John R. Bargar

John R. Bargar
Stanford University | SU · Chemistry and Catalysis Division

Ph.D. Geological and Environmental Sciences

About

330
Publications
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13,917
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Publications

Publications (330)
Article
Small-particle analysis is a highly promising emerging forensic tool for analysis of interdicted special nuclear materials. Integration of microstructural, morphological, compositional, and molecular impurity signatures could provide significant advancements in forensic capabilities. We have applied rapid, high-sensitivity, hard X-ray synchrotron c...
Article
Full-text available
Water resources, including groundwater and prominent rivers worldwide, are under duress because of excessive contaminant and nutrient loads. To help mitigate this problem, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) has supported research since the late 1980s to improve our fundamental knowledge of processes that could be used to help clean up cha...
Article
Field and laboratory observations to date indicate that the efficiency of hydraulic fracturing, as it relates to hydrocarbon recovery, depends significantly on geochemical alterations to rock surfaces that diminish accessibility by partial or total plugging of the pore and fracture networks. This is caused by mineral scale deposition, such as coati...
Article
Sediment interfaces in alluvial aquifers have a disproportionately large influence on biogeochemical activity and, therefore, on groundwater quality. Previous work showed that exports from fine-grained, organic-rich zones sustain reducing conditions in downstream coarse-grained aquifers beyond the influence of reduced aqueous products alone. Here,...
Article
The terrestrial subsurface microbiome contains vastly underexplored phylogenetic diversity and metabolic novelty, with critical implications for global biogeochemical cycling. Among the key microbial inhabitants of subsurface soils and sediments are Thaumarchaeota, an archaeal phylum that encompasses ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) as well as non-a...
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Cracks, broadly defined as compliant discontinuities, are a major cause of elastic anisotropy. However, few models are available for quantifying crack properties relevant to anisotropy. We developed a rock physics model to quantify crack angular distribution and normal-to-tangential compliance ratio from pressure-dependent acoustic velocities measu...
Article
From geochemical reactions to proppant emplacement, hydraulic fracturing induces various chemo-mechanical fracture alterations in shale reservoirs. Hydraulic fracturing through the injection of a vast amount and variety of fluids and proppants has substantial impacts on fluid flow and hydrocarbon production. There is a strong need to improve our un...
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Lead contamination in soils and sediments is a major threat to water quality. In surface and near-surface environments, Pb is not redox active; however, common Pb hosts, including Fe(III)-(hydr)oxides and sulfides, dissolve and precipitate as redox conditions change. Dissolution of Pb hosts may release Pb to porewater, leading to spikes in dissolve...
Article
Alluvial aquifers serve as one of the main water sources for domestic, agricultural, and industrial purposes globally. Groundwater quality, however, can be threatened by naturally occurring and anthropogenic metal contaminants. Differing hydrologic and biogeochemical conditions between predominantly coarse-grained aquifer sediments and embedded lay...
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The long-term fate of uranium-contaminated sediments, especially downstream former mining areas, is a widespread environmental challenge. Essential for their management is the proper understanding of uranium (U) immobilization mechanisms in reducing environments. In particular, the long-term behavior of noncrystalline U(IV) species and their possib...
Article
Hydraulic fracturing of unconventional hydrocarbon resources involves the sequential injection of a high-pressure, particle-laden fluid with varying pH's to make commercial production viable in low permeability rocks. This process both requires and produces extraordinary volumes of water. The water used for hydraulic fracturing is typically fresh,...
Article
In this response to the comment by S. Peiffer, Environ. Sci.: Nano , 2021, we show that detailed examination of the Fe speciation provides clear evidence of the Fe–S-colloid stability and composition.
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Full-text available
Riparian floodplains represent an interaction zone between the terrestrial subsurface and rivers, where regional groundwater flows, infiltration, and evapotranspiration drive mixing of water and import/export of nutrients and contaminants. These dynamics create seasonally transient redox conditions that drive biogeochemical transformations, which s...
Article
