration can aid in this process. As a first step toward RBC preservation, we present a method for loading RBCs wit...
Article
In previous studies, we reported on a freeze-drying protocol for human platelets, using trehalose as the main lyophilization protectant. Using this protocol, we investigated calcium mobilization in rehydrated platelets upon stimulation with thrombin and the ability of rehydrated platelets to bind fibrinogen. Calcium mobilization was measured with a...
Article
Recent advances in the stabilization of eukaryotic cells during desiccation provide possibilities for present and future pharmaceutical and biomedical applications. Such applications require strict adherence to sterility. Devices for the sterile processing of biological samples during drying and rehydration are lacking, however. An ideal device sui...
Chapter
Full-text available
SYNOPSIS. The Center for Biostabilization at UC Davis is attempting to stabilize mammalian cells in the dry state. We review here some of the lessons from nature that we have been applying to this enterprise, including the use of trehalose, a disaccharide found at high concentrations in many anhydrobiotic organisms, to stabilize biological structur...
Article
Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to study the hydrogen-bonding interactions that take place in vitrified carbohydrates of different chain lengths. The band position of the OH stretching band (vOH) and the shift in band position as a function of temperature were determined from the FTIR spectra as indicators for the length and...
Article
It has been well established that sugars can be used to stabilize liposomes during drying by a mechanism that involves the formation of a glassy state by the sugars as well as by a direct interaction between the sugar and the phospholipid head groups. We have investigated the protective effect of phosphate on solute retention and storage stability...
Article
Full-text available
Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have shown great promise in the area of tissue engineering. Regardless of their regenerative potential, however, they will not be useful on a large scale unless an improved and more stable form of cellular storage is developed. An ideal storage condition would be dehydrated cells, as this would allow room tempera...
Article
Full-text available
Anhydrobiosis (Life Without Water) has been known for millennia, but the underlying mechanisms have not been understood until recent decades, and we have achieved only a partial understanding. One of the chief sites of damage from dehydration is membranes, and we and others have provided evidence that this damage may be obviated by the production o...
Article
When human platelets are chilled below 20 degrees C, they undergo cold-induced activation. We have previously shown that cold activation correlates with the main phospholipid phase transition (10-20 degrees C) and induces the formation of large raft aggregates. In addition, we found that the glycoprotein CD36 is selectively enriched within detergen...
Article
Lipid domains are acquiring increasing importance in our understanding of the regulation of several key functions in living cells. We present here a discussion of the physical mechanisms driving the phase separation of membrane lipid components that make up these domains, including phase behavior of the lipids and the role of cholesterol. In additi...
Article
The effect of four synthetic analogues of the 37-residue winter flounder type I antifreeze protein (AFP), which contain four Val, Ala or Ile residues in place of Thr residues at positions 2, 13, 24 and 37 and two additional salt bridges, on the binary lipid system prepared from a 1:1 mixture of the highly unsaturated DGDG and saturated DMPC has bee...
Article
ADAM's have various roles in intercellular adhesion and are thought to function by binding integrins through a 13 amino acid motif called the disintegrin loop. Xenopus laevis sperm express the protein ADAM 16, and peptides with the sequence of its disintegrin loop cause downstream events in eggs that require a rise in intracellular calcium similar...
Article
Full-text available
Temperature-controlled atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been used to visualize and study the structure and kinetics of ripple phases in one-component dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and two-component dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine-distearoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC-DSPC) lipid bilayers. The lipid bilayers are mica-supported double bilayers...
Article
In previous studies we have shown that platelets take up low molecular weight molecules from the medium by fluid phase endocytosis, a phenomenon that we previously have used to load trehalose into human platelets, after which we have successfully freeze-dried them. We now extend those findings to a species to be used in animal trials of freeze-drie...
