John Archer

John Archer
University of Central Lancashire | UCLAN · School of Psychology

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210
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Introduction
Skills and Expertise

Publications

Publications (210)
Chapter
From an evolutionary perspective, aggression is viewed as a flexible context-specific adaption that was selected for because it enhanced the survival and reproductive success of ancestral humans. Evolutionary pressures have impinged differentially on the sexes, leading to the hypothesis that sex differences should be manifest in aggressive behavior...
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Two studies investigated whether perceived closeness of siblings, and aggression between siblings, were associated with genetic relatedness. In following Hamilton’s rule, we predicted that as the coefficient of relatedness between siblings increased, emotional closeness would also increase while conflict would decrease. Contrary to the predictions,...
Article
The current study examined the psychopathy-aggression relationship by considering different forms of aggression, including aggressive motivation. Emotions were explored as useful in understanding any emerging relationship, notably those consistent with detachment and sensitivity/poor regulation. In three studies, involving non-offending samples (St...
Article
Testosterone is often considered a critical regulator of aggressive behaviour. There is castration/replacement evidence that testosterone indeed drives aggression in some species, but causal evidence in humans is generally lacking and/or-for the few studies that have pharmacologically manipulated testosterone concentrations-inconsistent. More often...
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The aims of this article are: (i) to provide a quantitative overview of sex differences in human psychological attributes; and (ii) to consider evidence for their possible evolutionary origins. Sex differences were identified from a systematic literature search of meta‐analyses and large‐sample studies. These were organized in terms of evolutionary...
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The present study examines young women's (N = 1,734) perceptions of the unacceptability of 47 intrusive activities enacted by men. Female undergraduate psychology students from 12 countries (Armenia, Australia, England, Egypt, Finland, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Portugal, Scotland, Trinidad) indicated which of 47 intrusive activities they cons...
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The study of testosterone and aggression originated in experimental studies of animals, showing a direct causal link in some species. Human studies showed an overall weak correlation between testosterone and aggression. A theoretical framework (“the challenge hypothesis”) enabled testosterone-behavior interactions in humans to be framed within a th...
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The current studies examined whether several risk and protective factors operate similarly for intimate partner violence (IPV) and same-sex aggression (SSA) in the same sample, and to assess whether they show similar associations for men and women. Study 1 (N = 345) tested perceived benefits and costs, and instrumental and expressive beliefs about...
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We studied intimate partner violence (IPV) within a framework of other violent and nonviolent offending, to explore whether the risk factors for offending were similar across the different offense categories, and also for men and women. A comprehensive measure of offending behavior was administered to 184 men and 171 women, together with measures o...
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This study aimed to examine the relationship of offenders' distress and responsibility with maladaptive personality traits, self-esteem, and offence-type. It also further validated the Distress and Responsibility Scale (DRS; Xuereb et al., 2009a, Pers. Individ. Diff., 46, 465). A new sub-scale measuring social desirability was included and assessed...
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The aim of this study was to test predictions from the male control theory of intimate partner violence (IPV) and Johnson's [Johnson, M. P. (1995). Journal of Marriage and the Family, 57, 282–294] typology. A student sample (N = 1,104) reported on their use of physical aggression and controlling behavior, to partners and to same-sex non-intimates....
Article
Recent work showed that when previously isolated male mice are housed in proximity with one another, their adrenals become heavier than those of mice remaining in isolation. The present experiment revealed that this adrenal hypertrophy no longer occurred when the differential housing period was longer, i.e., 9 weeks instead of 2 weeks. These result...
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Studies of Western samples have shown that men tend to view aggression as an instrumental act, whereas women view it in expressive terms. The present Study investigated aggression in two studies. In Study 1 sample of 400 (both sexes, ages 16 and 26 years) young adults from the Indian state of Mizoram. Consistent with western findings, men showed hi...
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The purpose of this research was to develop a psychometrically sound measure of violent and non-violent offending, suitable for both male and female participants in general (non-forensic) samples. Potential items were selected from existing measures. A sample of 653 British university students completed all items, and their responses were analyzed...
