Johannes Schultz

Johannes Schultz
University of Bonn - Medical Center · Center for Economics and Neuroscience

PhD in Neuroscience (UCL)

About

77
Publications
12,331
Reads
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3,201
Citations
Citations since 2016
39 Research Items
1531 Citations
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250
Introduction
Additional affiliations
November 2018 - present
University of Bonn - Medical Center
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
September 2015 - November 2018
University Clinic Bonn
Position
  • Senior Researcher
September 2012 - August 2015
Durham University
Position
  • Lecturer

Publications

Publications (77)
Data
Full-text available
Facial motion carries essential information about other people's emotions and intentions. Most previous studies have suggested that facial motion is mainly processed in the superior temporal sulcus (STS), but several recent studies have also shown involve-ment of ventral temporal face-sensitive regions. Up to now, it is not known whether the increa...
Article
Full-text available
Facial movements convey information about many social cues, including identity. However, how much information about a person's identity is conveyed by different kinds of facial movements is unknown. We addressed this question using a recent motion capture and animation system, with which we animated one avatar head with facial movements of three ty...
Article
Full-text available
Distinguishing animate from inanimate objects is fundamental for social perception in humans and animals. Visual motion cues indicative of self-propelled object motion are useful for animacy perception: they can be detected over a wide expanse of visual field, at distance and in low visibility conditions, can attract attention and provide clues abo...
Article
Full-text available
Faces that move contain rich information about facial form, such as facial features and their configuration, alongside the motion of those features. During social interactions, humans constantly decode and integrate these cues. To fully understand human face perception, it is important to investigate what information dynamic faces convey and how th...
Article
Full-text available
Social interactions have a major impact on well-being. While many individuals actively seek social situations, others avoid them, at great cost to their private and professional life. The neural mechanisms underlying individual differences in social approach or avoidance tendencies are poorly understood. Here we estimated people's subjective value...
Preprint
Full-text available
In behaviour, humans have been shown to represent the sex of faces categorically when the faces are familiar to them. This leads to them judging faces crossing the category boundary (i.e. from male to female) as more different than faces that are within the same category. In this study, we investigated how faces of different sexes are encoded in th...
Preprint
Epidemiological studies suggest that the average dietary protein intake is insufficient to maintain muscle mass as we age. Despite their availability, protein-enriched foods are not widely accepted, likely owing to their unexpected “taste”. Those expectations change with experience and exposure can improve product acceptance. However, the sensory d...
Article
Full-text available
To survive, all animals need to predict what other agents are going to do next. We review neural mechanisms involved in the steps required for this ability. The first step is to determine whether an object is an agent, and if so, how sophisticated it is. This involves brain regions carrying representations of animate agents. The movements of the ag...
Article
Full-text available
Background Although clinically effective treatment is available for schizophrenia, recovery often is still hampered by persistent poor psychosocial functioning, which in turn is limited by impairments in neurocognition, social cognition, and social behavioral skills. Although cognitive remediation has shown general efficacy in improving cognition a...
Article
Recent advances in the neuropsychopharmacology of metacognition indicate a constituent role of glutamate for the integrity of metamnestic processes. However, the extent to which previous results can be generalized across functional domains to characterize the relationship between glutamate and metacognition remains unclear. Here, in a randomized, d...
Article
Full-text available
Loneliness is a public health concern with detrimental effects on physical and mental well-being. Given phenotypical overlaps between loneliness and social anxiety (SA), cognitive-behavioral interventions targeting SA might be adopted to reduce loneliness. However, whether SA and loneliness share the same underlying neurocognitive mechanisms is sti...
Article
Full-text available
Burgeoning evidence indicates that women are more sensitive to the context of an offer and show a stronger propensity to adjust their behavior with changing fairness frames. We evaluated whether the sex hormone estradiol and associated stereotypical beliefs contribute to fairness framings by administering topical estradiol (2 mg) to 108 healthy wom...
Article
Full-text available
Social cognition and metacognition are frequently impaired in schizophrenia, and these impairments complicate recovery. Recent work suggests that different aspects of metacognition may not be impaired to the same degree. Furthermore, metacognition and the cognitive capacity being monitored need not be similarly impaired. Here, we assessed performan...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Loneliness is a public health concern with detrimental effects on physical and mental well-being. Given phenotypical overlaps between loneliness and social anxiety, cognitive behavioral interventions targeting social anxiety might be adopted to reduce loneliness. However, it is still elusive whether social anxiety and loneliness share th...
Preprint
Full-text available
Social cognition and metacognition are frequently impaired in schizophrenia, and these impairments complicate recovery. Recent work suggests that different aspects of metacognition may not be impaired to the same degree. Furthermore, metacognition and the cognitive capacity being monitored need not be similarly impaired. Here, we assessed performan...
Article
Full-text available
Only little research has been conducted on the pharmacological underpinnings of metacognition. Here, we tested the modulatory effects of a single intravenous dose (100 ng/ml) of the N-methyl-D-aspartate-glutamate-receptor antagonist ketamine, a compound known to induce altered states of consciousness, on metacognition and its neural correlates. Fif...
