John Clulow

John Clulow
The University of Newcastle, Australia · School of Environmental and Life Sciences

BA, BSc (Hons), PhD

About

158
Publications
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Publications

Publications (158)
Article
An increase in the frequency and intensity of catastrophic wildfires is associated with anthropogenic climate change. Wildfires are extreme environmental events that result in dramatic fluctuations in temperature and moisture, which are likely to disproportionately impact animals such as amphibians (Anura) whose distributions and ecology are strong...
Article
Full-text available
Zoo and wildlife hospital networks are set to become a vital component of Australia’s contemporary efforts to conserve the iconic and imperiled koala (Phascolarctos cinereus). Managed breeding programs held across zoo-based networks typically face high economic costs and can be at risk of adverse genetic effects typical of unavoidably small captive...
Article
Full-text available
Australian arboreal mammals are experiencing significant population declines, particularly due to land clearing and resulting habitat fragmentation. The squirrel glider, Petaurus norfolcensis , is a threatened species in New South Wales, with a stronghold population in the Lake Macquarie Local Government Area (LGA) where fragmentation due to urbani...
Article
Full-text available
Amphibians and reptiles are highly threatened vertebrate taxa with large numbers of species threatened with extinction. With so many species at risk, conservation requires the efficient and cost-effective application of all the tools available so that as many species as possible are assisted. Biobanking of genetic material in genetic resource banks...
Article
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Biodiversity is in global decline during the Anthropocene. Declines have been caused by multiple factors, such as habitat removal, invasive species, and disease, which are often targets for conservation management. However, conservation interventions are under threat from climate change induced weather extremes. Weather extremes are becoming more f...
Article
Full-text available
Animals that reproduce in temporary aquatic systems expose their offspring to a heightened risk of desiccation, as they must race to complete development and escape before water levels recede. Adults must therefore synchronise reproduction with the changing availability of water, yet the conditions they experience to trigger such an event may not r...
Article
The amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) causes the disease chytridiomycosis, which is a primary driver for amphibian population declines and extinctions worldwide. For highly susceptible species, such as the green and golden bell frog Litoria aurea, large numbers of Bd-related mortalities are thought to occur during the col...
Article
Australian arboreal mammals are experiencing significant population declines, particularly due to land clearing and resulting habitat fragmentation. The squirrel glider, Petaurus norfolcensis, is a threatened species in New South Wales, with a stronghold population in the Lake Macquarie Local Government Area (LGA) where fragmentation due to urbaniz...
Article
In application of reproductive science to conservation breeding, it has long been assumed that artificial insemination using frozen thawed sperm would be the default technology. This has always been problematic considering the wide range of tolerance to freeze thawing among vertebrate sperm. Furthermore, those providing leadership for genome bankin...
Article
Identifying which species exhibit polyandry may lead to further insights into evolutionary biology and social behaviour. However, confirming polyandry can be difficult. High-resolution genetics provides a useful means to gain evidence. Although the threatened Pelodryadid frog, the green and golden bell frog Litoria aurea, has been subject to numero...
Article
Assisted reproductive technologies provide important tools for wildlife conservation but have rarely been developed for reptiles. A critical step in developing cryopreservation protocols is establishing optimal cooling rates for cell survival. The two-factor hypothesis explaining cryoinjury to cells originates from an inverted ‘U’ shape of recovery...
Article
• As the proportion of threatened species increases, so too does the need for effective conservation strategies. In response, captive breed-and-release and habitat mitigation programmes are two conservation actions that are increasing in use and effectiveness. • Success of these programmes is frequently hampered by the continued presence of threate...
Article
Understanding amphibian population dynamics is integral to mitigating severe declines that are occurring due to threats such as habitat removal and chytrid-induced disease. Few studies have focused on sex-specific population dynamics, despite the potential for these processes to alter colonisation and population turn-over in newly created habitats....
