John Beer

John Beer
CATIE - Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza | CATIE

About

86
Publications
79,217
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3,085
Citations
Citations since 2017
2 Research Items
983 Citations
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200
Additional affiliations
March 2008 - present
CATIE - Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza
Position
  • Director of Research and Development

Publications

Publications (86)
Article
Full-text available
A finales de los años 1990 el CATIE, con apoyo de varias instituciones, inició una red de ensayos de largo plazo en sistemas agroforestales con café. Los vacíos de información sobre las interacciones agroecológicas en sistemas con diferentes enfoques de producción a largo plazo, sumados a la urgente necesidad de asegurar sostenibilidad y restauraci...
Technical Report
Full-text available
In this report, we present the main findings of a long-term study evaluating the survival and growth performance of twelve timber species established in linear plantations in small-farms in Costa Rica and Panamá.
Article
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To investigate the effects of microbial inocula and Erythrina poeppigiana pruning residues on soil K, NO3-, and NH4+ concentrations, a greenhouse trial, a field experiment in an organic farm, and three in vitro tests were conducted. Under controlled conditions, weak, temporary effects (10 %) on maize seedling growth were observed on poor soils (tak...
Article
Full-text available
Spatial relationships between root length density of Coffea arabica (coffee RLD) and soil nutrient- related factors at plot scale in a coffee- Erythrina poeppigiana system was studied by geostatistics. In a 24 × 29 m area, (organic and conventional management), coffee and Erythrina fine roots and soil chemical properties were sampled on an irregula...
Research Proposal
Full-text available
El Programa Agroambiental Mesoamericano (MAP), financiado por el gobierno de Noruega y en adelante denominado MAP Noruega tiene como propósito la construcción de dos Territorios Climáticamente Inteligentes (TCI) en Centroamérica: NicaCentral (en la zona Centro Norte de Nicaragua) y Trifinio (en la frontera de El Salvador, Guatemala y Honduras); bas...
Chapter
Full-text available
Agroforestry covers between 200 and 357 million hectares in Latin America, including 14–26 million hectares in Central America and 88–315 million hectares in South America. Commercial silvopastoral systems and shaded tree-crop systems (involving crops such as of coffee, Coffea spp., and cacao, Theobroma cacao L.) are the most prominent agroforestry...
Book
Full-text available
El Proyecto Bosques y Manejo Forestal en América Central (Finnfor-CATIE/MAP) del Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza (CATIE), trabaja con el apoyo del Ministerio de Asuntos Exteriores de Finlandia. El propósito del proyecto es que familias productoras, organizaciones de productores, organizaciones no gubernamentales, empresas, i...
Article
Full-text available
Timber production and cocoa yields were studied (initial 10–11 years) in two experimental plantations: a Cocoa-Legume system (CL, Erythrina poeppigiana, Gliricidia sepium or Inga edulis), and a Cocoa-Timber system (CT, Cordia alliodora, Tabebuia rosea or Terminalia ivorensis, plus I. edulis for inter-site comparisons). These trials had two major go...
Article
Timber production and cocoa yields were studied (initial 10–11 years) in two experimental plantations: a Cocoa-Legume system (CL, Erythrina poeppigiana, Gliricidia sepium or Inga edulis), and a Cocoa-Timber system (CT, Cordia alliodora, Tab-ebuia rosea or Terminalia ivorensis, plus I. edulis for inter-site comparisons). These trials had two major g...
Book
Full-text available
Agricultural systems are no longer evaluated solely on the basis of the food they provide, but also on their capacity to limit impacts on the environment, such as soil conservation, water quality and biodiversity conservation, as well as their contribution to mitigating and adapting to climate change. In order to cope with these multiple service fu...
Book
Full-text available
THE WAYS IN WHICH FORESTS ARE PERCEIVED AND USED HAVE CHANGED DRAMATICALLY OVER RECENT YEARS. FORESTS ARE NO LONGER SEEN SIMPLY AS A SOURCE OF TIMBER, BUT AS COMPLEX ECOSYSTEMS WHICH SUSTAIN LIVELIHOODS AND PROVIDE A RANGE OF PRODUCTS AND ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES. IT IS NOW WIDELY RECOGNISED THAT FORESTS CAN CONTRIBUTE TO RURAL DEVELOPMENT AND POVERT...