Preprint
Full-text available
To survive, all animals need to predict what other agents are going to do next. The first step is to detect that an object is an agent and, if so, how sophisticated it is. To this end, visual cues are especially important: the form of the agent and the nature of its movements. Once identified, the movements of an agent, however sophisticated, can b...
Article
Full-text available
Background While intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS) has been shown to improve symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD), research has been largely limited to targeting the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). New approaches utilize patients’ individual resting state fMRI data in order to identify superficial cortical stimulation targe...
Article
Full-text available
Increasing rates of obesity have fueled interest in the factors underlying food choice. While epidemiological studies report that disadvantaged social groups exhibit a higher incidence of obesity, causal evidence for an effect of social contexts on food choice remains scarce. To further our knowledge, we experimentally investigated the effect of di...
Preprint
Full-text available
Many risky choices we make affect others in addition to ourselves, and choices made by others also affect us. To study the neural mechanisms underlying social responsibility, we used the following social decision paradigm. In each trial, participants or their game partner chose between a safe and a risky option in a gamble for money. If the risky o...
Article
Significance A potential new target for anxiolytic drug development is the oxytocin (OXT) neuropeptide system. An emerging question is whether OXT has similar effects on the neural microcircuitry of fear compared with clinically established compounds such as benzodiazepines. The present functional MRI study showed that both OXT and its benzodiazepi...
Article
Full-text available
A core symptom of schizophrenia is a deficit in social cognition. Furthermore, many patients suffer from relevant social anxiety. How social anxiety relates to social avoidance in schizophrenia is however still unclear. To address this question empirically, 30 participants with schizophrenia were compared to individually matched controls in a recen...
Article
Objective: Childhood maltreatment is a major risk factor for psychopathology associated with interpersonal problems in adulthood, but the etiological pathways involved are still unclear. The authors propose that childhood maltreatment confers risk for dysfunctional behavior in social interactions by altering interpersonal distance preference and t...
Article
Aim Meta‐analyses indicate positive effects of both antipsychotic and cognitive‐behavioural interventions in subjects clinically at high risk (CHR) for psychosis in terms of a delay or prevention of psychotic disorders. However, these effects have been limited regarding social functioning and the relative efficacy of both types of interventions rem...
Article
Mounting evidence emphasizes the usefulness of imaging biomarkers for predicting therapy outcome in major depressive disorder (MDD), in particular building on functional imaging studies of task-based responses to emotional face stimuli and resting state-related connectivity patterns. To explore the possibility that prediction accuracy even in small...
Article
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Symptomfreiheit sowie Erhalt der Selbstbestimmung über die eigene Lebensführung gehören zu den Zielen der Schizophreniebehandlung. Die erreichten Genesungsraten sind jedoch eher moderat, was sich auch in den langfristigen Kosten für das Gesundheitssystem widerspiegelt. Die Prävention der Schizophrenie, mit dem Ziel attenuierte psychotische Symptome...
Article
Zusammenfassung Gegenstand und Ziel: Psychotische Störungen gehören aufgrund ihres frühen Beginns und ihren langfristigen Konsequenzen zu den teuersten psychischen Erkrankungen in Europa. Prävention könnte die gesellschaftlichen Kosten und die immense Belastung für Patienten und Familien signifikant reduzieren. Neurobiologische Befunde deuten auf e...
Article
Full-text available
What cortical mechanisms allow humans to easily discern the expression or identity of a face? Subjects detected changes in expression or identity of a stream of dynamic faces while we measured BOLD responses from topographically and functionally defined areas throughout the visual hierarchy. Responses in dorsal areas increased during the expression...
Article
Current perspectives propose that observer models accounting for both optimal and suboptimal behaviour may yield real progress in understanding perception. We propose that such models could, in addition, be very useful for precisely characterising the variation in perception across healthy participants and those affected by psychiatric disorders, a...
Article
Full-text available
The phylogenetically ancient neuropeptide oxytocin has been linked to a plethora of social behaviors. Here, we argue that the action of oxytocin is not restricted to the downstream level of emotional responses, but substantially alters higher representations of attitudes and values by exerting a distant modulatory influence on cortical areas and th...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Current neuroimaging perspectives on a variety of mental disorders emphasize dysfunction of the amygdala. The neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT), a key mediator in the regulation of social cognition and behavior, accumulates in cerebrospinal fluid after intranasal administration in macaques and humans and modulates amygdala reactivity in both...
Article
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Current perspectives on attractiveness-related prosocial biases emphasize the contribution of evolutionarily shaped mating drives. Here, we extend these concepts by highlighting the pivotal role of the hypothalamic peptide oxytocin in augmenting the salience and rewarding value of social stimuli, including the partner's face, thereby fostering soci...
Article
Animal studies suggest that N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) dependent signalling in limbic and prefrontal regions is critically involved in both cognitive and emotional functions. In humans, ketamine-induced transient, and disorder associated chronic NMDAR hypofunction (i.e. in schizophrenia) has been associated with deficient performance in...
Article
Full-text available
