John D. Bullough

John D. Bullough
Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai | MSSM · Light and Health Research Center

Ph.D.
Program Director, Population Health Science and Policy, Mount Sinai Light and Health Research Center

About

421
Publications
70,038
Reads
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4,705
Citations
Introduction
Program Director, Population Health Science and Policy at the Light and Health Research Center in the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai
Additional affiliations
June 2021 - present
Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai
Position
  • Managing Director
August 2015 - June 2021
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
Position
  • Managing Director
November 2013 - June 2014
Empire State College
Position
  • Prior Learning Assessment Evaluator
Education
September 2001 - May 2004
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
Field of study
  • Multidisciplinary Science
September 1992 - August 1999
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
Field of study
  • Lighting
September 1991 - August 1992
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
Field of study
  • Communication and Rhetoric

Publications

Publications (421)
Conference Paper
The current development of automotive lighting strives towards more and more lighting installations on vehicles. Additionally, to that, manufacturers start animating these lighting installations as coming home or leaving home greetings from the car to the driver. In a previous paper we have shown, that these additional animations are in fact not di...
Article
Full-text available
Road lighting is best known to have the potential to improve night-time safety. The vast majority of research studies have shown that the installation of road lighting has favourable effects on the number and severity of road collisions. In addition, some evidence suggests that current road lighting practices are over-lighting the roadway. Therefor...
Article
It is important in understanding the potential benefits of ultraviolet (UV-C) field applications for control of powdery mildew to know how long the lamps will last before replacement. We conducted a laboratory evaluation of a sample of low-pressure discharge germicidal UV-C lamps that have been used in field trials to control strawberry powdery mil...
Article
Many municipalities are beginning to undertake efforts to retrofit their existing high pressure sodium (HPS) street lighting with LED (light emitting diode) luminaires. Unlike HPS lighting systems, which are available in a limited range of standard wattages and configurations, LED street lighting systems vary widely in wattage and physical configur...
Article
Service vehicles use flashing warning lights to indicate their presence to approaching drivers. Present standards offer ranges of flash frequencies to enhance conspicuity and avoid potential risks of photosensitive epilepsy or other issues. But, in practice, the flash frequency is not varied in specific situations. Previous studies have indicated t...
Article
Lighting systems are important elements of roadway safety at night, when driver and pedestrian visibility would be otherwise limited. This chapter describes the technology underlying lighting systems used along roadways and on vehicles, especially the ongoing proliferation of light-emitting diode sources. A discussion of how lighting contributes to...
Article
One of the consequences of outdoor lighting such as that for streets and highways is light pollution. Light pollution has three primary impacts: sky glow, which makes astronomical observation more difficult; light trespass, in which unwanted light falls onto adjacent properties; and glare, which causes discomfort and reduces visibility for drivers...
Article
As visual displays for computers, televisions, tablets and mobile phones grow brighter (and larger), concerns about their emissions of short‐wavelength (“blue”) light have emerged. This paper reviews the evidence underling these concerns, including the potential for blue‐light hazard, visual discomfort, and circadian disruption.
Article
Full-text available
Raised Pavement Markers (RPMs) are used by a number of transportation agencies with the objective of improving roadway safety, especially in complex roadway geometries and along wet roads. Because of maintenance and cost issues, many transportation agencies are exploring alternatives to RPMs such as wet reflective pavement tape and barrier-mounted...
Article
Concerns about the possible impacts of short‐wavelength light from solid‐state lighting and ever‐brighter visual displays on optical health are growing. But what does the research really tell us?
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Service vehicles use flashing warning lights to indicate their presence to approaching drivers. Present standards offer ranges of flash frequencies to enhance conspicuity and avoid potential risks of photosensitive epilepsy or other issues, but flash frequency is not varied in specific situations in practice. Previous studies have indicated that pe...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Mobile phone use is a growing and ubiquitous form of communication, entertainment and daily life. Yet the many benefits that these devices could provide can be offset by drawbacks potentially impacting pedestrian health and safety. Some researchers have looked into whether exposure to mobile screens at night could affect human circadian rhythms. Ot...
Article
In addition to supporting visibility, parking lot lighting should enable people to feel safe and secure while they are walking through a parking lot at night. Previously published research has indicated that perceptions of safety and security under outdoor illumination are correlated with perceptions of scene brightness, which in turn are influence...
Article
Signs are critical elements of the visual environment for pedestrians, drivers and other users. Regardless of their purpose, signs should be easily detected and readily legible. Tools such as visual performance models have been developed to allow the assessment of the speed and accuracy with which observers can read information on a sign. These mod...
