John Balbus

John Balbus
National Institutes of Health | NIH · National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS)

Doctor of Medicine

About

120
Publications
39,447
Reads
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4,717
Citations
Citations since 2017
28 Research Items
2377 Citations
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20172018201920202021202220230100200300400
Additional affiliations
December 2009 - November 2014
National Institutes of Health
Position
  • Consultant

Publications

Publications (120)
Article
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To date, there are few examples of implementation science studies that help guide climate-related health adaptation. Implementation science is the study of methods to promote the adoption and integration of evidence-based tools, interventions, and policies into practice to improve population health. These studies can provide the needed empirical ev...
Article
By 2030, the direct adaptation costs to the health sector due to climate change are expected to cost between USD$2 to USD$4 billion a year. People in many low- and middle-income countries already suffer from several health challenges, such as malnutrition and a high occurrence of infectious diseases, challenges that will be intensified by climate c...
Article
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Key Points The editors thank the 2021 peer reviewers In 2021, GeoHealth benefited from 365 reviews provided by 241 of our peers A number of individuals submitted multiple reviews for GeoHealth in 2021
Article
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The role of meteorological and air quality factors in moderating the transmission of SARS‐CoV‐2 and severity of COVID‐19 is a critical topic as an opportunity for targeted intervention and relevant public health messaging. Studies conducted in early 2020 suggested that temperature, humidity, ultraviolet radiation, and other meteorological factors h...
Article
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Environmental health indicators are helpful for tracking and communicating complex health trends, informing science and policy decisions, and evaluating public health actions. When provided on a national scale, they can help inform the general public, policymakers, and public health professionals about important trends in exposures and how well pub...
Preprint
Full-text available
Environmental health indicators are helpful for tracking and communicating complex health trends, informing science and policy decisions, and evaluating public health actions. When provided on a national scale, they can help inform the general public, policy makers, and public health professionals about important trends in exposures and how well pu...
Article
Full-text available
Key Point We thank our peer reviewers for all of the hard work that they do
Chapter
Federal initiatives and programs have guided climate change research, coordination, and policies since before the passing of the National Climate Act in 1978. Interagency activities continue to address the impact of changing environmental conditions on health through basic science and applied climate research as well as through new technologies and...
Chapter
Climate change impacts on health – including increased exposures to heat, poor air quality, extreme weather events, altered vector-borne disease transmission, reduced water quality, and decreased food security – affect men and women differently, depending on local geographic and socioeconomic factors. As a result of this differential impact, climat...
Article
The effects of climate change are accelerating and undermining human health and well-being in many different ways. There is no doubt that the health care sector will need to adapt, and although it has begun to develop more targeted strategies to address climate-related challenges, a broad knowledge gap persists. There is a critical need to develop...
Article
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Key Points The editors thank the 2019 peer reviewers
Article
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Using examples from the year 2012, a new study estimates the health costs of deaths and illnesses associated with climate-sensitive events.
Article
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Background: The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study, coordinated by the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME), produces influential, data-driven estimates of the burden of disease and premature death due to major risk factors. Expanded quantification of disease due to environmental health (EH) risk factors, including climate change,...
Article
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Support for research on the impacts of climate change on human health is increasing rapidly as people’s direct experience with events such as extreme heat, hurricanes, wildfires, and effects on agriculture also increases. There also is a growing need for research on the health impacts of climate actions including mitigation and adaptation. To facil...
Article
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Public trust in science, effective science communication, and rapid and constructive response to authors about their submissions are of paramount importance to the scientific enterprise and indeed to society itself. This is really at the heart of peer review—providing thoughtful insights into both the scientific quality and importance of work, and...
Article
The accelerating health impacts of climate change are undermining global health, and the roles of the health sector in addressing the many challenges of climate change are being articulated by governments, multilateral institutions, and professional societies. Given the paucity of physician engagement on this issue to date, there now exists a clear...
