John Robert Arrington

John Robert Arrington
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory | LBL · Nuclear Science Division

PhD, Physics, California Institute of Technology

About

376
Publications
51,118
Reads
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12,189
Citations
Citations since 2017
82 Research Items
5297 Citations
201720182019202020212022202302004006008001,0001,200
201720182019202020212022202302004006008001,0001,200
201720182019202020212022202302004006008001,0001,200
201720182019202020212022202302004006008001,0001,200
Additional affiliations
January 1998 - present
Argonne National Laboratory
Education
August 1990 - January 1998
September 1986 - May 1990
University of Wisconsin–Madison
Field of study
  • Applied Mathematics, Engineering and Physics

Publications

Publications (376)
Preprint
Evidence for a flavor asymmetry between the $\bar u$ and $\bar d$ quark distributions in the proton has been found in deep-inelastic scattering and Drell-Yan experiments. The pronounced dependence of this flavor asymmetry on $x$ (fraction of nucleon momentum carried by partons) observed in the Fermilab E866 Drell-Yan experiment suggested a drop of...
Preprint
Full-text available
The manuscript focuses on the high impact science of the EIC with objective to identify a portion of the science program for QCD precision studies that requires or greatly benefits from high luminosity and low center-of-mass energies. The science topics include (1) Generalized Parton Distributions, 3D imagining and mechanical properties of the nucl...
Article
Full-text available
The strong interaction is not well understood at low energies or for interactions with low momentum transfer. Chiral perturbation theory gives testable predictions for the nucleonic generalized polarizabilities, which are fundamental quantities describing the nucleon’s response to an external field. We report a measurement of the proton’s generaliz...
Preprint
Full-text available
ATHENA has been designed as a general purpose detector capable of delivering the full scientific scope of the Electron-Ion Collider. Careful technology choices provide fine tracking and momentum resolution, high performance electromagnetic and hadronic calorimetry, hadron identification over a wide kinematic range, and near-complete hermeticity. Th...
Preprint
When protons and neutrons (nucleons) are bound into atomic nuclei, they are close enough together to feel significant attraction, or repulsion, from the strong, short-distance part of the nucleon-nucleon interaction. These strong interactions lead to hard collisions between nucleons, generating pairs of highly-energetic nucleons referred to as shor...
Article
Full-text available
This report describes the physics case, the resulting detector requirements, and the evolving detector concepts for the experimental program at the Electron-Ion Collider (EIC). The EIC will be a powerful new high-luminosity facility in the United States with the capability to collide high-energy electron beams with high-energy proton and ion beams,...
Preprint
Full-text available
The Solenoid Large Intensity Device (SoLID) is a new experimental apparatus planned for Hall A at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab). SoLID will combine large angular and momentum acceptance with the capability to handle very high data rates at high luminosity. With a slate of approved high-impact physics experiments, SoLID w...
Article
High-energy electron scattering is a clean, precise probe for measurements of hadronic and nuclear structure and plays a key role in understanding the role of high-momentum nucleons (and quarks) in nuclei. Jefferson Lab has dramatically expanded our knowledge of the high-momentum nucleons generated by short-range correlations, providing sufficient...
Article
Full-text available
When protons and neutrons (nucleons) are bound into atomic nuclei, they are close enough to feel significant attraction, or repulsion, from the strong, short-distance part of the nucleon–nucleon interaction. These strong interactions lead to hard collisions between nucleons, generating pairs of highly energetic nucleons referred to as short-range c...
Preprint
Full-text available
The nuclear dependence of the inclusive inelastic electron scattering cross section (the EMC effect) has been measured for the first time in $^{10}$B and $^{11}$B. Previous measurements of the EMC effect in $A \leq 12$ nuclei showed an unexpected nuclear dependence; $^{10}$B and $^{11}$B were measured to explore the EMC effect in this region in mor...
Article
We summarize the ongoing scientific program of the 12 GeV Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) and give an outlook into future opportunities. The program addresses important topics in nuclear, hadronic, and electroweak physics, including nuclear femtography, meson and baryon spectroscopy, quarks and gluons in nuclei, precision test...
Article
Experimental cross sections for the He4(e,e′p)X reactions in the missing energy range from 0.017 to 0.022 GeV and up to a missing momentum of 0.632 GeV/c at xB=1.24 and Q2=2 (GeV/c)2 are reported. The data are compared to relativistic distorted-wave impulse approximation calculations for the He4(e,e′p)H3 channel. Significantly more events are obser...
