John A. E. Anderson

John A. E. Anderson
Carleton University · Institute of Cognitive Science

PhD

About

58
Publications
40,594
Reads
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1,802
Citations
Introduction
My research examines how contextual effects such as time of testing (i.e. circadian arousal) modulates what we typically think of as age effects in cognition and brain activity (the answer, quite a bit!). I have also explored how experiential factors such as lifelong bilingualism lead to cognitive reserve. I am currently employed at the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health as a postdoctoral researcher and am an incoming Assistant Professor at Carleton University (July 2021) www.canallab.ca
Additional affiliations
July 2021 - present
Carleton University
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
October 2018 - present
Centre for Addiction and Mental Health
Position
  • PostDoc Position
May 2016 - October 2018
York University
Position
  • Lecturer
Description
  • A survey course covering the history of cognitive psychology. Attention, memory, perception etc. This course attempts to address how psychologists use behaviour to model the mind.
Education
September 2009 - October 2015
University of Toronto and Rotman Research Institute
Field of study
  • Psychology, cognitive neuroscience of circadian alertness and aging

Publications

Publications (58)
Article
Full-text available
Testing older adults in the morning generally improves behavioral performance relative to afternoon testing. Morning testing is also associated with brain activity similar to that of young adults. Here, we used graph theory to explore how time of day (TOD) affects the organization of brain networks in older adults across rest and task states. We us...
Article
Full-text available
The present paper reviews the neural correlates of cognitive control associated with bilingualism. We demonstrate that lifelong practice managing two languages orchestrates global changes to both structure and function of the brain. Compared to monolinguals, bilinguals generally show greater gray matter volume, especially in perceptual/motor region...
Article
Full-text available
Research examining the cognitive consequences of bilingualism has expanded rapidly in recent years and has revealed effects on aspects of cognition across the lifespan. However, these effects are difficult to find in studies investigating young adults. One problem is that there is no standard definition of bilingualism or means of evaluating degree...
Article
Full-text available
Behavioral evidence suggests that the attention-based ability to regulate distraction varies across the day in synchrony with a circadian arousal rhythm that changes across the life span. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we assessed whether neural activity in an attention control network also varies across the day and with behavi...
Article
Full-text available
We explored the effects of aging on 2 large-scale brain networks, the default mode network (DMN) and the task-positive network (TPN). During functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning, young and older participants carried out 4 visual tasks: detection, perceptual matching, attentional cueing, and working memory. Accuracy of performance was roug...
Preprint
Full-text available
HIGHLIGHTS • Respiration sustains metabolic activity in all organs, including the brain. • Respiration affects the neural activity of a widespread variety of regions in the brain • Respiration modulates different frequency ranges in the brain's dynamics • Respiration protocols modulate emotion, cognition and behaviour • We conclude that respiration...
Preprint
Full-text available
Cognitive Reserve (CR) refers to the preservation of cognitive function in the face of age- or disease-related neuroanatomical decline. While bilingualism is known to contribute to CR, the extent to which, and what particular aspect of, second language experience contributes to CR are debated, and the underlying neural mechanism(s) unknown. Intrins...
Preprint
Full-text available
Advances in applied machine learning techniques to neuroimaging have encouraged scientists to implement models to early diagnose brain disorders such as Alzheimer's Disease. Predicting various stages of Alzheimer's disease is challenging; however, existing deep learning complex techniques could perform such a prediction. Therefore, using novel arch...
Article
Objective: Structural neuroimaging findings in younger and older adults with major depressive disorder (MDD) are highly heterogeneous, possibly as a result of methodological limitations, lack of distinction between MDD and late-life depression (LLD), or clinical moderators. Using a novel meta-analytic network mapping approach, the authors sought t...
Article
This study compared brain and behavioral outcomes for monolingual and bilingual older adults who reported no cognitive or memory problems on three types of memory that typically decline in older age, namely, working memory (measured by n-back), item, and associative recognition. The results showed that bilinguals were faster on the two-back working...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Response inhibition engages the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) circuit, which has been implicated in children, and youth with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). This study explored whether CSTC engagement during response inhibition, measured using magnetoencephalography (MEG), differed in a sample of medication-naïve youth wi...
Preprint
Full-text available
Aggregation of hyperphosphorylated tau protein is currently one of the most reliable indicators of Alzheimer's pathology and cognitive impairment in older adults. However, it would be useful to have a non-invasive, accessible proxy measure that does not rely on Positron Emission Tomography (PET). We used data from multi-shell diffusion-weighted ima...
Article
Full-text available