Article
Mixing and thermal behavior of hydrated and air-dried mixtures of 1,2-dilauroyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DLPC) and 1,2-distearoyl-d70-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DSPCd-70) in the absence and presence of trehalose were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Mixtures of DLPC:DSPCd-70 (1:1) that were air-dried at 25 degrees C sh...
Article
Full-text available
The hydroxylamine derivative bimoclomol (BM) has been shown to activate natural cytoprotective homeostatic responses by enhancing the capability of cells to cope with various pathophysiological conditions. It exerts its effect in synergy with low levels of stress to induce the synthesis of members of major stress protein families. We show here that...
Article
Human blood platelets are normally stored in blood banks for 3-5 days, after which they are discarded. We have launched an effort at developing means for preserving the platelets for long term storage. In previous studies we have shown that trehalose can be used to preserve biological membranes and proteins during drying and have provided evidence...
Article
Direct visualization of the fluid-phase/ordered-phase domain structure in mica-supported bilayers composed of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine/1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine mixtures is performed with atomic force microscopy. The system studied is a double bilayer supported on a mica surface in which the top bilayer (which is...
Article
Microdomains known as "rafts" have been isolated from many cell types as detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs) and are enriched in sphingolipids and cholesterol. However, there has been considerable controversy over whether such domains are found in native membranes or are artificially generated by the purification procedure. This controversy is bas...
Article
Full-text available
Thermal stress in living cells produces multiple changes that ultimately affect membrane structure and function. We report that two members of the family of small heat-shock proteins (sHsp) (alpha-crystallin and Synechocystis HSP17) have stabilizing effects on model membranes formed of synthetic and cyanobacterial lipids. In anionic membranes of di...
Article
We have examined the effects of combinations between egg-phosphatidylcholine (EPC) or dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) liposomes with either bovine spermatozoa or oocytes on cellular chilling sensitivity, lipid phase transition temperature (T(m)), and the ability of the oocytes to develop to the blastocyst stage. Spermatozoa and oocytes were e...
Article
Defining the process of cellular injury during freezing, at the molecular level, is important for cryosurgical applications. This work shows changes to both membrane lipids and protein structures within AT-1 Dunning prostate tumor cells after a freezing stress which induced extreme injury and cell death. Cells were frozen in an uncontrolled fashion...
Article
Full-text available
Storage of platelets remains a major problem for blood banks. In this study we describe the development of a lyophilization protocol for platelet concentrates obtained from a blood bank. In previous studies with small samples we reported some considerable success. We now confirm those earlier results, extend them to platelet concentrates, and scale...
Article
Full-text available
Even though water is required for the maintenance of biological integrity, numerous organisms are capable of surviving loss of virtually all their cellular water and existing in a state known as anhydrobiosis. Over the past three decades we and others have established that disaccharides such as trehalose and sucrose are almost certainly involved in...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this study was to determine if trehalose can effectively enhance the viability and storage lifetime of Rhizobium tropici and Rhizobium etli after lyophilization as compared to the traditional protective combination of sucrose and peptone. Two strains of bean-nodulating rhizobia were effectively preserved in the lyophilized state by...
Article
Full-text available
Plants and animals that can survive dehydration accumulate high concentrations of disaccharides in their cells and tissues during desiccation. These sugars are necessary both for the depression of the membrane phase transition temperature of the dry lipid and for the formation of a carbohydrate glass. In the past decade, however, it has become clea...
Article
Using what has been learned from nature, it has become possible to stabilize biological structures, including intact cells, in the dry state. Stabilization of cells or tissues in the dried state is of considerable practical significance, as is described in this review. The need for stabilization of cells in the dried state is particularly urgent in...
Article
Full-text available
Polar fish, cold hardy plants, and overwintering insects produce antifreeze proteins (AFPs), which lower the freezing point of solutions noncolligatively and inhibit ice crystal growth. Fish AFPs have been shown to stabilize membranes and cells in vitro during hypothermic storage, probably by interacting with the plasma membrane, but the mechanism...