Article
Signs should produce useful visual information to road and sidewalk users without creating undue glare or visual distraction. In order to assist in navigation and wayfinding, signs must be sufficiently conspicuous. For this reason their brightnesses are often higher than the surrounding visual environment. However, if the brightness becomes too hig...
Article
A dynamic peripheral‐vision communication system provides cues and feedback to augment automotive interior environments. Vehicle occupants are alerted to information, status, movement, and intended vehicle actions such as braking and turning. They are also made aware of the vehicle environment including location and external hazards.
Article
Flashing yellow warning lights notify drivers about the presence of work along the road. Current standards for these lights address performance of the individual light but not how lights should function when multiple lights are used. In the present study, warning lights were used to delineate a lane change taper in a simulated work zone. Lights fla...
Article
Airfield lighting for runways and taxiways is currently undergoing a transition from filament-based incandescent sources to light emitting diodes (LEDs). Although models to assess the relative brightness, discomfort glare, and peripheral detectability of signal lights such as those used for aviation exist, their applicability to white LED airfield...
Technical Report
In the present study, roadway luminaires using light emitting surface (LES) technology were compared in terms of photometric performance to roadway luminaires using high pressure sodium (HPS) lamps and light emitting diode (LED) sources. Measurements of light output and electrical power use revealed that the LES luminaires performed similar to the...
Technical Report
The use of light emitting diode (LED) roadway lighting is growing throughout New York State and the rest of the country, because of the potential for longer effective life an energy savings compared to high pressure sodium (HPS) lighting systems. While the technological feasibility of LED roadway lighting systems has been established, the impacts o...
Article
A recent study of large-field subjective brightness perception under different narrowband spectra and different luminances revealed distinct contributions of cone photoreceptors and intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells containing the photopigment melanopsin. The data from this study were analyzed with a recently published model of sp...
Technical Report
In the State of New Jersey, raised pavement markers (RPMs) are used along all centerlines and skip lines, regardless of traffic volume, roadway geometry, or roadway classification. The extensive use of RPMs has raised interest in understanding 1) whether this significant investment generates variant safety benefits at different locations; 2) whethe...
Article
Reducing the potential for crashes involving front line service workers and passing vehicles is important for increasing worker safety in work zones and similar locations. Flashing yellow warning beacons are often used to protect, delineate, and provide visual information to drivers within and approaching work zones. A nighttime field study using s...
Chapter
This chapter discusses the use of light emitting diode (LED) sources in vehicular lighting for illumination and signaling. Photometric requirements for automotive lighting are discussed, along with the key differences between LED and filament sources in terms of visual responses. Finally, the energy and environmental implications for LEDs in automo...
Article
Purpose: New light sources including light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have elicited questions about retinal damage, including the blue-light hazard. Some organizations have recommended avoiding using LEDs with correlated color temperatures exceeding 3000 K, since they tend to produce greater short-wavelength energy. This article provides quantitative...
Article
This paper summarizes published research studies, technical reports and codes and standards related to the visibility (i.e., conspicuity and legibility) of signage. In the summary that follows, publications are grouped and discussed according to several different topics. First, the typographic and symbolic characteristics of signs and the informati...
Article
This paper summarizes published research studies, technical reports and codes and standards related to the visibility (i.e., conspicuity and legibility) of signage. In the summary that follows, publications are grouped and discussed according to several different topics. First, the typographic and symbolic characteristics of signs and the informati...
Article
The organic light-emitting diode (OLED) is an area light source, and its primary competing technology is the edge-lit light-emitting diode (LED) panel. Both technologies are similar in shape and appearance, but there is little understanding of how people perceive discomfort glare (DG) from area sources. The objective of this study was to evaluate t...
Article
Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) differ from incandescent light sources in several ways that are relevant to energy and maintenance requirements of airfield lighting systems. They have higher luminous efficacy and, when designed properly, have longer useful operating lives; both factors make LEDs attractive candidates for airfield lighting. The photome...
Conference Paper
Transportation lighting specifications using photopic photometry are poorly correlated with many relevant visual responses such as peripheral detection, brightness perception and discomfort glare. Potential impacts on specifications are discussed.
Article
Outdoor urban pedestrian lighting serves multiple purposes and should do so in the most efficient and economic manner. An important purpose of outdoor urban pedestrian lighting is to support the safety of pedestrians, particularly those who interact with adjacent vehicle traffic, while enhancing pedestrians' perceptions of personal safety and secur...