Preprint
Full-text available
The strong interaction is not well understood at low energy, or for interactions with low momentum transfer $Q^2$, but one of the clearest insights we have comes from Chiral Perturbation Theory ($\chi$PT). This effective treatment gives testable predictions for the nucleonic generalized polarizabilities -- fundamental quantities describing the nucl...
Article
We have developed and tested a direct-sampling RF receiver capable of measuring the amplitude of a 1497 MHz sinusoidal beam signal in 0.5 ms integration windows with a relative uncertainty of better than 10 parts per million. The receiver is intended for measuring signals from beam current monitoring cavities on the beamline of the Continuous Elect...
Article
Full-text available
The ratio of the nucleon F_{2} structure functions, F_{2}^{n}/F_{2}^{p}, is determined by the MARATHON experiment from measurements of deep inelastic scattering of electrons from ^{3}H and ^{3}He nuclei. The experiment was performed in the Hall A Facility of Jefferson Lab using two high-resolution spectrometers for electron detection, and a cryogen...
Article
We report new precision measurements of the elastic electron-proton scattering cross section for momentum transfer squared (Q^2) up to 15.75~GeV. These data allow for improved extraction of the proton magnetic form factor at high Q^2 and nearly double the Q^2range of direct longitudinal/transverse separated cross sections. A comparison of our resul...
Preprint
Full-text available
This white paper presents opportunities afforded by the Fermilab Booster Replacement and its various options. Its goal is to inform the design process of the Booster Replacement about the accelerator needs of the various options, allowing the design to be versatile and enable, or leave the door open to, as many options as possible. The physics them...
Preprint
Full-text available
High-energy electron scattering is a clean and precise probe for measurements of hadronic and nuclear structure, with a key role in understanding the role of high-momentum nucleons (and quarks) in nuclei. Jefferson Lab has dramatically expanded our understanding of the high-momentum nucleons generated by short-range correlations, providing sufficie...
Article
Inclusive electron scattering from nuclear targets has been measured to extract the nuclear dependence of the inelastic cross section (σA) in Hall C at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator facility. Results are presented for H2, He3, He4, B9, C12, Cu63, and Au197 at an incident electron beam energy of 5.77 GeV for a range of momentum transfer...
Preprint
Full-text available
We summarize the ongoing scientific program of the 12 GeV Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) and give an outlook into future scientific opportunities. The program addresses important topics in nuclear, hadronic, and electroweak physics including nuclear femtography, meson and baryon spectroscopy, quarks and gluons in nuclei, prec...
Article
The proton electric and magnetic form factors, \(G_E\) and \(G_M\), are intrinsically connected to the spatial distribution of charge and magnetization in the proton. For decades, Rosenbluth separation measurements of the angular dependence of elastic e\(^-\)-p scattering were used to extract \(G_E\) and \(G_M\). More recently, polarized electron s...
Preprint
We have developed and tested a direct-sampling RF receiver capable of measuring the amplitude of a 1497 MHz sinusoidal signal in 0.5 ms integration windows to within <10 ppm relative uncertainty. The receiver is intended for measuring signals from beam current monitoring cavities on the beamline of the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility...
Preprint
Inclusive electron scattering from nuclear targets has been measured to extract the nuclear dependence of the inelastic cross section in Hall C at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator facility. Results are presented for 2H, 3He, 4He, 9B, 12C, 63Cu and 197Au at an incident electron beam energy of 5.77 GeV for a range of momentum transfer from Q...
Article
Positron beams, both polarized and unpolarized, are identified as important ingredients for the experimental programs at the next generation of lepton accelerators. In the context of the hadronic physics program at Jefferson Lab (JLab), positron beams are complementary, even essential, tools for a precise understanding of the electromagnetic struct...
Preprint
Full-text available
The ratio of the nucleon $F_2$ structure functions, $F_2^n/F_2^p$, is determined by the MARATHON experiment from measurements of deep inelastic scattering of electrons from $^3$H and $^3$He nuclei. The experiment was performed in the Hall A Facility of Jefferson Lab and used two high resolution spectrometers for electron detection, and a cryogenic...
Article
Full-text available
The questions of how the bulk of the Universe's visible mass emerges and how it is manifest in the existence and properties of hadrons are profound, and probe the heart of strongly interacting matter. Paradoxically, the lightest pseudoscalar mesons appear to be key to a further understanding of the emergent mass and structure mechanisms. These meso...