Article
Female laboratory rats housed in isolation for two weeks were less active in an open field than animals group-housed (three or eight per cage) for the same duration, but these differences were not statistically significant. In a second experiment, female laboratory rats isolated for 24 weeks were significantly less active than animals housed in gro...
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate how male and female rape is scripted. Design/methodology/approach – In total, 100 (50 male, 50 female) participants were asked to write down in their own words what they considered to be the typical rape when the victim was either an adult male or female. Findings – Results revealed that men's...
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In this article we examine some origins of John Bowlby's attachment theory, a highly influential scientific approach to love and loss in contemporary society. Although some potential influences have been well-documented, others have either received no recognition or have failed to have an impact. We focus specifically on three of Bowlby's predecess...
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Sociometer theory proposes that self-esteem is an adaptation which evolved to monitor and regulate interpersonal relationships. It is therefore sensitive to self-assessments in domains relevant to relational desirability. Positive relationships between self-perceived physical attractiveness and self-esteem found in previous studies may reflect the...
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Western studies have found that men tend to view their aggression as instrumental whereas women tend to view it in expressive terms. A preliminary qualitative study on an Indian sample found low internal consistency for these measures, and that men viewed their aggression in both instrumental and expressive terms. The present study used scenarios t...
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The aim of this study was to identify associations between borderline personality (BP) traits and reactive and proactive aggression, and to compare the meditational effects of maladaptive coping in samples of older adolescents (n = 133) and young adults (n = 93), which has not hitherto been explored. This was a cross-sectional study that used self-...
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Purpose. The ideologically based view of intimate partner violence has traditionally influenced policy and practice in modern western nations and dominated cross-national research and practice. This review considers the validity of the position statement of a British organization responsible for accrediting many male perpetrator programmes in the s...
Article
Purpose. To reply to the comments made by Debbonaire and Todd (2012) in relation to our critique of Respect's Position Statement. Method. We examined their reply in relation to our original article and to the wider research literature. Results. We show that Debbonaire and Todd's reply is largely a series of assertions, for which little or no suppor...
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The article's aim is to evaluate the application of the evolutionary principles of kin selection, reproductive value, and resource holding power to the understanding of family violence. The principles are described in relation to specific predictions and the mechanisms underlying these. Predictions are evaluated for physical violence perpetrated by...
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This study assessed women's violent and nonviolent offending, using data from two online student samples (men and women: n = 344), reporting on either being a perpetrator and witness (women) or being a victim and witness (men). A comprehensive measure of general violence, intimate partner violence (IPV), and nonviolent offending was collected. From...
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Purpose – This paper aims to investigate Western studies on beliefs about aggression which have found that men typically hold instrumental beliefs and women hold expressive beliefs. Design/methodology/approach – To investigate whether beliefs about aggression are qualitatively different in an Indian sample, interviews were undertaken with focus gr...
Article
A 35-item questionnaire (DAQ: Dog Attachment Questionnaire) involving 5-point Likert responses to items designed to measure aspects of attachment to a pet/companion animal dog was constructed. The content was derived from theoretical treatments of adult human attachment, used in a broad sense as equivalent to an affectional bond. Items based on fou...
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This study aimed to investigate whether potentially infanticidal violence by men toward their pregnant partners’ is motivated by jealousy, and hence paternity uncertainty. It was predicted that men who used potentially infanticidal violence (directing their physical aggression towards their pregnant partners’ abdominal region) would have younger pa...
Article
A naturalistic interview study of gender constancy was carried out on a sample of 30 children, aged 3 to 4 years, asking questions about stability of gender through time and across situational transformations for the child her/himself and for known others. No perceptual transformations or props were used, and the children were asked supplementary q...
Article
The relationship between the Bern Sex Role Inventory scales (BSRI), the Attitudes to Women Scale (AWS-B) and the Hypermasculinity Inventory (HMI) was investigated in 149 male subjects. Three methods were used to analyse the data: intercorrelations, stepwise multiple regression of the AWS-B and HMI on the BSRI, and comparison of the four BSRI gender...