Previous studies have reported bilingualism to be a proxy of cognitive reserve (CR) based on evidence that bilinguals express dementia symptoms ~ 4 years later than monolinguals yet present with greater neuropathology at time of diagnosis when clinical levels are similar. The current study provides new evidence supporting bilingualism’s contributio...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background The ability to inhibit a response is a component of executive control that is impaired in many individuals with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and may contribute to clinical symptoms. This study explored whether neural processing during response inhibition, measured using magnetoencephalography (MEG), differed in a sample of medicat...
Article
A history of depression is a risk factor for dementia. Despite strong epidemiologic evidence, the pathways linking depression and dementia remain unclear. We assessed structural brain alterations in white and gray matter of frontal-executive and corticolimbic circuitries in five groups of older adults putatively at-risk for developing dementia—remi...
Article
Full-text available
Evidence suggests that bilingualism may contribute to neuroplasticity and cognitive reserve, allowing individuals to resist cognitive decline associated with Alzheimer’s disease progression, although the idea remains controversial. Here we argue that the reason for the discrepancy stems from conflating incidence rates of dementia and the age at whi...
Article
Postmortem studies reveal that individuals with major neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder have gray matter microstructural abnormalities. These include abnormalities in neuropil organization, expression of proteins supporting neuritic and synaptic integrity, and myelination. Genetic and postmortem studies s...
Article
Background: Neuroimaging findings in younger and older adults with major depressive disorder (MDD) are highly heterogeneous. It is unclear whether this heterogeneity is due to methodological limitations, lack of distinction between MDD and late-life depression (LLD), or clinical moderators. Methods: We identified all voxel-based and surface-based...
Article
Full-text available
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) represents the intermediate stage between normal cerebral aging and dementia associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Early diagnosis of MCI and AD through artificial intelligence has captured considerable scholarly interest; researchers hope to develop therapies capable of slowing or halting these processes. We dev...
Article
Full-text available
On a daily basis, we constantly deal with changing environmental cues and perceptual conflicts and as such, our brains must flexibly adapt to current demands in order to act appropriately. Brains become more efficient and are able to switch states more readily by increasing the complexity of their neural networks. However, it is unclear how brain s...
Article
We investigated sex differences in the association between a measure of physical health, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and brain function using resting-state functional connectivity fMRI. We examined these sex differences in the default, frontoparietal control, and cingulo-opercular networks, assemblies of functionally connected brain regions kn...
Article
Full-text available
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) of the amnestic type is considered to be a transitionary stage between healthy aging and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Previous studies have demonstrated that intrinsic functional connectivity of the default network (DN) is altered in normal aging and AD and impacts both within and between network connectivity. While cha...
Article
Cover legend: This cover image is based on the Research Article Changes in patterns of neural activity underlie a time‐dependent transformation of memory in rats and humans by Melanie J. Sekeres et al., DOI: 10.1002/hipo.23009.
Article
Full-text available
Building on our earlier analysis of the factorial structure of bilingualism for young adults obtained from the Language and Social Background Questionnaire (LSBQ; Anderson, Mak, Keyvani Chahi & Bialystok, 2018), we analyzed responses from 675 children and 125 older adults to a similar questionnaire. Three factors accounting for 74% of the variance...
Article
Full-text available
Evaluation of the cognitive level of older adults, including decisions about meeting clinical thresholds for dementia, is typically based on behavioral levels of performance. However, individuals with high cognitive reserve will outperform the levels typically associated with their brain structure, providing inaccurate assessments of their status....
Article
The dynamic process of memory consolidation involves a reorganization of brain regions that support a memory trace over time, but exactly how the network reorganizes as the memory changes remains unclear. We present novel converging evidence from studies of animals (rats) and humans for the time‐dependent reorganization and transformation of differ...
Preprint
The dynamic process of memory consolidation involves a reorganization of brain regions that support a memory trace over time, but exactly how the network reorganizes as the memory changes remains unclear. We present novel converging evidence from studies of animals (rats) and humans for the time-dependent reorganization and transformation of differ...
Article
Full-text available
Bilingualism can delay the onset of dementia symptoms and has thus been characterized as a mechanism for cognitive or brain reserve, although the origin of this reserve is unknown. Studies with young adults generally show that bilingualism is associated with a strengthening of white matter, but there is conflicting evidence for how bilingualism aff...
Article
Full-text available
Evidence suggests that lifelong bilingualism reshapes the brain and helps to prevent cognitive decline in older age (e.g., Bialystok, 2017). For example, Klein et al. (2016) showed bilingual countries have lower incidence rates of dementia than monolingual countries. Mukadam et al. (2017) conducted a meta-analysis examining the strength of the prot...