Preprint
Full-text available
This report describes the physics case, the resulting detector requirements, and the evolving detector concepts for the experimental program at the Electron-Ion Collider (EIC). The EIC will be a powerful new high-luminosity facility in the United States with the capability to collide high-energy electron beams with high-energy proton and ion beams,...
Preprint
Full-text available
The proton electric and magnetic form factors, $G_E$ and $G_M$, are intrinsically connected to the spatial distribution of charge and magnetization in the proton. For decades, Rosenbluth separation measurement, based on measurements of the angular dependence of elastic electron-proton scattering, were used to separate $G_E$ and $G_M$. More recently...
Preprint
The fundamental building blocks of the proton, quarks and gluons, have been known for decades. However, we still have an incomplete theoretical and experimental understanding of how these particles and their dynamics give rise to the quantum bound state of the proton and its physical properties, such as for example its spin. The two up and the sing...
Preprint
Full-text available
We report new precision measurements of the elastic electron-proton scattering cross section for momentum transfer squared (Q$^2$) up to 15.75~\gevsq. These data allow for improved extraction of the proton magnetic form factor at high Q$^2$ and nearly double the Q$^2$ range of direct longitudinal/transverse separated cross sections. A comparison of...
Article
Full-text available
The fundamental building blocks of the proton—quarks and gluons—have been known for decades. However, we still have an incomplete theoretical and experimental understanding of how these particles and their dynamics give rise to the quantum bound state of the proton and its physical properties, such as its spin1. The two up quarks and the single dow...
Preprint
Full-text available
How the bulk of the Universe's visible mass emerges and how it is manifest in the existence and properties of hadrons are profound questions that probe into the heart of strongly interacting matter. Paradoxically, the lightest pseudoscalar mesons appear to be the key to the further understanding of the emergent mass and structure mechanisms. These...
Preprint
Full-text available
The proposed electron-ion collider has a rich physics program to study the internal structure of protons and heavy nuclei. This program will impose strict requirements on detector design. This paper explores how these requirements can be satisfied using an all-silicon tracking detector, by consideration of three representative probes: heavy flavor...
Article
Short-range correlations (SRCs) have been identified as being responsible for the high-momentum tail of the nucleon momentum distribution, n(k). Hard, short-range interactions of nucleon pairs generate the high-momentum tail and imprint a universal character on n(k) for all nuclei at large momentum. Triple coincidence experiments have shown a stron...
Preprint
Full-text available
Positron beams, both polarized and unpolarized, are identified as essential ingredients for the experimental program at the next generation of lepton accelerators. In the context of the Hadronic Physics program at the Jefferson Laboratory (JLab), positron beams are complementary, even essential, tools for a precise understanding of the electromagne...
Article
We report the first measurement of the (e,e′p) three-body breakup reaction cross sections in helium-3 (He3) and tritium (H3) at large momentum transfer [⟨Q2⟩≈1.9 (GeV/c)2] and xB>1 kinematics, where the cross section should be sensitive to quasielastic (QE) scattering from single nucleons. The data cover missing momenta 40≤pmiss≤500 MeV/c that, in...
Article
Measurements of elastic electron scattering data within the past decade have highlighted two-photon exchange contributions as a necessary ingredient in theoretical calculations to precisely evaluate hydrogen elastic scattering cross sections. This correction can modify the cross section at the few percent level. In contrast, dispersive effects can...
Preprint
Full-text available
Short Range Correlations (SRCs) have been identified as being responsible for the high momentum tail of the nucleon momentum distribution, n(k). Hard, short-range interactions of nucleon pairs generate the high momentum tail and imprint a universal character on n(k) for all nuclei at large momentum. Triple coincidence experiments have shown a stron...
Preprint
We report the first measurement of the (e,e'p) three-body breakup reaction cross sections in Helium-3 ($^3$He) and Tritium ($^3$H) at large momentum transfer ($<Q^2> ~ 1.9$ (GeV/c)$^2$) and $x_B > 1$ kinematics, covering a missing momentum range of $40 \leq p_{miss} \leq 500$ MeV/c. The measured cross sections are compared with different plane-wave...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Measurements of exclusive meson production are a useful tool in the study of hadronic structure. In particular, one can discern the relevant degrees of freedom at different distance scales through these studies.
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Measurements of exclusive meson production are a useful tool in the study of hadronic structure. In particular, one can discern the relevant degrees of freedom at different distance scales through these studies. Purpose: To study the transition between non-perturbative and perturbative Quantum Chromodyanmics as the square of four moment...
