John Crompton

John Crompton
Texas A&M University | TAMU · Department of Recreation, Park, and Tourism Sciences

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262
Publications
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Publications

Publications (262)
Article
In this study, we adapted a TRIRISK model developed in the medical field for deployment in the tourism domain. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate the roles of the deliberative, affective, and experiential dimensions of perceived risk and the perceived severity of COVID-19 in predicting travel avoidance intentions. An analysis of c...
Article
This study empirically investigated the effects of temporal construal upon the compromise effect; the extent to which the importance of price and quality attributes to selecting a compromised option changed over time; and the malleability of the influence of the temporal construal heuristic by changing the time parameters. Three hundred and ninety-...
Article
Twenty-seven empirical studies were identified that empirically estimated the impact on property values of views of open space. The review differentiated between street level and high-rise building views. Among the 17 street-level view studies, only five found substantial premiums which ranged from 4.9% to 9.29%, while four others reported either a...
Article
Executive Summary Between 2005 and 2017, the net number of 18-hole equivalent courses in the U.S. declined by 1,063. In recent years, the closure rate of courses has been approximately 200 a year, resulting in potentially substantial losses in property values for residents who have paid a premium to reside in proximate locations to them. Findings f...
Article
The review of 33 studies generally confirmed findings from a 2001 review: House values rose as proximity to a park increased; properties immediately adjacent to a park sometimes had a lower premium than dwellings a block or two away from it; larger parks had higher premiums, and their influence extended over a longer distance; and substantially gre...
Article
Full-text available
The desirability of living on or close to water is reflected in sometimes substantial property price premiums. Water quality has an important influence on property prices, since it impacts a water body’s appearance, capacity to support wildlife, and recreational potential. As water quality continues to be altered by human use and activity, and in l...
Article
h i g h l i g h t s 4 symbolic meanings associated with 9-ending prices were identified. There were no differences in their relative influence on purchase decisions in high and low-context cultures. No evidence that 9-endings influenced purchase-decision in the forced-choice questions between two different price-levels. In all three cultures, a 9-e...
Article
Conceptualizing urban parks as “the lungs of the city” is one of the parks field’s most enduring metaphors. Indeed, it is often uttered unthinkingly as a cliché. Its roots date back over 200 years. The reason it was so widely adopted in the nineteenth century is that it was unusually powerful and resonant in the context of the ubiquitous filth and...
Article
The multi-use pass is widely used by public sport and leisure agencies. Typically, it offers users a potential discount on price for a season or year. Decisions on pricing these passes often are reflexive and imitative, rather than thoughtful and explicitly analytical. This paper provides a policy framework composed of four dimensions that should b...
Article
Prospect theory evolved in psychology 35 years ago. It transitioned into economics, where it became one of the founding pillars of behavioral economics. This article uses prospect theory to inform explanations of the workings of eight heuristics used in pricing decisions: enterprise fund effect, semantic framing of discounts and premiums, promotion...
Article
The purposes of this article are to (i) review the current data relative to the economic status of seniors, (ii) analyze the appropriateness of the alternative age definitions of a senior used by park and recreation departments, (iii) identify reasons for resilience of senior discounts, and (iv) offer strategies for eroding them.The compelling reas...
Article
Many leisure managers are under political pressure to raise more revenues from fees without arousing protests from users. Purposeful anchoring is a potential strategy for accomplishing this goal. Three experiments using student subjects in a laboratory context were designed to inves-tigate four research questions that explored the anchoring effect...
Article
The conceptual arguments and empirical analyses in the article illustrate that when tourism organizations replicate economic impact analyses and/or compare their results with those reported by others, perceived differences often are specious because they are attributable to artifacts in multiplier measurement as well as to changes in the structure...
Article
The central principle for raising prices without alienating users is to ensure they remain within the latitude of the acceptance zone around their median reference price. The paper discusses four heuristics that leisure managers should embrace which are consistent with the principle and will avoid periodic larger increases that are outside the acce...