Article
The impact of Erythrina poeppigiana on soil characteristics, at three different positions relative to the shade tree and from three different soil depths, was evaluated in pairs of comparable Costa Rican coffee farms (organic and conventional) in 2000 and 2004. In the conventional system at 0–5cm, higher C and N concentrations were found close to t...
Article
The addition of organic matter to soil is frequently viewed as a vital intervention to maintain soil quality. The aim of this study was to investigate the temporal response of the soil macroorganic fraction to different organic coffee farming practices (e.g., plant residue, earthworm and microbial inocula addition). Three density fractions of macro...
Article
Full-text available
Nitrogen fertilization is a key factor for coffee production but creates a risk of water contamination through nitrate (NO 3 À) leaching in heavily fertilized plantations under high rainfall. The inclusion of fast growing timber trees in these coffee plantations may increase total biomass and reduce nutrient leaching. Potential controls of N loss w...
Article
Full-text available
Nitrogen fertilization is a key factor for coffee production but creates a risk of water contamination through nitrate (NO3−) leaching in heavily fertilized plantations under high rainfall. The inclusion of fast growing timber trees in these coffee plantations may increase total biomass and reduce nutrient leaching. Potential controls of N loss wer...
Article
Full-text available
At least 6.3 million ha in Central America are covered by degraded pasture lands, and those areas are increasing because annual rates for renovation are less than for degradation. This study is an effort to estimate the bio-economical impact of pasture degradation in an area of 720 km², representing the pilot zone of the CATIE/NORWAY Pasture Degrad...
Article
At least 6.3 million ha in Central America are covered by degraded pasture lands, and these areas are increasing because the annual rates for restoration are lesser than for degradation. This study is an effort to estimate the bio-economical impact of pasture degradation in an area of 720 km 2, representing the pilot zone of the CATIE/NORWAY Pastur...
Article
At least 6.3 million ha in Central America are covered by degraded pasture lands, and these areas are increasing because the annual rates for restoration are lesser than for degradation. This study is an effort to estimate the bio-economical impact of pasture degradation in an area of 720 km 2, representing the pilot zone of the CATIE/NORWAY Pastur...
Article
Arazá (Eugenia stipitata), a fruit shrub originating from Western Amazonia, was evaluated growing in association with timber shade trees (Acacia mangium or Cordia alliodora) or with plantain (Musa sp.) as a potential commercial species for the tropical moist lowlands of Talamanca, Costa Rica. Height and crown width of the four-year-old shrubs varie...
Article
Full-text available
Fine-root dynamics (diameter < 2.0 mm) were studied on-farm in associations of Coffea arabica with Eucalyptus deglupta or Terminalia ivorensis and in a pseudo-chronosequence of C. arabica-E. deglupta associations (two, three, four and five years old). Coffee plants were submitted to two fertilisation types. Cores were taken in the 0–40 cm soil prof...
Article
Agroforestry systems (AFS) research and development (R&D) has evolved dramatically over the last 30 years in four major ways. The emphasis has shifted from the description of systems to understanding how they function; from simple mixtures of few components at field and farm levels to more complex consideration of diversity at landscape and regiona...
Book
Full-text available
LA FAÇON DONT LES FORÊTS SONT PERÇUES ET LEURS UTILISATIONS ONT BEAUCOUP CHANGÉ AU COURS DES DERNIÈRES ANNÉES. LES FORÊTS NE SONT PLUS CONSIDÉRÉES COMME ÉTANT UNIQUEMENT DES SOURCES DE BOIS MAIS DES ÉCOSYSTÈMES COMPLEXES QUI PERMETTENT À DES COMMUNAUTÉS DE SE DÉVELOPPER ET OFFRENT TOUTE UNE GAMME DE PRODUITS ET DE SERVICES ENVIRONNEMENTAUX. ON RECO...
Book
Full-text available
Las maneras de percibir y usar los bosques han cambiado dramáticamente durante los últimos años. Ya no se considera más a los bosques solo como una fuente de madera, sino como ecosistemas complejos que sustentan las formas de vida humana y suministran una gama de productos y servicios ambientales. Ahora es ampliamente reconocido que los bosques pue...
Article
Full-text available
Under full sun coffee (Coffea arabica) and coffee shaded with Eucalyptus deglupta, on an Ultisol in the southern zone of Costa Rica (600 mast and 2700 mm annual rainfall), soil N mineralisation and nitrification, N losses from the systems through run-off and leaching and soil NO3 accumulation were evaluated. Both systems received 180 kg N ha-1 as c...