Technical Report
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The 2018 Adaptation Gap Report has two parts. First, it provides an overview of the status and trends of the adaptation gap in terms of vulnerability to climate change, adaptation costs and finance, and countries’ adaptation commitments and actions. Second, the report undertakes an in-depth assessment of the adaptation gap in health.
Chapter
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A comprehensive assessment of the impacts of climate change on human health in the United States concluded that climate change exacerbates existing climate-sensitive health threats and creates new challenges, exposing more people in more places to hazardous weather and climate conditions. This chapter builds on that assessment and considers the ext...
Article
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Climate change impacts on health, including increased exposures to heat, poor air quality, extreme weather events, and altered vector-borne disease transmission, reduced water quality, and decreased food security, affect men and women differently due to biologic, socioeconomic, and cultural factors. In India, where rapid environmental changes are t...
Article
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In a Policy Forum, Cecilia Sorensen and colleagues discuss the implications of climate change for women's health.
Article
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Background: Significant mitigation efforts beyond the Nationally Determined Commitments (NDCs) coming out of the 2015 Paris Climate Agreement are required to avoid warming of 2 °C above pre-industrial temperatures. Health co-benefits represent selected near term, positive consequences of climate policies that can offset mitigation costs in the shor...
Article
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Extreme weather events have revealed the vulnerability of health care facilities and the extent of devastation to the community when they fail. With climate change anticipated to increase extreme weather and its impacts worldwide-severe droughts, floods, heat waves, and related vector-borne diseases-health care officials need to understand and addr...
Article
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Environ Health Perspect 124(4):A59 (2016), http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1611410 In the original article, the URL for the report titled “The Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United States: A Scientific Assessment” was http://www.globalchange.gov/health-assessment. In this erratum, the authors provide the URL for the final version...
Chapter
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Climate change threatens human health and well-being in the United States. The U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) Climate and Health Assessment has been developed to enhance understanding and inform decisions about this growing threat. This scientific assessment, called for under the President's Climate Action Plan, is a major report of t...
Chapter
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Vulnerability Varies Over Time and Is Place-Specific Key Finding 1: Across the United States, people and communities differ in their exposures, their inherent sensitivity, and their adaptive capacity to respond to and cope with climate change related health threats [Very High Confidence]. Vulnerability to climate change varies across time and locat...
Article
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Increasing urban green and blue structure is often pointed out to be critical for sustainable development and climate change adaptation, which has led to the rapid expansion of greening activities in cities throughout the world. This process is likely to have a direct impact on the citizens' quality of life and public health. However, alongside num...
Article
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There are now robust data supporting the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) paradigm. This includes human and animal data focusing on nutrition or environmental chemicals during development. However, the term DOHaD has not been generally accepted as the official term to be used when one is concerned with understanding the pathophys...
Article
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Erratum to: Climatic Change, Volume 127, Issue 2, pp 199-210DOI 10.1007/s10584-014-1262-5Immediately after online publication of our article, the authors recognized that an error had been made in the calculation of the health co-benefits associated with the “wedge” obtained from greater efficiency for direct fuel end-use in buildings. The error cha...
Chapter
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Introduction 8.1.1. Key Issues Adaptation to climate change depends centrally on what is done in urban centers, which now house more than half the world’s population and concentrate most of its assets and economic activities (World Bank, 2008; UN DESA Population Division, 2012). As Section 8.4 emphasizes, this will require responses by all levels o...
Conference Paper
The increasing burden of chronic, non-communicable diseases, in conjunction with the growing The increasing burden of chronic, non-communicable diseases as well as the growing awareness of the impacts of global environmental change on health, have underscored the importance of taking a global approach to environmental public health. The US National...
Article
A consensus has existed from the mid-2000s that climate change is occurring and is the result of anthropogenic causes (Oreskes 2004). Noyes et al. (2009) published the first description of the potential interactions between a warming environment and toxicology. Four years ago, an editorial in Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management (Wenn...
Chapter
The federal government plays an integral role in supporting climate change science and health research in the USA. Federally funded climate change research initially focused on science to understand climate and earth systems change during the 1970s and 1980s. Today, federally supported climate change research involves numerous agencies pursuing a w...