Article
The potential influence of eight decisions made by researchers that are unlikely to be reported in economic impact analyses are identified and empirically tested. The data set was comprised of studies undertaken at nine state parks in Texas. Four of the decisions were categorized as being potentially relatively malignant in that they used obviously...
Article
A low cost approach to estimating the economic impact on local communities of a comprehensive state park system is described. The expenditures of 51,603 visitors at 29 parks were collected, extrapolated to an additional 60 parks, and used as inputs to derive estimates of economic impact on the parks' local areas using four measures: labor income, v...
Article
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: In a recent article in this journal, Scott (2014) documented the social welfare rationale for offering discounts to the economically disadvantaged. However, he acknowledged the conventional view is that discounts equate to reduced revenue and more tax support which makes them difficult to sustain in many communities. The goal of...
Article
Sponsorship funding has become a staple source of revenues for many sport events, but there are two types of potentially negative outcomes for properties that may be associated with it: operational risk and reputational risk. Operational risk occurs when sponsors insist on changing the rules or format of the event, or when they exercise undue influ...
Article
One of the forces which led to parks becoming an integral part of cities' infrastructure in the mid- and late nineteenth century in the USA was a widespread perception that they contributed to alleviating disease contagion and epidemics. This paper identifies six strategies that were effective in this successful movement which appear to have releva...
Article
This paper synthesizes what the empirical literature reports regarding what can best be learned outdoors. The review suggests that the outdoors may be effective in stimulating critical thinking, increasing problem-solving skills, and developing concepts rather than rote memory. Little evidence was found to support claims for the superiority of teac...
Article
There is a willingness by many people to pay more for property located close to parks and open space than for property that does not offer this amenity. This process of ?capitalisation? of park land into increased property values is termed the ?proximate principle?. The paper traces the central role of the proximate principle in persuading local go...
Article
As skepticism has grown toward the purported economic impact of major sport facilities on a community, advocates have redirected their justification toward the proximate structural development they stimulate and the social capital emanating from their presence. Analyses in this paper are confined to returns on investment in sport facilities from pr...
Article
In the political arena, it is almost always advantageous to frame an issue in economic terms when seeking support from a legislative body. This paper describes, measures, and provides illustrative examples for estimating the economic value of 12 benefits associated with urban parks. Seven of these constitute a template for measuring the economic va...
Book
The new edition of Financing Sport further solidifies its standing as the most authoritative text on sport finance. Authors Dennis R. Howard and John L. Crompton have completely reorganized and revised this popular textbook in FiT's Sport Management Library.
Book
Securing financial resources through sponsorships is a prominent element in the job descriptions of many sport managers and the importance of that task has increased exponentially in recent years. Sponsorship for Sport Managers provides readers with an understanding of how companies use sponsorship in their marketing programs and how sport managers...
Article
Urban parks in the USA sprang from multiple influences, but the belief that they would contribute to improved health has not previously received detailed attention in the parks literature. They emerged in the industrial cities where squalor and filth characterised living conditions. Taking their lead from peers in the UK, the US medical community b...
Article
Economic impact studies are frequently commissioned to justify investments in sport projects. However, decisions also should include a consideration of a project's costs since it is the net return on investment that should drive decisions. Whenever taxpayer funds are expended on a sports project there is an opportunity cost. Three types of opportun...
Article
The paper develops a taxonomy of types of joint ventures which have emerged in the United States between public and commercial leisure service suppliers. The taxonomy classifies all such ventures into three major categories: situations where the public sector uses existing facilities owned exclusively by the commercial sector; ventures in which the...
Article
All are likely to agree that resources for public leisure services should be allocated equitably, that is, fairly. Equity is a pseudo-cognate term in that many who use it assume that everyone has the same intuitive definition of it. This is a fallacious assumption. There are multiple and diverse interpretations of what is meant by equity. Since int...
Article
Much of the work on constraints in the park and recreation field has concentrated on structural constraints. However, relatively little has been reported on the sub-set of structural constraints that have been termed institutional constraints, i.e. practices of agencies that may contribute to inhibiting participation. This study examined the impact...