Article
Full-text available
The decomposition and nutrient release from Eucalyptus deglupta and Coffea arabica leaf litter and Erythrina poeppigiana green leaves, alone or mixed, was studied on two coffee farms in Southern Costa Rica. E. deglupta litter had the slowest decomposition rates (k = -0.08 and -0.16), while the decomposition of E. poeppigiana litter was fastest (k =...
Article
To reduce soil erosion on sloping fields grass strips are commonly planted on the contours. The integration of timber trees into such strips can be economically beneficial and at the same time increase the anti-erosion effect of the strips. Root competition between grasses and trees within such strips may affect tree development, but might also red...
Article
The benefits that tropical farmers derive from associating trees with crops may be reduced or outweighed by competition for light and soil resources, and the use of incompetitive trees in agroforestry associations is therefore a standard recommendation. However, under certain conditions tropical farmers use very fast-growing and presumably competit...
Article
Full-text available
Este artículo resume los principales servicios ambientales que pue-den proveer los sistemas agroforestales (SAF): 1) mantenimiento de la fertilidad del suelo/reducción de la erosión mediante el apor-te de material orgánico al suelo, fijación de nitrógeno y reciclaje de nutrientes; 2) conservación del agua (cantidad y calidad) al favore-cer la infil...
Chapter
Full-text available
En América Central, casi todos los sistemas agrícolas tradicionales, los cuales incluyen los sistemas ganaderos, tienen árboles intercalados con cultivos o manejados en una forma zonal alternando árboles y cultivos y/o pastos; es decir, son sistemas agroforestales. Aún con la modernización de la agricultura de la región, los paisajes agrícolas toda...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Cultivos perennes con sombra (café, té, caucho, cacao, musáceas, palmaceae, cupuazú, cardamomo, pimienta negra, vainilla, etc.) son económicamente importantes en varias regiones del mundo. En Latinoamérica tropical, el cacao y especialmente el café, son cultivos de gran importancia. Por ejemplo, en Centroamérica, el café representa entre 17-27% de...
Article
Full-text available
This paper reviews the research themes and methodologies used by CATIE in agroforestry research with shade trees over coffee (Coffea arabica) and cacao (Theobroma cacao) during the past 20 years. Initially research focused on characterization and production studies (of crop and timber including border areas) of traditional systems using temporary a...
Article
Full-text available
Root turnover may contribute a significant proportion of recycled nutrients in agroforestry systems and competition between trees and crops for nutrients and water may depend on temporal fine root regrowth patterns. Fine root biomass ( 2 mm) and fine root productivity were measured during one year in plantations of cacao (Theobroma cacao) shaded by...
Article
The temporary association of annual crops in juvenile tree plantations (Taungya system) can reduce or offset the initial costs of reforestation and hence provide incentives for tree planting on private farms. A replicated systematic spacing design, derived from a Nelder-fan design, was used to study the effects of tree-crop distance on growth and d...
Article
Full-text available
Los promedios de sobrevivencia, altura total y dap del maderable Cordia alliodora (dos años de edad) en sistemas agroforestales con Theobroma cacao o con Musa spp. sembrado en 28 fincas por indígenas Ngobe en la región de Bocas del Toro, en Panamá, fueron 70%, 3.4 ni y 4.6 cm, respectivamente. Los agricultores estaban satisfechos con la tecnología...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Estudiantes de Ciencias Forestales realizaron las primeras tesis Agroforestales del CATIE en 1954, al enfocar el estudio del manejo de árboles maderables en campos agrícolas. En los 60's y 7O's se publicaron varias tesis sobre sistemas Taungya. No fue sino hasta 1 983 cuando la Escuela de Posgrado egresó el primer especialista en Manejo de Recursos...
Article
Full-text available
Se analizaron críticamente los enfoques y las metodologías utilizadas en la investigación agroforestal con café (Coffea arabica) y cacao (Theobroma cacao) en el CATIE en los últimos 20 años. La investigación evolucionó en cuatro etapas: 1) caracterización y mejoramiento de sistemas tradicionales; 2) evaluación del ciclaje de nutrientes y la sosteni...