The sense of agency describes the ability to experience oneself as the agent of one's own actions. Previous studies of the sense of agency manipulated the predicted sensory feed- back related either to movement execution or to the movement’s outcome, for example by delaying the movement of a virtual hand or the onset of a tone that resulted from a...
Article
Full-text available
Mirror neurons (MNs) are considered to be the supporting neural mechanism for action understanding. MNs have been identified in monkey’s area F5. The identification of MNs in the human homolog of monkeys’ area F5 Broadmann Area 44/45 (BA 44/45) has been proven methodologically difficult. Cross-modal functional MRI (fMRI) adaptation studies supporti...
Article
Full-text available
Congenital prosopagnosia, the innate impairment in recognizing faces, is a very heterogeneous disorder with different phenotypical manifestations. To investigate the nature of prosopagnosia in more detail, we tested 16 prosopagnosics and 21 controls with an extended test battery addressing various aspects of face recognition. Our results show that...
Poster
Humans can easily extract who someone is and what expression they are making from the complex interplay of invariant and changeable visual features of faces. Recent evidence suggests that cortical mechanisms to selectively extract information about these two socially critical cues are segregated. Here we asked if these systems are independently con...
Article
Full-text available
Emotions can be aroused by various kinds of stimulus modalities. Recent neuroimaging studies indicate that several brain regions represent emotions at an abstract level, i.e., independently from the sensory cues from which they are perceived (e.g., face, body, or voice stimuli). If emotions are indeed represented at such an abstract level, then the...
Article
Full-text available
Emotions can be aroused by various kinds of stimulus modalities. Recent neuroimaging studies indicate that several brain regions represent emotions at an abstract level, i.e., independently from the sensory cues from which they are perceived (e.g., face, body, or voice stimuli). If emotions are indeed represented at such an abstract level, then the...
Article
Full-text available
Congenital prosopagnosia (CP), an innate impairment in recognizing faces, as well as the other-race effect (ORE), a disadvantage in recognizing faces of foreign races, both affect face recognition abilities. Are the same face processing mechanisms affected in both situations? To investigate this question, we tested three groups of 21 participants:...
Article
Full-text available
A great deal of perceptual and social information is conveyed by facial motion. Here, we investigated observers' sensitivity to the complex spatio-temporal information in facial expressions and what cues they use to judge the similarity of these movements. We motion-captured four facial expressions and decomposed them into time courses of semantica...
Article
Full-text available
Individuals with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show hallmark deficits in social perception. These difficulties might also reflect fundamental deficits in integrating visual signals. We contrasted predictions of a social perception and a spatial-temporal integration deficit account. Participants with ASD and matched controls performed two tasks:...
Article
Full-text available
A woman in her early 40s with congenital prosopagnosia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder observed for the first time sudden and extensive improvement of her face recognition abilities, mental imagery, and sense of navigation after galactose intake. This effect of galactose on prosopagnosia has never been reported before. Even if this eff...
Poster
A great deal of social information is conveyed by facial motion. However, understanding how observers use the natural timing and intensity information conveyed by facial motion is difficult because of the complexity of these motion cues. Here, we systematically manipulated animations of facial expressions to investigate observers’ sensitivity to ch...
Article
Full-text available
Identifying moving things in the environment is a priority for animals as these could be prey, predators, or mates. When the shape of a moving object is hard to see, motion becomes an important cue to distinguish animate from inanimate things. We report a new stimulus in which a single moving dot evokes a reasonably strong percept of animacy by mim...
Article
The fact that people are better at recognizing faces of their own race than others is called the other-race-effect (ORE). Most studies use only a single test to map and determine the characteristics of the ORE, however. Here, we investigated how two groups of fifteen age-matched Korean and German participants recognize Asian and Caucasian faces wit...
Poster
Congenital prosopagnosia, an innate impairment in recognizing faces, as well as the other-race-effect, the disadvantage in recognizing faces of foreign races, both influence face recognition abilities. Here we compared both phenomena by testing three groups: German congenital prosopagnosics (cPs), unimpaired German, and unimpaired South Korean part...
Poster
Previous research has shown that facial motion can convey information about identity in addition to facial form (e.g. Hill & Johnston, 2001). The present study aims at finding whether identity judgments vary depending on the kinds of facial movements and the task performed. To this end, we used a recent facial motion capture and animation system (C...
Article
Full-text available
Facial motion carries essential information about other people's emotions and intentions. Most previous studies have suggested that facial motion is mainly processed in the superior temporal sulcus (STS), but several recent studies have also shown involvement of ventral temporal face-sensitive regions. Up to now, it is not known whether the increas...
Article
Behaviourally, humans have been shown to integrate multisensory information in a statistically-optimal fashion by averaging the individual unisensory estimates according to their relative reliabilities. This form of integration is optimal in that it yields the most reliable (i.e. least variable) multisensory percept. The present study investigates...
Conference Paper
Identifying living moving things in the environment is a priority for animals, as these could be prey, enemies or mates. When the shape of the moving object is hard to see (fog, twilight, great distance, small animal), motion becomes an important cue to detect it. The neural correlates of the detection of an isolated living entity on the basis of i...