Article
Zone of tolerance has emerged as a key concept for guiding pricing decisions. It directs that user resistance to prices for new services or price increases to existing services will be minimized if they are within this zone, and that if discounts are to be effective in inducing additional use they should be of sufficient magnitude to be outside thi...
Article
Relatively concise executive summaries are provided of the scientific evidence supporting the leisure services field's contributions to seven elements of alleviating social problems: reducing environmental stress, community regeneration, cultural and historical preservation, facilitating healthy lifestyles, alleviating deviant behavior among youth,...
Article
Full-text available
Recreation programs sponsored by park and recreation departments in the United State are moving beyond simply offering programs designed to reduce at-risk youth deficit behaviors to approaches that include the broader focus of positive youth development for all youth. Using the Developmental Assets Model and the Protective Factors/Resiliency framew...
Article
Relatively concise executive summaries are provided for the scientific evidence supporting the parks field's contribution to five elements of environmental sustainability: protecting drinking water, controlling flooding, cleaning air, reducing energy costs, and preserving biological diversity. Given the importance of economics in government resourc...
Article
In the United States, momentum for purchase of development rights (PDRs) programs is accelerating and they now exist in 20 of the 50 states. Their primary constituents are agricultural interests, and conservation and open space advocates. The 20 states' statutes were reviewed and telephone interviews conducted with officials in each of the states w...
Article
A conceptual framework is offered which guides public park and recreation managers on how to minimize resistance to pricing decisions from affected users. The fulcrum of the framework is reference price, which is the benchmark criterion used to evaluate whether or not a new or revised price for a service is acceptable to users. The paper defines re...
Article
This study investigates the influence of familiarity, structural constraints, and level of involvement in the decision on whether to search for information and on the strength of the search effort made by individuals who decide to search. Data have been collected from 1,677 structured personal interviews undertaken in two Portuguese national parks....
Article
Repositioning is viewed as the key to a viable future for leisure services. After a brief review of the repositioning concept, the paper's focus is on the four strategies that can be used to implement repositioning. First is real repositioning. This requires the development of new services or restructuring existing services so they better contribut...
Article
Full-text available
Seven operationalizations of equity that offer alternate criteria for allocating resources for leisure services were assessed using residents in a Texas city. The operationalizations were compensatory, equality, taxes paid, direct price, efficiency, advocacy and professional judgment. Two samples of data were selected using mail surveys of 903 hous...
Article
The study was undertaken in Tyler, Texas, a city of 83 000 population in which the primary tourism attraction is the Caldwell Zoo. The focus was on the compatibility of ancillary attractions to the zoo and their role in adding to the city's cumulative attraction. A sample of 1559 zoo visitors were surveyed. The results revealed that (i) there was a...
Article
The evolution of leisure services marketing in the USA has passed through five stages in the past half‐century: pre‐marketing (activity/custodial focus), selling, user benefits orientation, community‐wide benefits orientation and repositioning. The first two stages were supplanted by the user benefits orientation in the late 1970s. The user benefit...
Article
Full-text available
This paper revises an earlier taxonomy of equity models that was published in this jour-nal in 1988. This revised taxonomy consists of three elements. First, it extends the original taxonomy by proposing a set of moral philosophies, positioning them as antecedents of the operational strate-gies that determine equity outcomes. Six are identified: Ra...
Article
A large proportion of golf courses currently under construction are part of larger real-estate projects. The objective of this study was to identify the magnitude of the increase in property prices created by the golf course in one such amenity. A hedonic analysis was undertaken using a sample of 305 sales transactions in a golf course subdivision...
Article
This study is an examination of the relationships between visitors' perceived service quality, perceived service value, satisfaction and behavioral intentions. Respondents were visitors who attended the Cajun Catfish Festival in Conroe, Texas and were systematically selected. Findings revealed that: (a) a structural model operationalizing perceived...