Article
Antifreeze glycoproteins from the Greenland cod Boreogadus saida were dimethylated at the N-terminus (m*AFGP) and their dynamics and conformational properties were studied in the presence of ice using (13)C-NMR and FTIR spectroscopy. (13)C-NMR experiments of m*AFGP in D(2)O, in H(2)O, and of freeze-dried m*AFGP were performed as a function of tempe...
Article
Full-text available
Membrane fluidity and overall protein secondary structure of human erythrocytes were studied in situ using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Erythrocyte membranes were found to have weakly cooperative phase transitions at 14 degrees C and at 34 degrees C, which were tentatively assigned to the melting of the inner membrane leaflet and...
Article
We have investigated raft formation in human platelets in response to cell activation. Lipid phase separation and domain formation were detected using the fluorescent dye 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethyl-indocarbocyanine perchlorate (diI-C(18)) that preferentially partitions into gel-like lipid domains. We showed that when human platelets are...
Conference Paper
In this study, the in situ protein denaturation in Dunning AT-1 rat prostate cells was studied using FTIR and DSC. The denaturation information from FTIR showed a shift from α helix (amide-I band at 1655cm−1 ) to β sheet (amide I band at 1620 cm−1 ). The relative beta sheet area change between 20 °C and 70 °C was used to dynamically scale the therm...
Article
This essay is an introduction to a series of papers arising from a symposium on stabilization of cells in the dry state. Nearly all of these investigations have utilized the sugar trehalose as a stabilizing molecule. Over the past two decades a myth has grown up about special properties of trehalose for stabilization of biomaterials. We review many...
Article
This essay is a review of the various biophysical and biochemical events that make up the factors responsible for platelet cold-induced activation. It describes the formation of large membrane domains composed of raft aggregates that occur during chilling and storage. It also presents strong evidence that platelet membranes undergo lateral phase se...
Article
A fundamental advance in the development and application of cell- and tissue-based biosensors would be the ability to achieve air-dry stabilization of mammalian (especially human) cells with subsequent recovery following rehydration. The would allow for the preparation of sensors with extended shelf lives, only requiring the addition of water for a...
Article
Few tissues or organisms can survive the removal of nearly all their intra and extracellular water. These few have developed specialized adaptations to protect their cellular components from the damage caused by desiccation and rehydration. One mechanism, common to almost all such organisms, is the accumulation of disaccharides within cells and tis...
Article
Arbutin (4-hydroxyphenyl-beta-glucopyranoside) is a solute accumulated to high concentrations in drought and frost resistant plants. Arbutin can inhibit membrane lysis, both free radical-mediated and enzymatic in nature, and it has been suggested that arbutin might contribute to membrane stabilization in these plants. However, we found that arbutin...
Article
Over the past decade antifreeze proteins from polar fish have been shown either to stabilize or disrupt membrane structure during low temperature and freezing stress. However, there has been no systematic study on how membrane composition affects the interaction of antifreeze proteins with membranes under stress conditions. Therefore, it is not pos...
Article
The thermodynamic phase behavior and lateral lipid membrane organization of unilamellar vesicles made from mixtures of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) and 1,2 distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DSPC) were investigated by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) as a function of temperature and composition. This was done...
Article
Liposomes are commonly used as models for chilling and freezing damage, with leakage of water-soluble contents from the aqueous interior as the most frequently used measurement of damage. In order to achieve an understanding of the mechanism of the leakage, we have conducted a study of the factors that influence the leakage from liposomes during ph...
Article
Human blood platelets are stored in blood banks for 5 days, after which they are discarded, by federal regulation. This short lifetime has led to a chronic shortage of platelets, a problem that is particularly acute in immunosuppressed patients, such as those with AIDS. We report here that platelets can be preserved by freeze-drying them with treha...
Article
Full-text available
The small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) are ubiquitous stress proteins proposed to act as molecular chaperones to prevent irreversib