John Carmon Briggs

John Carmon Briggs
Oregon State University | OSU · Department of Fisheries and Wildlife

Ph.D.

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132
Publications
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7,399
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Publications

Publications (132)
Article
In their article claiming a rise of invasive species denialism, Russell and Blackburn [1] define invasive alien species (IAS) as those that have negative impacts. This definition is said to reflect the scientific orthodoxy (consensus) that IAS have negative biodiversity, social, and economic impacts. The authors’ restricted definition of IAS is app...
Article
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We outline the marine biogeographic provinces of shallow coastal waters, and highlight the evolutionary insights that arise from understanding the distributions of marine species. Biogeographic provinces are defined as areas with 10% or more of the species within a given taxon being restricted to that one region (endemism). Barriers between provinc...
Article
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Understanding how geography, oceanography, and climate have ultimately shaped marine biodiversity requires aligning the distributions of genetic diversity across multiple taxa. Here, we examine phylogeographic partitions in the sea against a backdrop of biogeographic provinces defined by taxonomy, endemism, and species composition. The taxonomic id...
Chapter
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This multivolume field guide covers the species of interest to fisheries of the major resource groups exploited in the Eastern Central Atlantic. The area of coverage includes FAO ishing area 34 and part of 47. The marine resource groups included are bivalves, gastropods, chitons, cephalopods, stomatopods, shrimps, lobsters, crabs, hagfishes, sharks...
Article
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Briggs (1960) published the first checklist of circumtropical fishes with 107 species. This work served for a half century as the most comprehensive checklist of globally distributed fishes, but the intervening years witnessed many discoveries, and molecular data have changed the way we evaluate species. Here, we update the list guided by taxonomic...
Article
Beginning in the 1960s, San Francisco Bay progressed from an odiferous garbage pit to a scenic bay with clear water, attractive public recreation areas, and improved bird and mammal habitat. The change was made possible by local public support with aid from state and federal agencies. However, the aquatic life, once characterized by huge salmon run...
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Documented extinctions, that have taken place among surrogate taxa during the past 500 years, provide useful information about the extent of recent faunal extinctions and their geographic locations. Species extinctions among terrestrial vertebrates (birds and mammals) and invertebrates (insects and molluscs) have generally taken place in space-rest...
Article
In their Review “Defaunation in the Anthropocene” (25 July, p. [401][1]), R. Dirzo et al. confuse two separate processes that are important to conservation biology, extinction, and population decline. Traditionally, when species are referred to as extinct, it means they no longer have living
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When the subject of global biodiversity and its loss through human action became a focal point of conservation biology, there developed an increasing argument about the effects of the invasions of exotic species into native ecosystems. In order to place the current contention in a historical context, evidence from the geologic record has been exami...
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The history of invasion ecology, with respect to its mid-19th century beginning and its extended relationship with island biogeography, has not been investigated. In fact, most historical accounts begin with the publication of Charles Elton's book in 1958. Since that time, the field has undergone a phenomenal growth until it has become a major spec...
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We synthesize the evolutionary implications of recent advances in the fields of phylogeography, biogeography and palaeogeography for shallow-water marine species, focusing on marine speciation and the relationships among the biogeographic regions and provinces of the world. A recent revision of biogeographic provinces has resulted in the recognitio...
Article
The biodiversity of most marine communities is more or less dependent on continuous invasions from sources with greater richness. These ongoing, natural invasions have become greatly augmented by ship traffic in numerous estuaries and harbors where the native biota has been diminished or lost due to habitat destruction and pollution. Some of the in...
Article
Marine provinces, founded on contrasting floras or faunas, have been recognized for more than 150 years but were not consistently defined by endemism until 1974. At that time, provinces were based on at least a 10% endemism and nested within biogeographic regions that covered large geographic areas with contrasting biotic characteristics. Over time...
Article
A summary is presented of the most important attributes of the medaka (Oryzias latipes), from the standpoint of its usefulness as a laboratory animal. Since the medaka is by far the most popular fish for laboratory use in Japan, the bibliography presented here gives a fair idea of the extent of Japanese work in such areas as fish physiology (sensu...
Article
In contrast to the large number of terrestrial extinctions that have taken place over the past 12,000years, there have apparently been very few marine extinctions. But these small losses should not be reason for complacency. During the past 50years, government supported, commercial fishing has resulted in the collapse of about a thousand population...