Article
Amphibians have declined due to multiple impacts including invasive fish and the disease chytridiomycosis caused by the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Wetland restoration can be used to increase amphibian populations. However the design of created wetlands must account for threats such as Bd and introduced fish. There have been...
Preprint
Full-text available
Australian arboreal mammals are experiencing significant population declines, particularly due to land clearing and resulting habitat fragmentation. The squirrel glider, Petaurus norfolcensis, is a threatened species in New South Wales, with a stronghold population in the Lake Macquarie Local Government Area (LGA) where fragmentation due to urbaniz...
Article
Full-text available
For amphibians that oviposit in temporary aquatic systems, there is a high risk of desiccation-induced offspring mortality when water evaporates prior to the completion of embryo or tadpole development. Such a strong selective pressure has led to the evolution of a variety of traits in reproducing females and their offspring to improve the odds of...
Article
Full-text available
The squirrel glider (Petaurus norfolcensis) is a threatened, gliding marsupial that persists in fragmented landscapes despite its restricted capacity to cross large gaps. As measures to maintain and/or restore suitable habitat depend on knowledge about the species' ecological requirements, we investigated the area used by squirrel gliders in an urb...
Article
Full-text available
Captive breeding is an important tool for amphibian conservation despite high economic costs and deleterious genetic effects of sustained captivity and unavoidably small colony sizes. Integration of biobanking and assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) could provide solutions to these challenges, but is rarely used due to lack of recognition of...
Article
For oviparous animals such as amphibians, the presence or absence of conspecifics can influence site selection, with each life history stage potentially influencing the decision-making process in a different manner. In the present study, we tested the effect of conspecific life history stage on oviposition site selection in the sandpaper frog, Lech...
Article
Full-text available
Among amphibians, adults have traditionally been identified in capture-mark-recapture studies using invasive marking techniques with associated ethical, cost and logistical considerations. However, species in this group may be strong candidates for photo-identification based on natural skin features that removes many of these concerns, with this te...
Article
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Amphibians are becoming increasingly reliant on captive breeding programs for continued survival. Assisted reproductive technologies including gamete cryopreservation and IVF can help reduce costs of breeding programs, provide insurance against extinction and assist genetic rescue in wild populations. However, the use of these technologies to produ...
Article
Full-text available
Assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) have a significant role to play in reptile conservation, yet are severely lacking. Previous attempts to cryopreserve spermatozoa in the threatened lizard Varanus panoptes achieved approximately 48% motile sperm post-thaw for samples frozen immediately after collection. However, the feasibility of extended c...
Article
Habitat restoration is an integral feature of wildlife conservation. However, funding and opportunities for habitat restoration are limited, and therefore, it is useful for targeted restoration to provide positive outcomes for non‐target species. Here, we investigate the possibility of habitat creation and management benefitting two threatened wetl...
Article
Context. Knowledge on the drivers of breeding behaviour is vital to understand amphibian ecology and conservation. Proposed drivers of amphibian reproductive behaviour include selection of optimum water quality, and avoidance of tadpole predators and competition. These hypotheses are underpinned by the logic that amphibians will choose breeding hab...
Chapter
The parma wallaby (Notomacropus parma Waterhouse, 1846) is a small macropodid marsupial found in the temperate wet forests of south-eastern Australia. It is one of the most understudied critical weight range mammals in Australia, with the only detailed published ecological research being conducted in the 1970s. This chapter reports on the inadequac...
Article
Full-text available
Captive breeding is an integral part of global conservation efforts despite high costs and adverse genetic effects associated with unavoidably small population sizes. Supplementing captive-bred populations with biobanked founder sperm to restore genetic diversity offers a solution to colony size, costs and inbreeding, yet is rarely done, partly due...
Research
Understanding traditional hunter-gatherer lifestyles in our modern world is fundamental to our understanding of their viability, as well as the role of humans as predators in structuring ecosystems. Here, we examine the factors that drive prey preferences of modern hunter-gatherer people by reviewing 85 published studies from 161 tropical, temperat...