Article
Yellow flashing warning beacons help protect front line service workers, including those in transportation, utility and construction sectors. To safeguard these workers, beacons should be readily detected and should provide veridical information about their relative movement. Two psychophysical laboratory experiments were conducted to provide empir...
Article
This paper describes two human factors experiments designed to assess the influence of flicker characteristics on the perception of stroboscopic effects from flickering light. Specifically, the following factors were investigated: temporal waveform shape, frequency, duty cycle, percent flicker and flicker index. For a given frequency, the flicker i...
Article
Highway signs provide important information to drivers to assist in navigation, to identify potentially hazardous roadway locations, and to remind drivers of safe operating practices. Ensuring that signs have sufficient visibility to the driving public is a key undertaking by transportation agencies. In order to assist in evaluating and comparing d...
Article
Flashing yellow warning lights are important for worker and driver safety in work zones. Current standards for these lights do not address whether and how they should be coordinated to provide directional information to drivers navigating through work zones. A field study was conducted to assess driver responses to warning lights. The luminous inte...
Article
The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) recently announced the results of vehicle headlight evaluations, widely reported in the media, especially because so few of the systems were rated as good or acceptable. The IIHS evaluation protocols [IIHS 2016] and rationale [IIHS 2015] are available for review, as are test results on individual ve...
Chapter
This chapter provides the reader with some of the basic terminology and concepts used in the measurement of light (photometry) and color (colorimetry) pertaining to lighting systems. It also describes are some of the types of instrumentation used to make photometric and colorimetric measurements. The chapter illustrates electromagnetic radiation in...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Recent developments in solid-state lighting, sensor and control technologies are making new configurations for vehicle forward lighting feasible. Building on systems that automatically switch from high- to low-beam headlights in the presence of oncoming vehicles, adaptive driving beam (ADB) systems can detect both oncoming headlights and preceding...
Article
Full-text available
Warning beacons are critical for the safety of transportation, construction, and utility workers. These devices need to produce sufficient luminous intensity to be visible without creating glare to drivers. Published standards for the photometric performance of warning beacons do not address their performance in conditions of reduced visibility suc...
Conference Paper
This paper focuses on the safety benefits of adaptive driving beam headlights. The photometric performance of the headlights is tested in the field using simulated headlight and tail light conditions. The test results are summarized and recommendations for standardized measurement conditions for reliability are also provided.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Color used in architectural settings impacts our perception of form, space, and ambiance. The increased availability of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) significantly eases the incorporation of luminous color into the built environment. Nearly-identical-appearing colors closely matched for chromaticity (so-called metamers) can have different spectral c...
Article
Short-wavelength (<500 nm) output of light sources enhances scene brightness perception in the low-to-moderate photopic range. This appears to be partially explained by a contribution from short-wavelength cones. Recent evidence from experiments on humans suggests that intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) containing the phot...
Article
Recent developments in solid-state lighting, sensor, and control technologies make new configurations for vehicle forward lighting feasible. Adaptive driving beam (ADB) systems build on systems that automatically switch from high- to low-beam headlights in the presence of oncoming vehicles. ADB systems can detect oncoming headlights and preceding t...
Technical Report
Full-text available
It has been understood for many years that driving above certain speeds at night while using low beam headlights can result in insufficient visibility to respond to hazards on the road. As new vehicle headlighting technologies emerge, the practicality of intelligent, adaptive high-beam functions has increased so much that these systems are now comm...
Article
Providing subjective impressions of security is central to outdoor lighting design. Current parking lot lighting recommendations are based upon photopic illuminances, regardless of spectrum. Scene brightness perception is directly related to impressions of security, and depends upon both light level and spectrum. A provisional model was used to pre...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Scene brightness is a sensation that is not well predicted by light quantities measured in photopic illuminance or luminance. Experiments with light sources of different spectral compositions indicate that scenes illuminated by sources with greater short-wavelength (<500 nm) output are perceived as being brighter than those illuminated by sources w...
Article
Flashing visual signal lights for emergency notification have usually used xenon strobe light sources, which produce very short flashes of light. Photometric performance specifications for these signal lights use the effective intensity as the primary metric. Effective intensity appears to be a suitable metric for characterizing detection of signal...
Article
