John Cronin

John Cronin
Auckland University of Technology | AUT · School of Sport and Recreation

PhD

About

416
Publications
722,283
Reads
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15,974
Citations
Introduction
My personal research interests are in human movement particularly strength and conditioning, youth athletic development and sport technology. Recently I have become very interested in wearable resistance or light variable resistance training, especially as a means of speed development.
Additional affiliations
January 1996 - present
Auckland University of Technology
Position
  • Professor, Strength and Conditioning

Publications

Publications (416)
Article
Full-text available
Measuring striking forces is important to provide actionable insight for training and performance enhancement for combat sport athletes. Recent technology may provide a low-cost solution to an otherwise complicated kinetic assessment. The aim was to assess the reliability and validity of a water-filled training bag and integrated sensor for measuri...
Article
Full-text available
Change of direction (COD) ability is considered essential for successful participation in many field and court sports. Several COD models that currently exist identify technique, leg strength qualities, and straight sprint speed as the key determinants of COD performance. This narrative review discusses the original COD model, focusing on specific...
Article
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The aim of this study was to determine whether the utilisation of three timing gates could reliably measure different sub-phases of the modified 5-0-5 COD test, and whether these sub-phases were interrelated. The modified 5-0-5 COD test was adapted, and additional timing gates were placed at 2 m and 4 m, enabling acceleration, deceleration, 180-deg...
Article
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The technique of a medicine ball rotation with a lateral hop is described and demonstrated in this article, and common movement errors and practical applications are also given. Rotational exercise by using medicine balls can be used to train change of direction and deceleration ability. The benefits of this exercise include postural control and ap...
Article
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Context: Light lower-limb wearable resistance has little effect on running biomechanics. However, asymmetrical wearable resistance may potentially alter the kinetics and kinematics of high speed, enabling greater loading or unloading of an injured or rehabilitative lower limb. Design: A cross-sectional study design was used to quantify the influ...
Article
Full-text available
Change of direction (COD) ability is an important component for most field and court sport athletes.The modified 5-0-5 COD test is a commonly used test to measure 180-degree COD performance, the diagnostic value of which can be advanced using a multiple-timing light set-up to divide the test into sub-phases. The aim of this research was to determin...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of non-resisted (NRS) and partner-towing resisted (RS) sprint training on legs explosive force, sprint performance and sprint kinematic parameters. Sixteen young elite soccer players (age 16.6 ± 0.2 years, height 175.6 ± 5.7 cm, and body mass 67.6 ± 8.2 kg) were randomly allocated to two training...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to quantify ground reaction forces across all planes of motion and determine the influence of instruction associated with vertical, forward and lateral hop landings in premenopausal women. Bilateral jump-landings have previously been the focus in this population with forces quantified primarily in the vertical directio...
Article
This study established the magnitude of systematic bias and random error of horizontal force-velocity (F-v) profile variables obtained from a 1080 Sprint compared to that obtained from a Stalker ATS II radar device. Twenty high-school athletes from an American football training group completed a 30 m sprint while the two devices simultaneously meas...
Article
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Change of direction (COD) is an important component of athlete performance and measuring and comparing athletes is an integral aspect of strength and conditioning practice. This article aimed to determine pro-agility shuttle utility, by quantifying variability and normative values for different sports, skill-levels and positions. Limitations of the...
Article
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Measurements of isometric force, rate of force development (RFD) and impulse are widely reported. However, little is known about the variability and reliability of these measurements at multiple angles, over repeated testing occasions in a homogenous, resistance-trained population. Thus, understanding the intersession variability of multi-angle iso...
Article
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Background Adding wearable resistance (WR) to training results in superior performance compared with unloaded conditions. However, it is unclear if adding WR during warm-up influences training load (TL) in the subsequent session. The aim of this research was to track TL in soccer players during the transition from late preseason to early in-season...
Article
This study examined whether an inertial measurement unit (IMU) and machine learning models could accurately measure bowling volume (BV), ball release speed (BRS), and perceived intensity zone (PIZ). Forty-four male pace bowlers wore a high measurement range, research-grade IMU (SABELSense) and a consumer-grade IMU (Apple Watch) on both wrists. Each...
Article
Full-text available
Change of direction (COD) ability is an important performance factor in many field and court sports. A common COD maneuver is the 180-degree turn,which is commonly assessed through the 5-0-5 COD test. Coaches and practitioners need to assess an athlete’s COD performance and have access to normative data for these assessments. This review focuses on...
Article
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Golfing performance is dependent on the distance and trajectory of an athlete's shot. The aim of this study was to determine how unilateral and bilateral loading strategies between 100-400 g placed on the forearms affected golf shot parameters related to carry distance and carry side distance. Nine experienced right-handed golfers, eight males (age...