Article
A review of evidence from two kinds of studies conducted in the marine environment suggests a species relationship not previously recognized as being consistent and widespread. In the first instance, observations on species invading from a more diverse ecosystem into a less diverse ecosystem indicate that successful colonizations take place because...
Article
In a recent paper by D. R. Bellwood and C. P. Meyer (‘Searching for heat in a marine biodiversity hotspot’, Journal of Biogeography, 2009, 36, 569–576), the authors had two evident objectives: (1) to disprove the theory that the geographical origins of reef organisms could be determined by locating concentrations of endemic species, and (2) to emph...
Article
Abstract The year 2009 marks the 150th anniversary of the publication of Charles Darwin’s Origin of Species. This book was so influential that it is often considered to be the most important scientific work ever written. Many volumes have been published about the Origin and its lasting effects on religion and society, but few have examined its infl...
Article
In a recent paper by M. J. Cavalcanti and V. Gallo, ‘Panbiogeographical analysis of distribution patterns in hagfishes (Craniata: Myxinidae)’ (Journal of Biogeography, 2008, 35, 1258–1268), the authors studied the biogeography of an ancient fish family (Myxinidae) in the hope that the contemporary distributions of the species would reveal their pas...
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Although all of the world’s coral reef regions have suffered degradation due to direct and indirect human influences, only the Western Atlantic reefs have declined to the extent that their continued existence appears to be in jeopardy. Of a once flourishing reef system, only about 10% is still alive and it is depauperate in terms of the food web di...
Article
Among the major oceans of the world, the North Atlantic presents a unique problem in regard to the management of its commercial and recreational fisheries. Almost all of its populations of large-sized, predatory fishes have collapsed to the extent that they no longer play an effective role in the ecosystem. There is a fundamental difference in the...
Article
From the viewpoint of 2007, one can trace the history of an interesting and contentious trend in biogeography and evolution that began with Croizat’s concept of panbiogeography in 1958. After a quiescent period of about 16 years, some young biologists in New York and in New Zealand read Croizat’s books and became enthusiastic supporters of his idea...
Article
ABSTRACT The horizontal temperature zones of the earth tend to restrict the latitudinal ranges of species but allow the possibility of exceedingly broad longitudinal dispersals. In the Tropical Zone, biodiversity on the continental shelves is not homogeneous but is concentrated in two conspicuous peaks, one in the Indo-Pacific Ocean and the other i...
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The Research Article Impacts of biodiversity loss on ocean ecosystem services By B. Worm et al. (3 Nov. 2006, p. [787][1]) projects that 100 of seafood-producing species stocks will collapse by 2048. The projection is inaccurate and overly pessimistic. ![Figure][2] CREDIT: DIGITAL VISION/
Article
Although biogeography and ecology had previously been considered distinct disciplines, this outlook began to change in the early 1990s. Several people expressed interest in creating a link that would help ecologists become more aware of external influences on communities and help biogeographers realize that distribution patterns had their genesis a...
Article
The current worldwide degradation of coral reefs constitutes an international problem that calls for immediate attention. A multitude of conservation hotspots scattered over the circumtropical seas have been identified, but there has been no general agreement as to how to attack the problem. The major difficulty seems to be the lack of a priority s...
Article
When temperature and other kinds of barrier divide formerly continuous populations and confine them to more restricted geographical areas, there is an evolutionary reaction that will, over time, result in the formation of endemic species. In such cases, an allopatric speciation process is considered to have taken place because reproductive isolatio...
Article
Aim To discuss the impact of new diversity information and to utilize recent findings on modes of speciation in order to clarify the evolutionary significance of the East Indies Triangle. Location The Indo-Pacific Ocean. Methods Analysis of information on species diversity, distribution patterns and speciation for comparative purposes. Results Info...
Article
Aim To present a new hypothetical history of the otophysan fishes. Location World-wide. Methods Utilization of recent information about otophysan phylogeny, palaeontology, biogeography and external relations. Results Anatomical, mitochondrial DNA and karological research has indicated that the Cypriniformes is the most primitive of the four orders...