Article
Amphibians are under threat from many drivers resulting in declining populations. Restoration and creation of habitat is a method used to reverse amphibian declines. The green and golden bell frog (Litoria aurea) is distributed in southeastern Australia, and is threatened by the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendobatidis (chytrid), an introduced...
Preprint
Full-text available
Relatedness (rxy) measures are useful in molecular ecology studies as they can provide a means to answer biological hypotheses where pedigree information is valuable. Our understanding of the reproductive ecology of the threatened amphibian Litoria aurea is not complete where applying rxy measurements may provide further elucidation. Here we use SN...
Article
Full-text available
Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) are cryptic and currently face regional extinction. The direct detection (physical sighting) of individuals is required to improve conservation management strategies. We provide a comparative assessment of three survey methods for the direct detection of koalas: systematic spotlighting (Spotlight), remotely piloted a...
Article
Here, we identify an easily implemented wetland design feature that can prolong tadpole survival of the threatened Green and Golden Bell Frog (Litoria aurea). We observed small depressions that naturally formed within some wetlands following the construction of habitat for this species. We observed that wetlands containing depressions prolonged the...
Article
Full-text available
Reproductive technologies such as genome storage and assisted reproduction have a significant role to play in ending or reversing species extinctions. However, such technologies for non-model organisms (i.e. non-mammalian species) are poorly developed. This is particularly true for the reptiles, in which there is a dearth of successful protocols fo...
Article
The Amphibian Conservation Action Plan (ACAP), published in 2007, is a formal document of international significance that proposed eleven relevant actions for global amphibian conservation. Action seven of the ACAP document addresses the use of amphibian captive programs as a conservation tool. Appendix material under this action explores the poten...
Article
Full-text available
Among the Amphibia, cannibalism is most commonly associated with tadpole species that exploit ephemeral systems. This behaviour may confer significant fitness benefits to those that cannibalise, given that these systems generally possess limited food resources, but will incur significant fitness costs to the cannibalised. Herein, we describe cannib...
Article
Full-text available
In highly ephemeral freshwater habitats, predatory vertebrates are typically unable to become established, leaving an open niche often filled by macroinvertebrate predators. However, these predators are faced with the challenge of finding sufficient food sources as the rapid rate of desiccation prevents the establishment of extended food chains and...
Chapter
Amphibians have experienced a catastrophic decline since the 1980s driven by disease, habitat loss, and impacts of invasive species and face ongoing threats from climate change. About 40% of extant amphibians are under threat of extinction and about 200 species have disappeared completely. Reproductive technologies and biobanking of cryopreserved m...
Article
Full-text available
Compassionate conservation focuses on 4 tenets: first, do no harm; individuals matter; inclusivity of individual animals; and peaceful coexistence between humans and animals. Recently, compassionate conservation has been promoted as an alternative to conventional conservation philosophy. We believe examples presented by compassionate conservationis...
Preprint
Full-text available
In highly ephemeral freshwater habitats, predatory vertebrates are typically unable to become established, leaving an open niche often filled by macroinvertebrate predators. However, these predators are faced with the challenge of finding sufficient food sources as the rapid rate of desiccation prevents the establishment of extended food chains and...
Article
Rewilding is emerging as a major issue in conservation. However, there are currently a dozen definitions of rewilding that include Pleistocene rewilding, island rewilding, trophic rewilding, functional rewilding and passive rewilding, and these remain fuzzy, lack clarity and, hence, hinder scientific discourse. Based on current definitions, it is u...
Article
Full-text available
The amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is an emerging infectious pathogen present on every continent except Antarctica. It causes the disease chytridiomycosis in a subset of species but does not always result in disease or death for every host. Ambient temperature influences both amphibian metabolism and chytrid pathogenicity,...