Uranium and other radionuclides are prominent in many unconventional oil/gas shales and is a potential contaminant in flowback/produced waters due to the large volumes/types of chemicals injected into the subsurface during stimulation. To understand the stability of U before and after stimulation, a geochemical study of U speciation was carried out...
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Full-text available
We have used synchrotron-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy (structure of Fe-S clusters), transmission electron microscopy (solid-phase crystallinity), Fourier-transform ion-cyclotron-resonance mass spectrometry (identity and composition of natural organic carbon compounds), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (total aqueous F...
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Reaction conditions and mechanisms promoting or inhibiting U reduction exert a central control on U solubility and, therefore, U transport and its associated risks. Here, we vary and track common aqueous uranium species to show that a kinetic restriction inhibits homogeneous reduction of the calcium-uranyl-carbonato species (CaUO2(CO3)32– and Ca2UO...
Article
Injection of hydraulic fracturing fluid (HFF) into shale formations for unconventional oil/gas production results in chemical reactions in the shale matrix. Our recent experimental study determined the depths to which different types of reactions between the shale matrix and the HFF extended. In the present study, we built continuum scale reactive...
Article
Groundwater contamination by As from natural and anthropogenic sources is a world-wide concern. Redox heterogeneities over space and time are common and can influence the molecular-level speciation of As, and thus As release/retention, but are largely unexplored. Here we present results from a dual-domain column experiment, with natural organic-ric...
Article
Uranium contamination threatens the availability of safe and clean drinking water globally. This toxic element occurs both naturally and as the result of mining and ore-processing in alluvial sediments, where it accumulates as tetravalent U [U(IV)], a form once considered largely immobile. Changing hydrologic and geochemical conditions cause U to b...
Article
Reducing conditions and high organic carbon content make wetlands favorable to uranium (U) sequestration. However, such environments are subjected to water-table fluctuations that could impact the redox behavior of U and its mobility. Our previous study on U speciation in a contaminated wetland has suggested a major role of water-table redox fluctu...
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Hydraulic fracturing of unconventional shale reservoirs increases fracture network surface area to access hydrocarbons from the low permeability rock matrix. Porosity and permeability of the matrix, through which hydrocarbons migrate to fractures, are important for determining production efficiency, and can be altered by chemical interactions betwe...
Article
Biogeochemical redox processes that govern radionuclide mobility in sediments are highly sensitive to forcing by the water cycle. For example, episodic draining and intrusion of oxidants into reduced zones during dry seasons can create biogeochemical seasonal hotspots of enhanced and changed microbial activity, affect the redox status of minerals,...
Article
Uranium (U) groundwater contamination is a major concern at numerous former mining and milling sites across the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB), USA, where U(IV)-bearing solids have accumulated within naturally reduced zones (NRZs). Understanding the processes governing U reduction and oxidation within NRZs is critical for assessing the persisten...
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Wetlands have been proposed to naturally attenuate U transfers in the environment via U complexation by organic matter and potential U reduction. However, U mobility may depend on the identity of particulate/dissolved uranium source materials and their redox sensitivity. Here, we examined the fate of uranium in a highly contaminated wetland (up to...
Article
The recent increase in unconventional oil and gas exploration and production has prompted a large amount of research on hydraulic fracturing, but the majority of chemical reactions between shale minerals and organic matter with fracturing fluids are not well understood. Organic matter, primarily in the form of kerogen, dominates the transport pathw...
Article
Nanopores (at least one dimension ≤100 nm and no dimension <1 nm) are commonly observed features of grain coatings and primary silicate minerals and can contribute substantially to the total surface area available for chemical reactions. Despite the ubiquity of nanopores in natural and synthetic porous media, a generalizable framework for evaluatin...
Article