Article
Aim To discuss the theory that the present high species diversity and apomorphic character of the coral reef ecosystem is because of the historic accumulation of basal species from marginal habitats. Location The Indo-West Pacific Ocean. Methods The examination of biogeographical patterns from the standpoint of paleontology, phylogeny, genetics, an...
Book
Foundations of Biogeography provides facsimile reprints of seventy-two works that have proven fundamental to the development of the field. From classics by Georges-Louis LeClerc Compte de Buffon, Alexander von Humboldt, and Charles Darwin to equally seminal contributions by Ernst Mayr, Robert MacArthur, and E. O. Wilson, these papers and book excer...
Article
Aim To present an up to date account of the Mesozoic history of India and its relationship to the other Gondwana continents and to Eurasia. Location Continents surrounding the Western Indian Ocean. Methods Utilization of recent evidence of continental relationships based upon research in stratigraphy, palaeomagnetism, palaeontology, and contemporar...
Article
A new species of clingfish (Gobiesocidae) in the genus Rimicola, that exhibits unique sexual dimorphisms, is described from the Santa Barbara Islands, California. It is most closely related to two other California Rimicola species that are also sexually dimorphic. Now that a Rimicola species described from the Caribbean has been determined to belon...
Article
The superior diversity of the tropics is well known and, for largest marine and continental areas, there appears to be a positive relationship between area and species diversity (richness). There are certain portions of the tropics, however, in which species diversity has reached unusual high levels. Such areas apparently function as centers of evo...
Article
A new species is described from the Pacific coast of Colombia. It differs from its congeners by having a shorter disc and a greater number of vertebrae. This brings the number of species in the genus Tomicodon to 15, 13 of them in the eastern Pacific and two in the western Atlantic.
Article
A new species of clingfish is described from the shallow marine waters of the Philippines. This brings the number of species in the the genus to 10, all of them found in the tropical to warm-temperate waters of the Indo-West Pacific Ocean.
Article
To discuss the development and usefulness of the theory of centrifugal speciation and its practical application to the centre of origin hypothesis. The Indo-West Pacific Ocean. Utilization of patterns demonstrating species diversity, generic age, dispersal tracks, phylogenetics, extinction and genetic diversity. The centrifugal speciation hypothesi...
Article
Full-text available
Within the Indo-West Pacific, the East Indies exhibits the greatest species richness in the marine world and may also be functioning as a center of evolutionary radiation. Both kinds of allopatric speciation, vicarianism and dispersal, clearly take place. The parapatric mode of speciation occurs among planktonic organisms and along continuous shore...
Article
Aim To provide evidence suggesting the existence of a dynamic system of extinction and replacement. Location The Indo-West Pacific Ocean. Methods Utilization of species distribution patterns produced by detailed systematic works. Results The distribution patterns appear to suggest a sequence of events that is consistent with the centre of origin hy...
Article
The majority of tropical marine families demonstrate their greatest concentration of species within the relatively small East Indies Triangle. In every direction, the species diversity decreases with distance from the East Indies. Other patterns suggest that the East Indies is where the average generic age is youngest, where some historical routes...
Article
The majority of tropical marine families demonstrate their greatest concentration of species within the relatively small East Indies Triangle. In every direction, the species diversity decreases with distance from the East Indies. Other patterns suggest that the East Indies is where the average generic age is youngest, where some historical routes...
Book
The book traces global changes in geography and biology from the Precambrian to the present day, examines the evolutionary effects of the major extinctions, and discusses contemporary biogeographic regions within the context of their historic origins. Biotas of the various biogeographical regions have had, and still maintain, a dynamic relationship...
Article
The predominant geophysical theory for the origin of Central America proposes that, in the Cretaceous-Paleocene, the Caribbean Plate migrated from the Eastern Pacific to the Western Atlantic. As it did so, it supposedly pushed the original Central American archipelago eastward to form the Antillean chain. This would have left an oceanic gap between...
Article
A new genus and species of clingfish is described from shallow marine waters of southern Australia. The four type specimens are characterized by having unusually short dorsal and anal fins and highly developed subopercular spines. The arrangement of sensory canal pores on the head is also distinctive. The new genus is tentatively placed in the subf...
Article
Much of the argument about the existence or nonexistence of centres of origin has been focused on the marine East Indies. During the past 10 years, considerable new information has become available. Patterns suggesting historic dispersals from the East Indies have been described. It is now apparent that there is, in several animal groups, an increa...