Article
Full-text available
Amphibians are the most threatened vertebrate class globally based on recent rates of decline and extinction. Sperm cryopreservation and other assisted reproductive technologies have the potential to help manage small and threatened populations and prevent extinctions. There are a growing number of reports of recovery of amphibian sperm after cryop...
Article
Most Australian frogs fall into two deeply split lineages, conveniently referred to as ground frogs (Myobatrachidae and Limnodynastidae) and tree frogs (Pelodryadidae). Species of both lineages are endangered because of the global chytrid pandemic, and there is increasing interest and research on the endocrine manipulation of reproduction to suppor...
Article
Full-text available
Habitat offsetting is a conservation management regime used to preserve biodiversity when human development degrades areas inhabited by threatened species. Habitat suitability of a threatened species can vary temporally due to environmental changes. However, vegetation growth is rarely considered prior to mitigation attempts. The Green and Golden B...
Article
Full-text available
Context The severity and prevalence of the amphibian fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is correlated with several environmental variables, including salinity, temperature, and moisture content, which influence the pathogen's growth and survival. Habitats that contain these environmental variables at levels outside of those optima...
Article
Full-text available
Invasive fish threaten many native freshwater fauna. However, it can be difficult to determine how invasive fish impact animals with complex life cycles as interaction may be driven by either predation of aquatic larvae or avoidance of fish-occupied waterbodies by the terrestrial adult stage. Mosquitofish (Gambusia spp.) are highly successful and a...
Article
Full-text available
Emerging infectious diseases are one of the greatest threats to global biodiversity. Chytridiomycosis in amphibians is perhaps the most extreme example of this phenomenon known to science. Translocations are increasingly used to fight disease-induced extinctions. However, many programmes fail because disease is still present or subsequently establi...
Article
Full-text available
The creation or restoration of habitat to mitigate biodiversity loss is a common conservation strategy. Evidence-based research via an extensively monitored trial study should be undertaken prior to large-scale implementation to predict success and identify potential limiting factors. We constructed an experimental trial habitat for the threatened...
Article
Full-text available
Context: Achieving successful conservation outcomes in habitat creation and reintroductions requires an understanding of how species use their habitat and respond to these interventions. However, few initiatives directly compare microhabitat selection between remnant and managed habitats to measure effectiveness and evaluate outcomes. Probability o...
Article
For pond-breeding species, the distribution of larvae is a reflection of habitat suitability and adult breeding site selection. Some species preferentially breed in ephemeral ponds, which can provide benefits for larvae. An alternative strategy used by adults to increase offspring survival is to detect aquatic predators and avoid them when selectin...
Article
Full-text available
Although amphibians are one of the most threatened animal groups, little published evidence exists on effective management programs. In order for conservation initiatives to be successful, an understanding of habitat use patterns is required to identify important environmental features. However, habitat use may differ between the different sexes an...
Article
Full-text available
Freshwater biota experience physiological challenges in regions affected by salinization, but often the effects on particular species are poorly understood. Freshwater turtles are of particular concern as they appear to have limited ability to cope with environmental conditions that are hyperosmotic to their body fluids. Here, we determined the phy...
Article
Determining whether water quality is suitable is an important part of managing aquatic species for conservation, although it is often challenging to achieve. Past approaches have largely consisted of tests exposing individuals to artificial solutions, or field studies that examine the effect of a subset of water quality parameters on the distributi...
Article
Full-text available
Biodiversity loss caused by invasive species is particularly problematic in freshwater ecosystems, which are among the world's most threatened habitats. Invasive fish such as the eastern mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki, have been implicated in the decline of amphibians, which suffer high extinction rates globally. Although G. holbrooki is one of t...
Article
Full-text available
Ontogenetic changes in disease susceptibility have been demonstrated in many vertebrate taxa, as immature immune systems and limited prior exposure to pathogens can place less developed juveniles at a greater disease risk. By causing the disease chytridiomycosis, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) infection has led to the decline of many amphibian...