Article
The UN-led discussion about the post-2015 sustainable development agenda provides an opportunity to develop indicators and targets that show the importance of health as a precondition for and an outcome of policies to promote sustainable development. Health as a precondition for development has received considerable attention in terms of achievemen...
Article
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Climate change mitigation policy decisions are increasingly incorporating the beneficial and adverse health impacts of greenhouse gas emission reduction strategies. Studies of such co-benefits and co-harms involve modeling approaches requiring a range of analytic decisions that affect the model output. Our objective was to assess analytic decisions...
Conference Paper
Executive Order 13514 "Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance instructs each Federal agency to develop detailed sustainability plans aimed at reducing energy consumption and environmental wastes, to conduct a climate change vulnerability assessment for the agency, and to develop a climate change adaptation plan. Initi...
Conference Paper
The recent Global Burden of Disease and Comparative Risk Assessment study published in the Lancet in December 2012 again confirmed the significant burden of death, disease and disability associated with environmental exposures around the world. Previous analyses have estimated that roughly 23% of the total global burden of disease can be attributed...
Article
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Nearly 3 billion people worldwide rely on solid fuel combustion to meet basic household energy needs. Resulting exposure to air pollution is estimated to cause 4.5% of the global burden of disease. Large variability and a lack of resources for research and development have resulted in highly uncertain exposure estimates. The objective of this paper...
Data
Agenda and participant list for the May 2011 workshop, “Health Burden of Indoor Air Pollution on Women and Children in Developing Countries.” (DOC)
Article
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William Martin and colleagues report on their stakeholder meetings that reviewed the health risks of household air pollution and cookstoves, and identified research priorities in seven key areas. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Article
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Background: According to a wide variety of analyses and projections, the potential effects of global climate change on human health are large and diverse. The U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), through its basic, clinical, and population research portfolio of grants, has been increasing efforts to understand how the complex interrelationship...
Article
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This is the first of seven papers resulting from a Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) international workshop titled "The Influence of Global Climate Change on the Scientific Foundations and Applications of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry." The workshop involved 36 scientists from 11 countries and was designed to answer...
Article
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Global climate change (GCC) is likely to alter the degree of human exposure to pollutants and the response of human populations to these exposures, meaning that risks of pollutants could change in the future. The present study, therefore, explores how GCC might affect the different steps in the pathway from a chemical source in the environment thro...
Conference Paper
To inform the country on the current state of knowledge about climate change, The National Climate Assessment (NCA) has integrated information from the scientific literature, a general solicitation for technical inputs from the American public, and a series of workshops conducted around the country. The health sector team for the NCA has drawn on t...
Article
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The Rio+20 United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development represents a crucial opportunity to place environmental health at the forefront of the sustainable development agenda. Billions of people living in low- and middle-income countries continue to be afflicted by preventable diseases due to modifiable environmental exposures, causing needl...
Article
Robinson and Baumgartner reference recent studies showing that when individuals living in poverty receive new products such as bednets or water purifiers at no cost, their use patterns are similar to those who have purchased the same products ([ 1 ][1], [ 2 ][2]). Robinson and Baumgartner suggest
Conference Paper
The face of climate change in the mind of the public is too often that of a polar bear, and too seldom that of a human. While climate change is a process that will manifest itself increasingly over future decades and beyond, the impacts of climate change on human health are already detectable around the world and in the United States. Understanding...
Article
The World Health Organization (WHO) lists indoor air pollution (IAP) (1) from primitive household cooking fires as the leading environmental cause of death in the world, as it contributes to nearly 2.0 million deaths annually (2)—more deaths than are caused each year by malaria. Almost half of the planet lives in poverty, and those households gener...
Conference Paper
Climate Change is anticipated to have multiple impacts on health. Some regions, especially those with disadvantaged populations and populations more dependent on local ecosystems for sustenance, are more vulnerable to adverse health impacts than wealthier populations. Impacts on health are likely to occur not only through changes in climate and sub...