Article
Full-text available
Backward-angle meson electroproduction above the resonance region, which was previously ignored, is anticipated to offer unique access to the three quark plus sea component of the nucleon wave function. In this Letter, we present the first complete separation of the four electromagnetic structure functions above the resonance region in exclusive ω...
Preprint
Full-text available
Backward-angle meson electroproduction above the resonance region, which was previously ignored, is anticipated to offer unique access to the three quark plus sea component of the nucleon wave function. In this letter, we present the first complete separation of the four electromagnetic structure functions above the resonance region in exclusive om...
Article
Full-text available
The nucleon (proton and neutron) electromagnetic form factors (FFs) are fundamental quantities in nuclear and elementary particle physics as they are essential ingredients needed to parametrize the internal structure of composite particles. The spatial distribution of charge and magnetization within the nucleon is encoded in the electric G E ( p ,...
Article
Understanding the origin and dynamics of hadron structure and in turn that of atomic nuclei is a central goal of nuclear physics. This challenge entails the questions of how does the roughly 1GeV mass-scale that characterizes atomic nuclei appear; why does it have the observed value; and, enigmatically, why are the composite Nambu-Goldstone (NG) bo...
Article
Full-text available
We report the first measurement of the (e,e′p) reaction cross-section ratios for Helium-3 (He3), Tritium (H3), and Deuterium (d). The measurement covered a missing momentum range of 40≤pmiss≤550MeV/c, at large momentum transfer (〈Q2〉≈1.9 (GeV/c)2) and xB>1, which minimized contributions from non quasi-elastic (QE) reaction mechanisms. The data is c...
Article
The observed correlation between the EMC effect and the contribution of short-range correlations (SRCs) in nuclei suggests that the modification of the quark distributions of bound protons and neutrons might occur within SRCs. This raises the possibility that the EMC effect may have an isospin dependence arising from the np dominance of SRCs. We di...
Preprint
Full-text available
Understanding the origin and dynamics of hadron structure and in turn that of atomic nuclei is a central goal of nuclear physics. This challenge entails the questions of how does the roughly 1\,GeV mass-scale that characterizes atomic nuclei appear; why does it have the observed value; and, enigmatically, why are the composite Nambu-Goldstone (NG)...
Article
We present extractions of the nucleon nonsinglet moments utilizing new precision data on the deuteron F2 structure function at large Bjorken-x determined via the Rosenbluth separation technique at Jefferson Lab Experimental Hall C. These new data are combined with a complementary set of data on the proton previously measured in Hall C at similar ki...
Preprint
Full-text available
Positron beams, both polarized and unpolarized, are identified as essential ingredients for the experimental program at the next generation of lepton accelerators. In the context of the Hadronic Physics program at the Jefferson Laboratory (JLab), positron beams are complementary, even essential, tools for a precise understanding of the electromagne...
Preprint
Full-text available
Experimental cross sections for the $^4He(e,e'p)X$ reaction up to a missing momentum of 0.632 GeV/$c$ at $x_B=1.24$ and $Q^2$=2(GeV/$c$)$^2$ are reported. The data are compared to Relativistic Distorted Wave Impulse Approximation(RDWIA) calculations for $^4He(e,e'p)^3H$ channel. Significantly more events in the triton mass region are measured for $...
Preprint
The observed correlation between the EMC effect and the contribution of short-range correlations (SRCs) in nuclei suggests that the modification of the quark distributions of bound protons and neutrons might occur within SRCs. This raises the possibility that the EMC effect may have an isospin dependence arising from the np dominance of SRCs. We di...
Preprint
This whitepaper is an outcome of the workshop Intersections between Nuclear Physics and Quantum Information held at Argonne National Laboratory on 28-30 March 2018 [www.phy.anl.gov/npqi2018/]. The workshop brought together 116 national and international experts in nuclear physics and quantum information science to explore opportunities for the two...
Preprint
Full-text available
The fundamental theory of the strong interaction -- quantum chromodynamics (QCD) -- provides the foundational framework with which to describe and understand the key properties of atomic nuclei. A deep understanding of the explicit role of quarks and gluons in nuclei remains elusive however, as these effects have thus far been well-disguised by con...
Preprint
We report the first measurement of the $(e,e'p)$ reaction cross-section ratio for Helium-3 ($^3$He) relative to Tritium ($^3$H). The measurement covered a missing momentum range of $40 \le p_{miss} \le 550$ MeV/$c$, at large momentum transfer ($\langle Q^2 \rangle \approx 1.9$ (GeV/$c$)$^2$) and $x_B>1$, which minimized contributions from non quasi...