Article
Residences located close to urban parks frequently sell at a premium. The increased home values represent a ‘capitalization’ of a park’s value to proximate homeowners and this phenomenon has been termed ‘the proximate principle’. The evolution of the principle from squares and gardens in small private estates to large park areas occurred with the d...
Article
Most economic impact studies are commissioned to legitimize a political position rather than to search for economic truth. Often, this results in the use of mischievous procedures that produce large numbers that study sponsors seek to support a predetermined position. Examples are selected primarily from the reports of ostensibly expert consultants...
Article
The purpose of the study was to explore the constraints and benefits associated with the use of an urban park by a sample of elderly people in Hong Kong. The proportion of elderly in the population of Hong Kong is increasing rapidly. Although a substantial body of research on leisure and the elderly exists in western societies, no previous research...
Article
Full-text available
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: This paper's two objectives were to examine the financial status of parks and recreation compared with 9 other "competitive" services delivered by local governments, and to identify any shifts that may have occurred in the past decade. Examining shifts in budget allocations among the 10 "competitor" sectors was perceived to be an...
Article
The notion that parks have a positive impact on proximate property values was recognized in the debates surrounding the pioneering of large urban parks in England in the first half of the nineteenth century, and subsequently in the spread of this movement to the US in the latter half of that century. The empirical basis for these early assertions w...
Article
The effect of greenways on surrounding residential property values remains somewhat of an unknown quantity. Though several studies have ascertained that nearby residents tend to view greenways as positive or neutral amenities that increase or have no discernible impact on property values and saleability, these results are mostly based on anecdote r...
Article
The study explores the ageing phenomenon in Hong Kong and draws some implications for leisure service delivery. Interviews were conducted with 25 elderly in the Tsuen Wan District in Hong Kong. Purposive sampling was used to select the sample. The interviews were semi-structured, based on an interview guide of open-ended questions. The results of t...
Article
The personal observations in this article are arranged under the topic headings of the training of researchers, establishing research programs and developing and managing research teams. The value of a standard PhD by itself is questioned as a preparation for a full research career with the role of publication experience and multi-faceted research...
Article
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: A substantial proportion of golf courses constructed in recent years are associated with real estate projects. An underlying premise of these developments is that the course creates a premium for the lot values and facilitates a more rapid sale of these lots. The study posed three research questions: (i) Did residents believe tha...
Article
A BSTRACT A model that integrates the communication and product adoption processes is devel-oped and is used to evaluate the effectiveness of alternate measures of sponsorship. The further through the communication process an evaluation takes place, the stronger is the evidence of a spon-sorship's contribution to increasing sales. The most frequent...
Article
Two research questions guided the study: Do perceived constraints change over time among a sample of state park visitors? and, Do changes in the magnitude of constraints influence visitation to state parks? Three sets of data were analyzed. Data Sets 1 and 2 were independent samples of visitors to Texas state parks, while Data Set 3 consisted of a...
Article
Full-text available
A sample of 331 residents of Grapevine, Texas, responded to an instrument designed to assess their perspectives of the priority issues related to economic development in their community. The instrument also assessed the parks and recreation department's contributions to these issues, and compared them with those of the police department in the area...
Article
Ambushing occurs when a company that has no formal rights as an official sponsor, associates its own brand with a sport event with the intention of communicating the false impression that it is a sponsor. The article identifies and discusses seven potential ambush opportunities. The extent to which ambushing is effective is reviewed. Official spons...
Article
Four prominent tactics used by sports organizations in the United States to increase ticket sales are discussed. Each of them is underpinned by the concepts of either price discrimination or social exchange theory. Differential pricing is usually based on quality of the opposing team, time or place. Flexible season ticket packaging enables fans to...
Article
Government contributions to the funding of major league facilities ipso facto recognize that some portion of the benefits accruing from such facilities accrue to the public in general, rather than being captured exclusively by the franchise owner. The challenge for facility advocates is to demonstrate the return on investment to the taxpayer. This...
Article
Six different conceptualizations of the relationship between visitor satisfaction and service quality have been suggested in the literature. A model is developed which integrates and reconciles these differences. Its central components are recognition of the distinction between quality of performance and quality of experience, and those between ind...