Book
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Asia is undergoing economic development at a rapid rate, resulting in levels of urban air pollution in many cities that rival the levels that existed in Europe and North America in the first decades of the 20th century. This development is also transforming the demographic and epidemiologic characteristics of the population in ways that are likely...
Book
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В работе изложены основные положения, принципы и критерии международно признанной методологии оценки риска, являющейся одним из важнейших инструментов для управления качеством окружающей среды в интересах охраны здоровья населения. Наряду с теоретическими вопросами в пособии приводятся наглядные практические примеры, в том числе результаты последни...
Conference Paper
With the recent change in administration, the federal government is beginning to take more aggressive actions to address climate change, both domestically and internationally. This provides a suite of new opportunities and challenges to ensure that public health is adequately protected, both from emerging threats related to changing climate and fro...
Article
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The need to identify and try to prevent adverse health impacts of climate change has risen to the forefront of climate change policy debates and become a top priority of the public health community. Given the observed and projected changes in climate and weather patterns, their current and anticipated health impacts, and the significant degree of r...
Article
Climate change can be expected to have differential effects on different subpopulations. Biological sensitivity, socioeconomic factors, and geography may each contribute to heightened risk for climate-sensitive health outcomes, which include heat stress, air pollution health effects, extreme weather event health effects, water-, food-, and vector-b...
Article
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In addition to the environmental and human health harm caused by greenhouse gas emissions, coal-fired power plants emit massive amounts of toxic air pollutants that result in significant numbers of deaths and disease. We estimate that between roughly 6000 and 10,700 annual deaths from heart ailments, respiratory disease and lung cancer can be attri...
Conference Paper
Background: The importance of developing and implementing policies to mitigate climate change at the local, state and federal levels is underscored by international efforts to reduce health risks related to global climate change. Concerted action to strengthen key features of US public health systems and to promote healthy environmental policies ca...
Conference Paper
Methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a serious public health threat, killing an estimated 19,000 people in the United States each year. The recent emergence of community-acquired (CA-) MRSA in the US has led to the highly publicized deaths of dozens of otherwise health people, many of them school children. Recent studies from aroun...
Conference Paper
Pacala and Sokolow's seminal 2004 Science paper laid out 15 wedges of greenhouse gas reductions from currently available technologies, of which any 7 would achieve the needed reductions in GHG emissions to stabilize CO2 levels. We have applied this wedge approach to the United States and assessed the reductions in particulate matter health effects...
Article
Nanotechnology has the potential to deliver considerable benefits to society. Some of the properties of nanomaterials, however, call into question the adequacy of current methods for determining hazard and exposure and for controlling risks. Given the limitations of existing regulatory tools and policies, three distinct initiatives are urgently nee...
Technical Report
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In order to better understand the current state of preparedness for health effects of climate change, Environmental Defense Fund collaborated with the National Association of City and County Health Officials and George Mason University to conduct a survey of a representative sample of local health departments from around the country. The survey ask...
Article
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While climate change is inherently a global problem, its public health impacts will be experienced most acutely at the local and regional level, with some jurisdictions likely to be more burdened than others. The public health infrastructure in the U.S. is organized largely as an interlocking set of public agencies at the federal, state and local l...
Article
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In this report we present the findings from a nanotoxicology workshop held 6-7 April 2006 at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars in Washington, DC. Over 2 days, 26 scientists from government, academia, industry, and nonprofit organizations addressed two specific questions: what information is needed to understand the human health i...
Conference Paper
APHA has an important role to play in the upcoming debates on global climate change. As the nation's leading organization of public heatlh professionals, APHA can communicate broadly about the public health imperative to avoid catastrophic climate change, the adverse health consequences associated with changes in temperature and precipitation, and...
Article
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Nanotechnology, the design and manipulation of materials at the atomic scale, may well revolutionize many of the ways our society manufactures products, produces energy, and treats diseases. New materials based on nanotechnology are already reaching the market in a wide variety of consumer products. Some of the observed properties of nanomaterials...