Article
The relationship between self-report measures of gender traits (PAQ and BSRI), behaviour (SRBS and MFRQ) and attitudes (AWS) is reviewed by considering the comparison of two or more groups differing on trait scores, correlations between the scales and relevant experimental studies. Trait measures show extremely small relationships to attitudes: for...
Article
McCreary (1990) argued that the conclusions from a review of the associations between gender scale measures (Archer, 1989) were limited because: (1) in gender trait questionnaires (PAQ and BSRI), measures of masculinity and femininity are restricted to instrumental and expressive traits; (2) these scales are multifactorial in nature. In reply, I po...
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Sixty college students, aged 16–20 years, rated 10 academic disciplines along seven 7-point dimensions including masculine-feminine, in a 2 (sex) X 3 (academic background) factorial design. Engineering, physical sciences, and mathematics were rated as significantly masculine whereas English, biology, psychology, French and sociology were rated as s...
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Sixty children, aged 11–12 years, rated 17 school subjects along seven 7-point dimensions including masculine-feminine. Physics, CDT, and information technology were rated as significantly masculine whereas typing, home economics, PSE and RE were rated as significantly feminine. In contrast to previous studies, chemistry, mathematics, biology and l...
Article
Natural selection leads to maladaptive behavior through several interrelated means. New adaptations may be constrained by designs resulting from past adaptations, there may be maladaptive by-products of adaptive responses, and environments may change faster than the capacity to respond to them. The behavior of hosts of avian brood parasites provide...
Article
Purpose. The aim of this study is to validate a modified version of the 33-item Homesickness Questionnaire (HQ; Archer, Ireland, Amos, Broad, & Currid, 1998) for use within a prison population. Methods. The HQ was reworded to fit the experiences of prisoners rather than students. 179 male young offenders completed the 30-item scale (the modified Ho...
Article
A set of infant features (large forehead, large and low-lying eyes, and bulging cheeks), were described in classical ethology as social releasers, simple stimuli that evoke a stereotyped response, in this case nurturing. We assessed the attractiveness of such features in the faces of dogs or cats (adults and young) or teddy bears or human infants,...
Article
The evolutionary context of a possible link between testosterone and human aggressiveness is outlined. Age and sex differences in the two variables parallel one another, but are confounded by other influences. Studies comparing aggressive and non-aggressive groups (e.g., violent prisoners) show higher testosterone levels in the former. Correlations...
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The aim of the present study was to compare psychological functioning in male rape survivors who had been raped either by strangers or acquaintances, and to test differences between the functioning of gay versus heterosexual survivors. Thirty-eight male rape survivors completed a range of measures relating to their perceptions about the nature of t...
Article
The main aim of this research was to assess the relative association between physical aggression and (1) self-control and (2) cost-benefit assessment, these variables representing the operation of impulsive and reflective processes. Study 1 involved direct and indirect aggression among young Indian men, and Study 2 physical aggression to dating par...
Article
The aim of this study was to assess both violent and nonviolent offending behavior in a single, mixed-sex population. The rationale for this is that the two types of offending are usually researched separately, despite evidence that they overlap. A comprehensive measure of general violence, intimate partner violence (IPV), and nonviolent offending...
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This study investigated sex-specific predictors of violent and nonviolent mate guarding used by men (n=399) and women (n=951) in heterosexual relationships, using both self-reports and reports on partners. We found, contrary to some previous evolutionary assumptions, that men and women showed similar degrees of controlling behavior, and that this p...
Article
This study extends previous ones showing a link between direct aggression and size and strength among young men, which were informed by the evolutionary concept of resource holding power (RHP), using measures of size, strength, flexed bicep circumference and hand grip strength among a sample of young men from the Indian state of Mizoram. The study...
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I argue that the magnitude and nature of sex differences in aggression, their development, causation, and variability, can be better explained by sexual selection than by the alternative biosocial version of social role theory. Thus, sex differences in physical aggression increase with the degree of risk, occur early in life, peak in young adulthoo...