Preprint
Full-text available
Although the proton was discovered about 100 years ago, its spin structure still remains a mystery. Recent studies suggest that the orbital angular momentum of sea quarks could significantly contribute to the proton's spin. The SeaQuest experiment, which recently completed data collection, probed the unpolarized light quark sea distributions of the...
Preprint
We present an overview of Short-Range Correlations (SRC) studies using the inclusive measurement of the electron scattering off nuclei. A brief introduction of the origin of the SRC is given, followed by the survey of the two-nucleon SRC (2N-SRC) study and its interesting connection to the EMC effect. A discussion of the three-nucleon SRC study (3N...
Article
The GEp-III and GEp-2γ experiments, carried out in Jefferson Lab's Hall C from 2007–2008, consisted of measurements of polarization transfer in elastic electron–proton scattering at momentum transfers of Q²=2.5,5.2,6.8, and 8.54 GeV ². These measurements were carried out to improve knowledge of the proton electromagnetic form factor ratio R=μpGEp∕G...
Article
Full-text available
The atomic nucleus is one of the densest and most complex quantum-mechanical systems in nature. Nuclei account for nearly all the mass of the visible Universe. The properties of individual nucleons (protons and neutrons) in nuclei can be probed by scattering a high-energy particle from the nucleus and detecting this particle after it scatters, ofte...
Preprint
Full-text available
We present extractions of the nucleon non-singlet moments utilizing new precision data on the deuteron $F_2$ structure function at large Bjorken-$x$ determined via the Rosenbluth separation technique at Jefferson Lab Experimental Hall C. These new data are combined with a complementary set of data on the proton previously measured in Hall C at simi...
Preprint
Full-text available
[Background] Two-photon exchange contributions have become a necessary ingredient in theoretical calculations trying to precisely calculate hydrogen elastic scattering cross sections. This correction typically modifies the cross section at the few percent level. In contrast, dispersive effects can cause significantly larger changes from the Born ap...
Conference Paper
Precise measurements of the proton form factor ratio μpGEp/GMp from Rosenbluth separation measurements can be EM combined with Polarization based extractions to provide significant constraints on two-photon exchange contributions to the elastic e-p cross section. We present an overview of JLab experiment E05-017, the high-precision ’Super-Rosenblut...
Article
Full-text available
We use room temperature ion beam assisted sputtering (IBAS) to deposit niobium nitride thin films. Electrical and structural characterizations were performed by electric transport and magnetization measurements at variable temperatures, X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy. Compared to conventional reactive sputtering of NbN, films sputter...
Article
Full-text available
The $^{1}H$($e,e^\prime K^+$)$\Lambda$ reaction was studied as a function of the Mandelstam variable $-t$ using data from the E01-004 (FPI-2) and E93-018 experiments that were carried out in Hall C at the 6 GeV Jefferson Lab. The cross section was fully separated into longitudinal and transverse components, and two interference terms at four-moment...
Article
Full-text available
We present new data probing short-range correlations (SRCs) in nuclei through the measurement of electron scattering off high-momentum nucleons in nuclei. The inclusive 4He/3He cross section ratio is observed to be both x and Q2 independent for 1.5 < x < 2, confirming the dominance of two- nucleon (2N) short-range correlations (SRCs). For x > 2, ou...
Article
Precise measurements of the proton form factor ratio mu*GE/GM from Rosenbluth separation measurements can be combined with Polarization based extractions to provide significant constraints on two-photon exchange contributions to the elastic e-p cross section. We present an overview of JLab experiment E05-017, the high-precision Super-Rosenbluth mea...
Article
Full-text available
The difference in proton radii measured with $\mu p$ atoms and with $ep$ atoms and scattering remains an unexplained puzzle. The PSI MUSE proposal is to measure $\mu p$ and $e p$ scattering in the same experiment at the same time. The experiment will determine cross sections, two-photon effects, form factors, and radii independently for the two rea...
Article
Full-text available
The three-dimensional picture of quarks and gluons in the proton is set to be revealed through Deeply virtual Compton scattering while a critically important puzzle in the one-dimensional picture remains, namely, the origins of the EMC effect. Incoherent nuclear DVCS, i.e. DVCS on a nucleon inside a nucleus, can reveal the 3D partonic structure of...