It is important to be able to engineer the brightness of interior spaces. In addition to the amount of light delivered to and reflected from surfaces in the space, light spectrum influences apparent scene brightness. Specifically, spaces illuminated by ‘cool white’ sources will look brighter than those illuminated by ‘warm white’ sources for the sa...
Article
Assessing the safety impacts of vehicle forward lighting is a challenge because crash data do not always contain details necessary to ascertain the role, if any, of lighting in crashes. The present paper describes several approaches to evaluating the safety impacts of lighting using naturalistic driving data. Driving behavioral data and descriptive...
Article
Warning lights and beacons on service vehicles such as maintenance trucks, tow trucks, utility service vehicles and delivery vehicles are an important line of defense for the workers who operate them. These flashing lights can also contribute to visual chaos making it difficult to navigate through a work zone location. Research on the flashing conf...
Article
A study of scene brightness perception was conducted to assess whether spectral sensitivity for scene brightness perception at low to moderate light levels (∼3–110 lux) could be partially explained by a contribution of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGC). An experiment was conducted at two different light level ranges and us...
Chapter
This chapter discusses the use of light-emitting diode (LED) sources in vehicular lighting for illumination and signaling. Photometric requirements for automotive lighting are discussed, along with the key differences between LED and filament sources in terms of visual responses. Finally, the energy and environmental implications for LEDs in automo...
Article
Brightness perception under different light sources is an important visual response, because it is related to perceptions of safety. A growing number of studies have been conducted to assess perceptions of scene brightness under light sources differing in spectral content, including results consistent with a role of melanopsin-containing, intrinsic...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Studies of scene brightness suggest that "cooler appearing" sources achieve higher brightness at lower illuminances than "warmer appearing" ones. And while a sense of safety appears to be correlated with perceived scene brightness in outdoor environments, "warm" appearance might be preferred for certain scenarios. With light emitting diode (LED) so...
Conference Paper
At present, photometric quantities such as illuminance and luminance form the primary basis for the specification of roadway lighting. Despite an implicit chain of logic linking roadway lighting to measurable responses like visibility/stopping distances or reaction times, and in turn to reductions in nighttime crashes, there are relatively few dire...
Article
Photopic illuminance is the photometric metric used today for specifying parking lot lighting levels. The photopic luminous efficiency function does not represent the spectral sensitivity of the perceived scene brightness of parking lots. Sources with a greater proportion of short-wavelength radiation will be seen as brighter for the same photopic...
Technical Report
The objective of this project was to develop and conduct a half-day educational seminar on sustainable roadway lighting at three locations within New York State: Rochester, New York City, and Albany. Primary attendees were engineers from the New York State Department of Transportation (NYSDOT), and individuals from local municipalities, electric ut...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Current standards for vehicle headlighting systems specify two distinct headlight beam patterns: a low beam when driving in the presence of other nearby vehicles, and a high beam when there is not a concern for producing glare to other drivers. Adaptive technologies such as curve/bending headlight systems with steerable or swiveling headlights may...
Conference Paper
Present standards for vehicle forward lighting specify two headlamp beam patterns: a low beam when driving in the presence of other nearby vehicles, and a high beam when there is not a concern for producing glare to other drivers. Adaptive lighting technologies such as curve lighting systems with steerable headlamps may be related to increments in...
Technical Report
Rear automotive lighting systems employing dynamic features such as sweeping or flashing are not commonly used on vehicles in North America, in part because they are not clearly addressed in vehicle lighting regulations. Nor is there abundant evidence suggesting they have a substantial role to play in driver safety. The results of a human factors i...
Article
Full-text available
Exterior lighting has multiple objectives. Brightness perception is a relevant parameter for outdoor lighting because it is correlated with perceptions of safety and security. Understanding the influence of the spectral characteristics of lighting to scene brightness perception is important in order to devise exterior lighting specifications that s...

Projects

Projects (3)
Project
The LRC is investigating how different factors (e.g., illuminance, luminance, spectral distribution, size, context) influence various aspects of glare, including disability glare, glare recovery, and especially discomfort glare.
Project
A study funded by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) to evaluate the nighttime effects of flashing yellow warning lights on driver responses while following construction vehicles and navigating through a simulated active work zone also the effect of these lights on disability glare for worker detection by passing drivers.
Project
Service workers in transportation, construction and utilities sectors are over-represented in terms of work-related injuries and fatalities. Warning lights often are the only line of defense between workers and approaching traffic. In this project we are investigating the optimal intensity and temporal properties of flashing warning lights to alert drivers and ensure that workers can be seen, without creating distraction or glare.