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My response is organized into three sections. The first revisits the theme of the target article, the explanatory power of sexual selection versus social role theory. The second considers the range and scope of sexual selection, and its application to human sex differences. Two topics are examined in more detail: (1) the paternity uncertainty theor...
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Four studies are reported on the derivation and assessment of a hypermasculinity scale. In Study 1, a questionnaire measure of hypermasculine values was derived from an initial 122 items, rated on a seven-point scale by 600 men from eight categories, based on occupation or sport interest. Factor analysis and item reduction produced 26- and 16- item...
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Human aggression is viewed from four explanatory perspectives, derived from the ethological tradition. The first consists of its adaptive value, which can be seen throughout the animal kingdom, involving resource competition and protection of the self and offspring, which has been viewed from a cost-benefit perspective. The second concerns the phyl...
Article
The main aim of this study is to assess whether lack of self-control or the perceived costs and benefits of aggression provide the better predictors of bullying behavior and victimization, and direct aggression perpetration, in a sample of 122 male British prisoners. We also assessed whether bullying was associated with height and weight. Zero-orde...
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Different types of aggressive behavior (both physical and relational) by boys and girls have been shown to be perceived differently by observers. However, most research has focused on adult perceptions of very young children, with little research examining other ages. The aim of this study is to establish any sex differences in adolescent perceptio...
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Using data obtained from women’s shelter residents, male and female students, and male prisoners, this study investigated the association between non-violent controlling behaviors, physical aggression, and violence towards a spouse (N = 264). It was predicted that only men and women involved in intimate terrorism (Johnson, Violence Against Women, 1...
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The study aimed to classify non-harassers, minor, and severe harassers based on responses to measures of jealousy, dependency, attachment, perpetration, and victimization of relationship aggression, and harassment victimization, in a convenience sample of undergraduate students. Respondents (n = 177) replied on the following scales: Unwanted Pursui...
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The current study explored the structure of a commonly applied impulsivity measure, the Barratt Impulsivity Scale [BIS-11], in a sample likely to include elevated levels of impulsivity (i.e. a prison sample). The main aim was to assess whether the original factor structure of the BIS could be confirmed in a large sample (n = 1103), comprising two s...
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In three studies, Resource Holding Power (RHP) and provocation were manipulated in scenarios involving a young person in a bar with friends. In Study 1, teenage men reported lower likelihood of responding with physical aggression when insulted as levels of three RHP cues (size, allies and reputation) increased, effects that were accentuated by comb...
Article
Study 1 used two scenarios depicting provocations to investigate whether prisoners' willingness to engage in physical aggression would vary according to the perceived fighting ability (Resource Holding Power [RHP]) of the opponent. RHP was operationalized in terms of three levels of the size, number of allies, and reputation. The sample (both sexes...
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This study assessed the hypothesis derived from the concept of Resource Holding Power (RHP) that young men with greater size and strength would report more frequent physical aggression over the previous year. This was found to be the case in a sample of young Indian men, with stronger correlations between weight and height than strength, and with a...
Article
This study assessed how behaviour indicative of bullying in prison settings is related to a variety of measures associated with aggression. Adult offenders (728 men and 525 women) from 11 prisons in the UK completed a 99-item checklist measuring behaviour indicative of 'bullying others' and of 'being bullied', as well as a range of other behavioura...
Article
This study explores bullying behavior in a larger and more representative sample than previous prison-based research. It has two core aims, first to explore the nature of bullying in relation to indirect and direct aggression and, second, to explore the predictors of bully-category membership with particular reference to behavioral characteristics....
Article
To investigate the relationship between self-ratings, ratings by others and objective measures, female participants (N = 84) provided the following: (1) ratings of their own physical attractiveness and body esteem data; (2) facial photographs, which were rated by male and female observers; and (3) waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and body mass index (BMI)...