Article
Full-text available
Se analizó el efecto de las características del sitio sobre la sobrevivencia, el crecimiento y la rentabilidad financiera de linderos de leca (Tectona granáis L.F.) en siete fincas en Talamanca, Cosía Rica y en Changuinola, Panamá. La mortalidad acumulada hasta los 9 años de edad fue baja, con un promedio del 9 %. aunque ciertos sitios mostraron ni...
Technical Report
Full-text available
La difusión de los avances científicos, tecnológicos y metodológicos en agroforestería es una contribución institucional importante a la comunidad de investi¬gadores y técnicos, La agroforestería se encuentra firmemente establecida como una alternativa ecológica y productiva capaz de mejorar el uso y manejo de glandes áreas degradadas de nuestra re...
Article
Full-text available
Se presenta una síntesis de lo que se conoce, lo que se cree que se conoce y lo que no se conoce después de más de 10 años de investigación agroforestal con cacao en la esta¬ción experimental del CATIE y en fincas de agricultores de Talamanca (Costa Rica) y Bocas del Toro (Panamá) Las tecnologías estudiadas incluyeron: 1) especies leguminosas o mad...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
La investigación agroforestal de CATIE con perennes se inició con el estudio de sistemas tradicionales de café con sombra (maderable y leguminosa), poniendo énfasis en: 1) el crecimiento, poblaciones y manejo silvicultura! del componente maderable; y 2) los efectos de los árboles sobre los cultivos asociados. Una segunda fase se centró en los ciclo...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Extemal and intemal factors influenced formally recognized agroforestry research at its inception in CATIE in 1979. Paradigms in the intemational research and development community are among the most influential extemal factors: 1) high species diversity, structural complexity, closed nutrient cycles, little or no extemal inputs were considered hig...
Article
Full-text available
Shade trees reduce the stress of coffee (Coffea spp.) and cacao (Theobroma cacao) by ameliorating adverse climatic conditions and nutritional imbalances, but they may also compete for growth resources. For example, shade trees buffer high and low temperature extremes by as much as 5 °C and can produce up to 14 Mg ha−1 yr−1 of litterfall and pruning...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The importance of studying Ihe interactions batween coffee and shade trees has long been recognized ín CATIE [Sylvain, 1979], However research focusing specífically on coffee shade trees began ín 1977 with evaluations of laurel (Cordia alliodora), a timber tree and of poro (Erythrina poeppigiana), a "Service" tree which gives no commercial product...
Article
Full-text available
En América Central se utiliza sombra en la mayoría de los cafe¬tales (Perfecto et al, 1996). En Cafetales poco tecnificados se utiliza una sombra diversa compuesta de especies diferentes, que producen productos variados (madera, frutas, fibras, medi¬cinas, etc.) y que tienen un manejo diferente según las caracte¬rísticas de cada especie (Beer, 1995...
Article
In 1987–89 the CATIE-GTZ Agroforestry Project set up experiments with five timber tree species planted in single lines on twelve farm boundaries in cooperation with local farmers. When the trees were five years old, their height, diameter and total stem volume were: Acacia mangium 17 m, 19 cm and 67 m3 km–1, Cordia alliodora 14 m, 20 cm and 46 m3 k...
Article
Survival and growth data (ages 0–5 years) are presented for two timber species (Acacia mangium, Cordia alliodora) planted in monocultures or in association with a sequence of agricultural cropsZea mays, Zingiber officinale andEugenia stipitata (a fruit shrub) in the tropical humid Caribbean lowlands of Costa Rica. Average annual height and diameter...
Article
The relative importance of the processes of SOM (maintenance of active soil organic matter) and SYNCHRONY (timing of release of organically-bound nutrients to coincide with crop demand) were assessed for their contribution to the maintenance of crop nitrogen availability in alley cropping. Alley cropping is a system of agroforestry where trees and...
Article
Maize growing next toErythrina hedgerows had 44% lower biomass (p<0.01) and 35% lower N content (p<0.1) than maize growing in the middle of the alleys. Maize growing next toGliricidia hedgerows had the same biomass but 56% higher N content (p<0.1) than maize growing in the middle of the alleys. However these differences did not develop until 2 mont...
Article
In the ‘Experimento Central’ of CATIE (Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza, Turrialba, Costa Rica) studies on organic matter and nutrient cycling have been carried out in the following agroforestry systems, planted in 1977: •- Theobroma cacao with Cordia alliodora and Erythrina poeppigiana;•- Coffea arabica with the same shade t...