Article
This paper identifies the pervasiveness, magnitude, and trends of public investment in major league sports facilities and describes the forces that typically direct and dictate the debate. In 2003 dollars, the total investment in facilities currently being used by franchises in the four major leagues in North America is almost $24 billion, of which...
Article
Herzberg suggested that job satisfaction was a function of two types of conditions that he termed hygiene or dissatisfier and motivator or satisfier attributes. This article suggests that these same conditions may contribute to explaining levels of visitor satisfaction with an event. Hygiene attributes are the generic infrastructure elements that f...
Article
Negotiation by English soccer teams with corporate sponsors for shirt naming rights is now standard practice but, with the exception of a handful of clubs, the concept has not been extended to stadia. Among US major sports leagues the reverse situation exists in that facility naming rights are standard practice while shirt naming rights are non-exi...
Article
Ocean City is a traditional resort community stretching for 10 miles along a barrier island on the coast of Maryland. Tourism is the basis of the town's economy and the reason for the community's existence. It is estimated that more than 8 million people visit the resort each year. The full-time resident population of the town is approximately 7000...
Article
Visitation counts are the measures most widely used by park managers to demonstrate accountability and good stewardship of the public resources that legislatures invest in parks. This paper describes a procedure implemented in Texas State Parks for addressing the technical aspect of this important problem. To transpose raw axle count numbers into v...
Article
Visitation counts are the measures most widely used by park managers to demonstrate accountability and good stewardship of the public resources that legislatures invest in parks. Ostensibly, counting visitors may appear to be a simple task, but experienced park managers are aware that it is a complicated and difficult challenge with three dimension...
Article
The comprehensive data set used in this paper was derived from local government entities in the U.S. for the period 1964-65 to 1999- 2000. These data are collected by the Census Bureau from all 87,000 units of local government in years ending in "2" or "7". In the non-census years the data are collected from a survey of approximately 13,000 non-sch...
Article
Full-text available
As competition for discretionary expenditures increases and visitor expectations rise, service quality is likely to be a key to zoos remaining viable. For most zoo visitors, the key determinant of quality service is likely to be the tangible elements of the zoo, Thus, managers' success in enhancing visitors' quality of experience is likely to be de...
Article
It has been suggested that there is a need to include variables other than traditional economic variables in models designed to assess visitors’ reactions to admission prices. This study explored the influence of selected behavioral and nontraditional economic factors in influencing visitors’ reactions. Analyses were undertaken on responses from fi...
Article
Full-text available
Intention to revisit a leisure amenity or to recommend it to others is conceptualized as being dependent upon the quality of service delivered, the extent to which benefits sought were received and overall visitor satisfaction. The objective of this study was to empirically examine the relationships between these constructs. Using a sample of 371 v...
Article
An overview of the financial status of professional sports leagues in North America is provided. It reveals that they face similar challenges to those confronting professional soccer teams in England: most teams report annual operating losses; costs, primarily attributed to players' salaries, are accelerating at a level which outstrips the large gr...
Article
Examined the effects of service quality and satisfaction on behavioral intention among visitors to a wildlife refuge. 282 adult visitors (aged 40-69 yrs) of the Aransas National Wildlife Refuge in Texas completed questionnaires concerning the benefits of visiting the site, including nature appreciation/learning, achievement, introspection/nostalgia...
Article
The analyses reported here were undertaken on three data sets derived from surveys commissioned to identify likely visitor reaction to proposed large price increases in Texas state parks. One of the goals in each study was to assess the influence of alternate information messages on perceptions of price and stated willingness to pay. The messages u...

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ABSTRACT Broadening marketing concept was introduced in 1969. Initially, it was accepted by marketing scholars. However, during subsequent four decades, the concept has received a mixed reaction and divided marketing scholars into two camps comprised of its supporters and opponents. The paper traces evolution of the broadening marketing proposition and analyzes arguments against the broadening proposition.