The U4f line is commonly used to determine uranium oxidation states with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). In contrast, the XPS of the shallow core-levels of uranium are rarely recorded. Nonetheless, theory has shown that the U 5d (and 5p) multiplet structure is very sensitive to oxidation state. In this contribution we extracted the U(IV) an...
Article
Uranium oxide is central to every stage of the nuclear fuel cycle, from mining through fuel fabrication and use, to waste disposal and environmental cleanup. Its chemical and mechanical stability are intricately linked to the concentration of interstitial O atoms within the structure and the oxidation state of U. We have previously shown that durin...
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Uranium (U) contamination occurs as a result of mining and ore processing; often in alluvial aquifers that contain organic-rich, reduced sediments that accumulate tetravalent U, U(IV). Uranium(IV) is sparingly soluble, but may be mobilized upon exposure to nitrate (NO3(-)) and oxygen (O2), which become elevated in groundwater due to seasonal fluctu...
Article
Aquifers in the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB) exhibit persistent uranium (U) groundwater contamination plumes originating from former ore processing operations. Previous observations at Rifle, Colorado, have shown that fine grained, sulfidic, organic-enriched sediments accumulate U in its reduced form, U(IV), which is less mobile than oxidized...
Article
Metal ion-mineral surface interactions and the attendant isotopic fractionation depend on the properties of the mineral surface and the local atomic-level chemical environment. However, these factors have not been systematically examined for phases of the same composition with different levels of surface disorder. We present pH-dependent adsorption...
Article
Formation of Fe-sulfides in anoxic layers of mangrove sediments makes this ecosystem a potential long-term sink for metal pollutants in the inter-tropical region. Increasing anthropogenic pressure on coastal areas can alter the physico-chemical of mangrove sediments by modifying their redox state, affecting directly the rate of Fe-sulfides that med...
Article
As part of a larger study of the reactivity and mobility of uranyl (U(VI)O2²⁺) cations in subsurface environments containing natural organic matter (NOM) and hydrous ferric oxides, we have examined the effect of reference humic and fulvic substances on the sorption of uranyl on 2-line ferrihydrite (Fh), a common, naturally occurring nano-Fe(III)-hy...
Article
Organic matter decomposition in soils and terrestrial sediments has a prominent role in the global carbon cycle. Carbon stocks in anoxic environments, such as wetlands and the subsurface of floodplains, are large and presumed to decompose slowly. The degree of microbial respiration in anoxic environments is typically thought to depend on the energe...
Article
The use of hydraulic fracturing techniques to extract oil and gas from low permeability shale reservoirs has increased significantly in recent years. During hydraulic fracturing, large volumes of water, often acidic and oxic, are injected into shale formations. This drives fluid-rock interaction that can release metal contaminants (e.g., U, Pb) and...
Article
Floodplains, heavily used for water supplies, housing, agriculture, mining, and industry, are important repositories of organic carbon, nutrients, and metal contaminants. The accumulation and release of these species is often mediated by redox processes. Understanding the physicochemical, hydrological, and biogeochemical controls on the distributio...
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Hydraulic fracturing of unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs is critical to the United States energy portfolio; however, hydrocarbon production from newly fractured wells generally declines rapidly over the initial months of production. One possible reason for this decrease, especially over time scales of several months, is the mineralization and...
Article
Three-dimensional variably saturated flow and multicomponent biogeochemical reactive transport modeling, based on published and newly generated data, is used to better understand the interplay of hydrology, geochemistry, and biology controlling the cycling of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, iron, sulfur, and uranium in a shallow floodplain. In this syste...
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Full-text available
Uranium is an important carbon-free fuel source and environmental contaminant that accumulates in the tetravalent state, U(IV), in anoxic sediments, such as ore deposits, marine basins, and contaminated aquifers. However, little is known about the speciation of U(IV) in low-temperature geochemical environments, inhibiting the development of a conce...
Article
Mineral surfaces are often coated by natural organic matter (NOM), which has a major influence on metal-ion sorption and sequestration because of the abundance of binding sites in such coatings and the changes they cause in local nanoscale environments. The effects of NOM coatings on mineral surfaces are, however, still poorly understood at the mol...