Article
The rapid appraisal and farmer selection procedures, preceding the establishment of over fifty agroforestry research trials on farms in Talamanca, Costa Rica are described. The highest probability of success and impact of these long-term collaborative trials is obtained by selecting innovative, experienced, motivated and locally respected farmers....
Article
Phosphorus availability was measured in soils under five cropping systems: alley cropping with Erythrina poeppigiana, alley cropping with Gliricidia sepium, sole cropping with Erythrina poeppigiana mulch applied, sole cropping with Gliricidia sepium mulch applied, sole cropping with no mulch. The following parameters were measured: 1) plant-availab...
Article
Full-text available
Predictive models were developed for Cordia alliodora branch and Theobroma cacao branch or leaf biomass,based on branch basal areas (r2 0.79) but the model of C. alliodora leaf biomass, although significant, was of very low accuracy (r2 = 0.09) due to annual leaf fall. At age 10 years, shade tree stem biomass accounted for 80% of the total above-gr...
Article
The Tropical Agricultural Research and Training Center carries out research, training and technical cooperation in Central America and the Caribbean. This chapter analyzes the experiences from different projects in Costa Rica, and proposes some planning principles that have gradually evolved from one project to the next. The mechanisms to set goals...
Article
Full-text available
The hydrological balances for the agroforestry systems of Theobroma cacao with Cordia alliodora or Erythrina poeppigiana were calculated using measurements taken over four years (1983–1987) of the following parameters: climatic (precipitation, evaporation); edaphological (texture, soil moisture tension, hydraulic conductivity, variations in soil mo...
Article
The relative importance of N fixation, organic material inputs and nutrient inputs in litterfall, as justifications for including shade trees in plantations of coffee or cacao, is discussed. According to existing data, N fixation by leguminous shade trees does not exceed 60 kg.N/ha/a. However, these trees contribute 5,000–10,000 kg. organic materia...
Article
In Central America, combinations of the timber tree laurel (Cordia alliodora (R & P) Oken) with coffee (Coffea arabica L.), cacao (Teobroma cacao L.) or pastures, are amongst the best examples of traditional agroforestry. Growth data, taken annually for 5–8 years in twelve permanent agroforestry sample plots, together with annual ring counts of bas...
Article
A review is made of the ecological interactions that occur between shade trees and the perennial crops: coffee (Coffee spp. L.), cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) and tea (Camellia sinensis L. Kuntze). These interactions are classified firstly as advantages or disadvantages, and secondly as: effects on crop management; effects on the hydrological cycle; e...
Article
A preliminary nutrient cycling study quantified total and temporal nutrient inputs via litterfall and pruning residues in two agroforestry systems: (1) Coffea arabica (perennial crop)-Erythrina poeppigiana (leguminous shade tree); and (2) C. arabica-E. poeppigiana-Cordia alliodora with emphasis on the effect of the timber tree C. alliodora. The tot...
Technical Report
Full-text available
In Central America , combinations of the timber tree Cordia alliodora with coffee (Coffea arabica). cacao (Theobroma cacao) and sugar cane (sacharum officinarum) or pastures, are amongst the best examples of traditional agroforestry. Growth data. taken annually for 5·8 years in 12 permanent agroforestry sample plots. together with annual ring count...
Article
Full-text available
A case study oj Psidium guajava fuelwood volume and increments was made in a naturally regenerated stand (264/ha) associated with natural pasture at 1 200 mast in a premontane humid forest zone. The average dimensions of the trees were: stem basal diameter at 10 cm from the soil sur face,20 cm; fuelwood volunte to a mínimum diameter of 2.5 cm. 0.12...
Book
Full-text available
La asociación C. alliodora-pasto es una situación muy común en las zonas tropicales húmedas bajas de México. En la mayoría de los casos, los árboles de C. alliodora provienen de la regeneración natural y son tolerados dentro de los pastizales por sus muchos aspectos benéficos (principalmente madera valiosa) y pocos aspectos desfavorables (competenc...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Este documento ha sido concebido como una guía para la organización de cursos cortos en agroforestería. Con este propósito se presenta un compendio de las actividades desarrolladas en el curso corto Investigación de Técnicas Agroforestales Tradicionales realizado en México, en los Estados de Tabasco, Campeche y Quinta¬na Roo, entre el 30 de noviemb...

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