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The facial photographs of 84 heterosexual women were rated for attractiveness by 74 males and 74 females who also made judgements regarding the personality and behaviour of these women. Both sexes judged physically attractive women as possessing more desirable personality traits and also as being more promiscuous than less attractive women. These f...
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Comments on the article by J. S. Hyde (see record 2005-11115-001 ), in which Hyde provided an overview of the many meta-analyses that have compared men and women on psychological attributes. The current author argues that, despite the strengths of Hyde's study, a major problem with the analysis is its lack of a theoretical basis for considering sex...
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This paper examines the relation of the four subscales (physical, verbal, anger and hostility) of the Buss–Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ) to act-based aggression questionnaires (involving same-sex or partners as opponents, and direct or indirect aggression) and evolutionarily based predictors of aggression, using an online student sample. Al...
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The frequency of items of indirect, relational, social, verbal, and physical aggression was assessed in the school environment of 422 adolescents, using the Indirect/Social/Relational Aggression scale (ISRA), a measure that combined items from indirect, relational, and social aggression research. We also assessed the perceived harmfulness of each i...
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Most researchers who have investigated attributions of blame toward victims in sexual-assault depictions have considered only female victims of male perpetrators. Few researchers have investigated the effects of perpetrator gender or victim sexual orientation on blame attributions toward male victims. The present authors investigated those two vari...
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In developed western nations, both sexes commit acts of physical aggression against their partners. Data from 16 nations showed that this pattern did not generalize to all nations. The magnitude and direction of the sex difference was highly correlated with national-level variations in gender empowerment and individualism-collectivism. As gender eq...
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Research on testosterone-behavior relationships in humans is assessed in relation to a version of the challenge hypothesis, originally proposed to account for testosterone-aggression associations in monogamous birds. Predictions were that that testosterone would rise at puberty to moderate levels, which supported reproductive physiology and behavio...
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Since the 1970s there has been a wealth of literature on the effects of rape on women. However, the study of the effects of male rape is still in its infancy. The aim of this study was investigate the psychological functioning of 40 British male rape survivors, and compare their level of functioning with that of a matched control group. Participant...
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This study investigated explanations of women's partner aggression in a sample of 358 women. Women completed measures of physical aggression, control, and fear. Three explanations of women's partner aggression were explored: (a) that its use is associated with fear, (b) that it is reciprocal, and (c) that it is coercive. Each explanation received p...
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This study assessed the hypothesis that people from an individualist culture (100 British Anglo-Saxon students) would show higher instrumental (I) and lower expressive (E) beliefs about aggression than those from a collectivist culture (100 British Asian students). The hypothesis was not supported and, at an individual level, there was no associati...
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Abstract Viewing indirect aggression on television has been shown to have negative short-term effects on a viewer's subsequent aggressive behavior; however, the longer term relationship between viewing indirect aggression on television and in real life has not yet been examined. Three hundred and forty-seven adolescents, aged 11–14, were asked to l...
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Previous studies of the effects of rape on men have focused mainly on clinical populations. This study extended current research by investigating the effects of rape on a non-clinical sample of men recruited from the general population by media advertising. A total of 40 male rape victims were asked to provide details of their assaults, levels of p...
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A critique is presented of the meta-analysis of testosterone and aggression by Book, Starzyk, and Quinsey [Aggression and Violent Behaviour 6 (2001) 579], and the results of a reanalysis of their data are reported. We identified the following problems with their analysis: Secondary, rather than primary, sources were used in the initial literature r...
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Over the last decade, researchers have found that girls may be just as aggressive as boys when manipulative forms of aggression, such as gossiping and spreading rumors, are included. These forms of aggression are known by 3 different names: indirect aggression, relational aggression, and social aggression. This review examines their commonalities a...
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Johnson (1995) suggested that individuals who use partner violence as a means of coercion are qualitatively different to individuals who do not use partner violence to coerce. From this premise he constructed a dyadic typology of violent relationships. Tests of Johnson’s typology have so far utilized sampling techniques that confound analysis of se...