Article
For the past decade, the scientific and popular press have carried frequent articles about a catastrophic mass extinction that supposedly destroyed the majority of the earth's species, including the dinosaurs, approximately 65 million years ago. Since 1980, more than 2000 papers and books have dealt with some aspect of a mass extinction at the Cret...
Article
Geophysical maps depicting continental movement have consistently shown India, as it moved northward, to be located far out in the Tethys Sea. India split off from the African east coast about 148 m.y.a. From that time onward, according to almost all geophysical accounts, India was isolated from all other continents until the early Miocene when it...
Article
Antitropical distributions of continental shelf, Indo-West Pacific species are probably not due to transgression of the tropics during the glacial periods, isothermic submergence, island integration, rising Neogene temperatures, or the Mesozoic dispersal of fragments from a Pacific continental mass. Characteristics of common antitropical patterns,...
Article
A current question being debated with considerable intensity is whether or not certain geographic areas act as centers of evolutionary radiation and supply species to other areas that are less active or less effective in an evolutionary sense. Darwin (1859) was the first to write about centers of origin which he called “single centers of creation.”...
Article
Novacek and Marshall (1976) stated that there were three likely areas of origin for the ostariophysan fishes: Gondwanaland, Africa or South America and that the latter was the most probable. In their analysis, these authors placed considerable reliance on a biogeographical theory proposed by Hennig (1966) and Brundin (1975). However, if one examine...
Article
A small, new species of clingfish from the Bismarck Archipelago and the Fiji Islands is described. It belongs to a new genus that is apparently specialized for a commensal relationship with certain shallow reef crinoids. Information is presented about the crinoid in the Fiji area and also a useful method for collecting live specimens of the clingfi...
Article
The operation of zoogeographic barriers. Syst. Zool. 23:248–256.—Information about the operation of various, major zoogeographic barriers in both marine and terrestrial environments is presented. The data appear to indicate that such barriers affect the distribution of animals in a consistent manner. Therefore, it is possible to propose a general t...
Book
Global marine zoogeography and evolution.
Article
A faunal history of the North Atlantic Ocean, Syst. Zool., 19:19–34 [Paleoclimate; marine faunas; zoogeography; North Atlantic Ocean].—Our modern, Northern Hemisphere boreal faunas apparently had a dual origin. In Paleocene-Eocene times, one cold-temperate evolutionary center probably became established in the Arctic Basin. Then, as the climate gre...
Article
Full-text available
http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/57063/1/OP627.pdf
Article
Thesis (A.M.)--Stanford University, 1947. Bibliography: numb. leaf 37-38.
Article
The shore fishes of Panama are still poorly known. Considering that a sea-level canal is likely to be excavated in the near future, it is important that the fishes and other marine animals of this area be investigated as thoroughly as possible. Recent collecting activity in shallow waters of both sides of the isthmus has revealed the presence of th...
Article
The Seychelles Program collected representatives of three species of clingfishes. One had previously been reported from the Seychelles, one was known only from the holotype which had been taken in the New Hebrides, and one proved to be undescribed. The new species is most closely related to Lepadichthys lineatus from the Red Sea.
Article
A tiny, new species of clingfish, Derilissus nanus, from the Bahamas also represents a new genus. Because of an interesting evolutionary convergence, the new genus would, on superficial characters, be placed in an Indo-West Pacific subfamily. However, its osteology indicates that it is a derivative from a New World stock and that it should be place...
Article
A new clingfish, Tomicodon prodomus, is described from the Gulf of Guayaquil, Ecuador. It is considered to be the most primitive member of its genus. Its closest relative appears to be T. humeralis, a species confined to the Gulf of California.
Article
McDowall (1968) published a critical commentary about my article (Briggs, 1966a) on oceanic islands, endemism, and marine paleotemperatures. His principal objections were concerned with two main points: one a question of the validity of my procedure which compared rates of endemism among various animal groups and the other a matter of the accuracy...
Article
The Isthmus of Panama comprises a major zoogeographic barrier for tropical marine animals that has stood for about three million years. The great majority of the species on either side of the Isthmus are distinct, at the species level, from those of the opposite side. The habitats on each side of the Isthmus are probably ecologically saturated so t...

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Project
To describe and provide evidence for the recent shift of the center from East Asia to the Americas