Article
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Fusiform weighted garments enable specific loading strategies during sport-specific movements. Loading the arms over during accelerated sprinting from a 2-point start position is pertinent to a variety of sporting performances. Fourteen sprint-trained individuals (age = 20.61 ± 1.16 years; height = 1.73 m ± 3.85 cm; body mass 65.33 ± 4.86 kg; perso...
Article
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The pro-agility shuttle is commonly used by practitioners to assess Change of Direction (COD) performance in athletes. The metric of total time is influenced by accelerative and declarative ability and makes "true" COD ability difficult to quantify. The aim of this study was to determine whether an advanced diagnostic protocol, with three timing li...
Article
Full-text available
Lower-limb wearable resistance (WR) provides a specific and targeted overload to the musculature involved in sprint running, however, it is unknown if greater impact forces occur with the additional limb mass. This study compared the contact times and ground reaction force waveforms between sprint running with no load and 2% body mass (BM) shank-po...
Article
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Nutritional intake can influence exercise metabolism and performance, but there is a lack of research comparing protein-rich pre-exercise meals with endurance exercise performed both in the fasted state and following a carbohydrate-rich breakfast. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of three pre-exercise nutrition strategies on m...
Article
Time constraints often result in the challenge to fit desired programming into training time allotments. Wearable resistance (WR) may be an option to optimise the training content in function of constrained training time. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a lower-limb WR sprint running training intervention on athlete speed...
Article
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Eccentric quasi-isometric (EQI) contractions (maintaining a yielding contraction for as long as possible, beyond task failure) have gained interest in research and applied settings. However, little is known regarding the biomechanical profile of EQIs. Fourteen well-trained males performed four maximal effort knee-extensor EQIs, separated by 180 sec...
Article
Full-text available
The pro-agility shuttle is commonly used by practitioners to assess change of direction (COD) performance in athletes. Total time for the test is the metric of interest; however, it provides very little insight into the accelerative, decelerative and COD ability of athletes. The aim of this study was to determine whether the utilisation of three ti...
Article
This study determined the effects of two wearable resistance (WR) placements (i.e. thigh and shank) on horizontal force-velocity and impulse measures during sprint running acceleration. Eleven male athletes performed 50 m sprints either unloaded or with WR of 2% body mass attached to the thigh or shank. In-ground force platforms were used to measur...
Article
This study examined whether an inertial measurement unit (IMU), in combination with machine learning, could accurately predict two indirect measures of bowling intensity through ball release speed (BRS) and perceived intensity zone (PIZ). One IMU was attached to the thoracic back of 44 fast bowlers. Each participant bowled 36 deliveries at two diff...
Article
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Purpose: Eccentric quasi-isometric (EQI) contractions have been proposed as a novel training method for safely exposing the musculotendinous system to a large mechanical load/impulse, with few repetitions. However, understanding of this contraction type is rudimentary. We aimed to compare the acute effects of a single session of isotonic EQIs with...
Poster
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Muscle mass and architecture [muscle thickness (MT), pennation angle (PA), fascicle length (FL)] assessments have been extensively used to model in-vivo isometric and concentric knee-extension performance (e.g., 1,2). However, the relationship between regional (proximal, middle, distal) muscle architectural variations and in-vivo isometric torque a...
Article
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The length-tension relationship affects knee extension performance; however, whether anatomical variations in different quadriceps regions affect this relationship is unknown. Regional (proximal, middle, distal) quadriceps thickness (MT), pennation angle (PA), and fascicle length (FL) of 24 males (48 limbs) were assessed via ultrasonography. Partic...
Article
Inertial measurement units (IMUs) are becoming increasingly popular in activity classification and workload measurement in sport. This systematic literature review focuses on upper body activity classification in court or field-based sports. The aim of this paper is to provide sport scientists and coaches with an overview of the past research in th...
Article
Horizontal eccentric towing (HET) is a novel modality that delivers an eccentric overload to the musculature as an athlete attempts to move forward in a sprint stance whilst being pulled backwards. A device, called the HET, has been developed to automate this movement. Similar to a winch retracting an anchor on a boat, the HET device pulls an athle...
Article
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Individualisation can improve resistance training prescription. This is accomplished via monitoring or autoregulating training. Autoregulation adjusts variables at an individualised pace per performance, readiness, or recovery. Many autoregulation and monitoring methods exist; therefore, this review's objective was to examine approaches intended to...
Article
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Cahill, MJ, Oliver, JL, Cronin, JB, Clark, K, Cross, MR, Lloyd, RS, and Lee, JE. Influence of resisted sled-pull training on the sprint force-velocity profile of male high-school athletes. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2020-Although resisted sled towing is a commonly used method of sprint-specific training, little uniformity exists around tra...
Article