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Meta-analytic reviews of sex differences in aggression from real-world settings are described. They cover self-reports, observations, peer reports, and teacher reports of overall direct, physical, verbal, and indirect forms of aggression, as well as (for self-reports) trait anger. Findings are related to sexual selection theory and social role theo...
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Numerous studies have shown that viewing violence in the media can influence an individual's subsequent aggression, but none have examined the effect of viewing indirect aggression. This study examines the immediate effect of viewing indirect and direct aggression on subsequent indirect aggression among 199 children ages 11 to 14 years. They were s...
Article
There are few differences in the frequency or intensity of men's and women's self-reported or observed anger. Women are more likely to be angered by relationship conflicts than men. Men are more frequently the targets of anger than women. Typically, men see the expression of anger as exerting dominance, where as women view it as a loss of control....
Article
On the basis of evolutionary principles involving the balance of cooperation and competition, it was predicted that aggressive exchanges between close kin would be viewed in more expressive (E) and less instrumental (I) terms, and those between strangers in more I and less E terms. Aggressive exchanges between friends would be intermediate. These p...
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The prospects of wider application of testosterone (T) in novel indications such as male contraception have prompted renewed interest in the investigation of nonreproductive actions and safety of androgens. This study investigated potential changes in mood and behavior in response to elevations in circulating T concentrations produced by the new lo...
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The purpose of this study is to determine how much indirect aggression occurs in television programs popular among British adolescents. Previous research has mainly focused on violence in the media rather than examining this more manipulative and subtle type of aggression. A content analysis of 228 hours of television programming revealed that indi...
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This study addresses the relationship between aggression and behaviors indicative of bullying in a sample of incarcerated male juvenile and young offenders. The study also addresses whether or not offenders who bully others and/or are bullied themselves can be identified by the type of aggression that they report. Ninety-five juvenile and 196 young...
Article
The association between four measures of trait aggression (the Aggression Questionnaire, AQ) and (1) instrumental (I) and expressive (E) beliefs about aggression, (2) attitudes to aggression (semantic differentials), and (3) normative beliefs about aggression, was investigated in a sample of 165 British students. I and E beliefs were weakly associa...
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This study sought to both replicate and considerably extend the findings of Johnson (1999) that there are two distinct subgroups of physical aggression within relationships: intimate terrorism and common couple violence. The present sample consisted of women residing at Women's Aid shelters and their partners (N=86), male and female students (N=208...
Book
The Nature of Grief is a provocative new study on the evolution of grief. Most literature on the topic regards grief either as a psychiatric disorder or illness to be cured. In contrast to this, John Archer shows that grief is a natural reaction to losses of many sorts, even to the death of a pet, and he proves this by bringing together material fr...
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Greater male than female variability is found in behavioral and morphological traits in animals. A theory that greater male variability is associated with variability in parental investment is described and contrasted with sexual strategies theory, which posits no sex differences in variability. Predictions from the theories were tested through met...
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This study investigated the proposition by Johnson (1995) that there are distinct patterns of physical aggression within relationships, characterized as common couple violence and patriarchal terrorism. The present samples comprised students (N = 113), women from a domestic violence refuge (N = 44), and male prisoners (N = 108). Participants comple...
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Three hypotheses concerning the association between instrumental (I) and expressive (E) beliefs about aggression and physical aggression were assessed among a sample comprising students (n=40), women from a domestic violence shelter (n=29), and male prisoners (n=46), all of whom had committed at least one act of physical aggression to a partner. Pa...
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Meta-analyses are reported of sex differences in acts of physical aggression to heterosexual partners, derived from the Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS) [J Marriage Fam 8 (1979) 75], using methods based on standardized mean differences, and on odds ratios. Women were more likely than men to throw something at the other, slap, kick, bite, or punch, and...
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To investigate (1) the effects of exogenous testosterone (T) on self- and partner-reported aggression and mood and (2) the role of trait impulsivity in the T-aggression relationship. Thirty eugonadal men with partners were randomized into two treatment groups to receive: (1) 200 mg im T enanthate weekly for 8 weeks or (2) 200 mg im sodium chloride...

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