Article
Full-text available
Background Current wound assessment practices are lacking on several measures. For example, the most common method for measuring wound size is using a ruler, which has been demonstrated to be crude and inaccurate. An increase in periwound temperature is a classic sign of infection but skin temperature is not always measured during wound assessments...
Data
Repeated measures ANOVA within subjects effects (A) and between subjects effects (B). (PDF)
Data
Reliability measures per wound for the app (circle) and planimeter (square). ICC values for the planimeter were 1 with no detectable variation. ICC values for the App were 0.998 CI [0.996–0.999]. (PDF)
Data
Temperature data. The difference between the two methods was non-significant using a paired t-test, t(34) = 1.29, p = 0.21. (PDF)
Article
Full-text available
Brain signal complexity increases with development and is associated with better cognitive outcomes in older age. Research has also shown that bilinguals are able to stave off cognitive decline for longer periods of time than monolinguals, but no studies to date have examined whether bilinguals have more complex brain signals than monolinguals. Her...
Article
Full-text available
Using implicit tests, older adults have been found to retain conceptual knowledge of previously seen task-irrelevant information. While younger adults typically do not show the same effect, evidence from one study [Gopie, N., Craik, F. I. M., & Hasher, L. (2011). A double dissociation of implicit and explicit memory in younger and older adults. Psy...
Article
Full-text available
To extract patterns from neuroimaging data, various statistical methods and machine learning algorithms have been explored for the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease among older adults in both clinical and research applications; however, distinguishing between Alzheimer’s and healthy brain data has been challenging in older adults (age > 75) due to h...
Article
Full-text available
Standardized neuropsychological tests are routinely used as diagnostic criteria in aging populations and are an important piece of evidence for the identification of clinical pathology and neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's disease. Tests include such measures as the Mini Mental Status Exam, Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System, Mon...
Article
Full-text available
Older adults show decrements in the ability to ignore or suppress distraction relative to younger adults. However, age differences in the neural correlates of distraction control and the role of large-scale network interaction in regulating distractors are scarcely examined. In the current study, we investigated age differences in how the anticorre...
Article
Full-text available
We assessed age differences in the ability to resolve competition for figural status in stationary displays using small, enclosed, symmetrical silhouettes that participants classified as depicting "novel" or "familiar" shapes. The silhouettes were biased such that the inside was perceived as the shaped figure, and the outside was perceived as a sha...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The human brain is a complicated network made-up of a large number of regions, which are structurally and/or functionally connected. Recently, neuroimaging studies using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging have revealed that certain neural structures are highly active during periods of rest. Amongst several methods that have been developed to ana...
Article
Full-text available
The objectives of this study were to provide an assessment of photographic documentation of the wound from the patients' perspective and to evaluate whether this could improve patients' understanding of and involvement in their wound care. Our results revealed that most patients visiting the wound care clinic have difficult-to-see wounds (86%). Onl...
Article
Full-text available
To examine the effects of bilingualism on cognitive control, we studied monolingual and bilingual young adults performing a flanker task with functional MRI. The trial types of primary interest for this report were incongruent and no-go trials, representing interference suppression and response inhibition, respectively. Response times were similar...
Article
Full-text available
We examined the influence of emotional valence and type of item to be remembered on brain activity during recognition, using faces and scenes. We used multivariate analyses of event-related fMRI data to identify whole-brain patterns, or networks of activity. Participants demonstrated better recognition for scenes vs faces and for negative vs neutra...

Questions

Questions (4)
Question
I'm in the situation where I'm trying to extract coordinates of activations for an MRI image from a paper. I'm able to convert the image into a NIFTI file following these steps: https://layerfmri.com/2018/07/19/how-to-convert-any-paper-figure-into-a-layer-profile/, but am having difficulty aligning the 2D image to an MNI template. I've tried FLIRT, but I am having no luck with that - does anyone have any suggestions?
Thanks in advance,
John
Question
I am interested in combining data across a variety of modalities (VBM, DTI, Surface, and possibly functional). The only method I've come across that purports to do this is FSL's FLICA. While I can get this to work for any file that uses a .nii.gz extension, I cannot get this to work with Freesurfer .mgh files.
If anyone's done multimodal data fusion involving these modalities, I'd be very interested to hear how you're approaching this,

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Projects

Projects (3)
Project
We are examining cognitive reserve in healthy and abnormal aging populations with a view to examining the role of bilingualism. The project uses a variety of imaging techniques and behavioural measures.