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PurposeThis cross-sectional study investigated dynamic force–time variables and vaulting performance in young female gymnasts of different maturity status.Methods120 gymnasts aged 5–14 years were sub-divided into maturity groupings using percent of predicted adult height (%PAH) attained. Participants performed three jumping protocols, the squat jum...
Article
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PurposeTo establish the load–velocity relationships during backward sled pulling and compare this to forward sled pulling and determine the reliability of running speeds and associated load–velocity regression slopes in youth athletes.Methods Twenty-one boys (age, 13.6 ± 0.28 years old; height, 1.72 ± 0.09 m; mass, 66.1 ± 8.2 kg; maturity, 0.57 ± 0...
Article
This study determined the effects of a six-week lower-limb wearable resistance training (WRT) intervention on sprint running time, velocity, and horizontal force-velocity mechanical variables. Twenty-two collegiate/semi-professional rugby athletes completed pre- and post-intervention testing of three maximal effort 30 m sprints. A radar device was...
Poster
Full-text available
PURPOSE To examine the effects of a 9-month NMT intervention on isometric and dynamic force-time characteristics during strength and power tests and vertical takeoff velocity during gymnastics vaulting. METHODS Forty-three pre-pubertal female gymnasts were subdivided into gymnastics + NMT (GYM+NMT; n = 16), gymnastics only (GYM, n = 15) groups and...
Article
The forces on the human body associated with motorcycle racing are currently unpublished, and this study aimed at quantifying the negative and positive accelerations that circuit racers experience during real competitions via direct measurements in different classes of racing. Kinematical measurements of braking actions and corner exits during comp...
Article
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Quantifying echo intensity (EI), a proposed measure of muscle quality, is becoming increasingly popular. Additionally, much attention has been paid to regional differences in other ultrasonically evaluated measures of muscle morphology and architecture. However, the variability of regional (proximal, middle, distal) EI of the vastus lateralis, rect...
Thesis
Full-text available
Speed is an important athletic quality and needs to be developed in young athletes, this may be best achieved using specific forms of sprint training. Resisted sled training is a sprint specific form of training widely used by coaches and practitioners. The two modes of resisted sled training that exist are sled pushing and pulling, with limited re...
Article
Moeskops, S, Oliver, JL, Read, PJ, Cronin, JB, Myer, GD, Haff, GG, and Lloyd, RS. The influence of biological maturity and competitive level on isometric force-time curve variables and vaulting performance in young female gymnasts. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2020-This cross-sectional study investigated isometric force-time curve variables...
Article
Full-text available
This study determined the acute changes in rotational work with thigh attached wearable resistance (WR) of 2% body mass during 50-m sprint-running. Fourteen athletes completed sprints with, and without, WR in a randomised order. Sprint times were measured via timing gates at 10-m and 50-m. Rotational kinematics were obtained over three phases (step...
Article
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The aim of this study was to investigate the load effects of thigh attached wearable resistance (WR) on linear and angular kinematics and linear kinetics during sprint-running. Fourteen recreational active subjects performed a series of maximal sprints with and without WR of 1, 2, and 3% body mass (BM) in a randomised order. Sprints were performed...
Article
Light wearable resistance is used in sprint training but the scientific evidence to guide its implementation is limited. This study investigated thigh and shank loading protocols which were matched based on the average increase in moment of inertia about the hip over a stride cycle. Seven university-level sprinters completed three counterbalanced c...
Article
The aim of this acute cross-sectional study was to quantify the kinematic and kinetic changes that occur during sprint acceleration when lower body WR is worn. Fifteen male rugby athletes (19 years; 181 cm; 91 kg) were assessed during maximal effort over−ground and treadmill sprinting over 20 m under three different loading conditions: 0%, 3% and 5...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to validate a new test of change of direction (COD) for fencer athletes and to establish its relationship with selected measures of physical fitness. Thirty-nine fencer athletes participated to this study (age: 20.8 ± 3.0 years). They performed the new specific fencing COD test (SFCODT) on two separate occasions to establi...
Article
Full-text available
Sled pushing is a commonly used form of resisted sprint training, however little empirical evidence exists, especially in youth populations. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of unresisted and resisted sled pushing across multiple loads. Fifty high school athletes were assigned to an unresisted (n=12), or 3 resisted groups; ligh...
Article
Full-text available
Bustos, A, Metral, G, Cronin, J, Uthoff, A, and Dolcetti, J. Effects of warming up with lower-body wearable resistance on physical performance measures in soccer players over an 8-week training cycle. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2020-Warm-ups provide an opportune time to integrate specific movements to improve performance. This study aimed...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Regional muscle architecture measures are reported widely; however, little is known about the variability of these measurements in the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis and anterior and lateral vastus intermedius. Quantifying this variability provides the purpose of this paper. Methods: Regional muscle thickness (MT), pennation angle (PA) a...
Article
Full-text available
When new protocols are developed, there is a requirement to investigate test–retest reliability of measures for valid use and interpretation of data in research and practice. Therefore, the aim of this investigation was to determine the inter-day reliability of the cable put and seated rotation assessment protocols. On three occasions, nine resista...