Johannes Schult

Johannes Schult
Institute for Educational Analysis Baden-Württemberg

Dr. rer. nat.

About

42
Publications
20,102
Reads
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366
Citations
Additional affiliations
July 2012 - January 2016
Universität des Saarlandes
Position
  • PostDoc Position
October 2009 - September 2012
Universität Konstanz
Position
  • PhD Student
Education
October 2007 - September 2008
KU Leuven
Field of study
  • Quantitative Analysis in the Social Sciences
October 2001 - September 2007
Universität Konstanz
Field of study
  • Psychology

Publications

Publications (42)
Article
Full-text available
School success is closely linked to intelligence but also to non-cognitive factors such as achievement motivation. The present study examines which non-cognitive factors predict secondary school grades and looks at reasons why female students tend to outperform their male counterparts. A sample of 554 German freshman students provided measures of g...
Article
A teacher’s job is associated with plenty of free time, but also with high stress levels. Previous research regarding the job-related stress of teachers is ambiguous and provides mixed interpretations. Using representative data from the Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP), we compared job satisfaction and stress of 425 teachers with control groups from oth...
Article
Full-text available
Fachspezifische Studierfähigkeitstests werden in mehreren zulassungsbeschränkten Studiengängen als Auswahlinstrument eingesetzt. Eine Metaanalyse von Hell, Trapmann und Schuler (2007) ermittelte eine hohe prognostische Validität solcher Tests. Seitdem hat es allerdings umfassende Veränderungen des Bildungssystems (z.B. Bologna-Prozess, Änderungen d...
Article
Full-text available
This classroom experiment investigates the effects of adding representational pictures to multiple-choice and constructed-response test items to understand the role of the response format for the multimedia effect in testing. Participants were 575 fifth- and sixth-graders who answered 28 science test items - seven items in each of four experimental...
Article
Full-text available
School closures during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in early 2020 were associated with attenuated learning gains compared to pre-pandemic years. In Germany, two further pandemic waves led to school closures and periods of remote learning between December 2020 and May 2021. The present study investigates the academic achievement of all in...
Preprint
Full-text available
School closures during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in early 2020 were associated with attenuated learning gains compared to pre-pandemic years. In Germany, two further pandemic waves led to school closures and periods of remote learning between December 2020 and May 2021. The present study investigates the academic achievement of all in...
Preprint
The first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic disrupted regular classes in spring 2020. Temporary school closures supposedly led to a considerable learning loss, particularly for low-achieving students. Schools in Baden-Württemberg, Germany, were closed for two months. Although distance learning was implemented, students spent less time learning. Additio...
Article
Equity issues in the field of arts and culture play an important role when it comes to extracurricular activities in education. Students with special educational needs (SEN) seem not provided with equal access. Using nation-wide random samples of fourth- and fifth-graders courtesy of the German National Education Panel Study (NEPS), the main analys...
Article
Fachspezifische Studierfähigkeitstests haben sich auch im deutschsprachigen Raum als valide Prädiktoren des Bachelorstudienerfolgs und somit als hilfreiche standardisierte Auswahlinstrumente erwiesen. Anhand der Daten des Nationalen Bildungspanels (NEPS) wurde untersucht, ob sich ein vergleichbares Muster auch für das konsekutive Masterstudium zeig...
Preprint
Large-scale educational competence tests provide teachers and school management with information regarding their students’ performance. For a so-called fair comparison, a school’s mean score can be compared with the mean score of schools with a similar social composition. Similarity is usually determined by a social school index that is based on co...
Chapter
Wie kann die Kulturelle Bildung die Barrieren überwinden, die die Teilhabe an Kunst und Kultur erschweren? Dieser Band sammelt und systematisiert bereits bestehende inner- und außerschulische Expertisen aus dem weiten Feld der inklusiven kulturellen Bildung mit dem Fokus auf Musik, Tanz/Bewegung, Theater und Kunst. Die Beiträger_innen zeigen, dass...
Preprint
Fachspezifische Studierfähigkeitstests haben sich auch im deutschsprachigen Raum als valide Prädiktoren des Bachelorstudienerfolgs und somit als hilfreiche Auswahlinstrumente erwiesen. Anhand der Daten des Nationalen Bildungspanels (NEPS) wurde untersucht, ob sich ein vergleichbares Muster auch für das konsekutive Masterstudium zeigt. Die Analysest...
Article
Full-text available
Zusammenfassung. Multiple-Choice-Aufgaben (MCA) werden gegenüber Freitextaufgaben (Constructed-Response-Aufgaben [CRA]) in Hochschulprüfungen zunehmend eingesetzt. Diese Studie betrachtet formatspezifische Einstellungen und Präferenzen von Studierenden, die relevant für selbstreguliertes Lernverhalten sein könnten (vgl. Assessment Drives Learning)....
Article
. Academic achievements are often assessed in written exams and tests using selection-type (e.g., multiple-choice, MC) and supply-type (e.g., constructed-response, CR) item response formats. The present article examines how MC items and CR items differ with regard to reliability and criterion validity in two educational large-scale assessments with...
Article
Full-text available
The successful completion of a university degree program is accompanied by multiple complex opportunities and challenges, which require students to react accordingly with the skills necessary to meet them. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the role of complex-problem solving (CPS) skills in undergraduate students’ university succe...
Article
Full-text available
Teachers' ability to accurately assess students' performance and item difficulties is essential for making adequate educational decisions in the classroom. So far, it is unknown how the accuracy of teachers' judgments is also related to the item response format that is used for assessing students' performances. Using data of state-wide reading prof...
Presentation
Full-text available
Im Mittelpunkt des Vortrags steht der Umgang mit dem Begutachtungsprozess bei der Publikation in wissenschaftlichen Fachzeitschriften. Nach einem Überblick über den Ablauf der Peer Reviews werden die beteiligten Personen und ihre Rollen im Begutachtungsprozess erläutert. Im Mittelpunkt steht dabei die Perspektive der Autor/innen. Praktische Beispie...
Article
. This study deals with the effects of the diagnostic setting on the performance in intelligence tests. We conducted a meta-analysis in which k = 30 samples with a total sample size of N = 2,448 were integrated. We compared results for the same intelligence tests administered either in a group or in an individual setting. The main analysis indicate...
Article
Computer-based assessments of complex problem solving performance often take place in group settings like classrooms and computer laboratories. Such computer-based procedures provide an excellent opportunity to examine setting effects that might occur while participants are tested in a non-group session online at a time and place of their own choos...
Article
Full-text available
The need for efficient personality inventories has led to the wide use of short instruments. The corresponding items often contain multiple, potentially conflicting descriptors within one item. In Study 1 (N = 198 university students), the reliability and validity of the TIPI (Ten-Item Personality Inventory) was compared with the reliability and va...
Article
Bifactor models can clarify how general and specific intelligence factors relate to general and specific academic achievements. By modeling specific group factors that are orthogonal to the general factors one can establish systematic correlations between corresponding non-g residuals of general intelligence and achievement factors. Using data from...
Article
Previous studies revealed inconsistent results regarding the relative importance of specific and general achievement goals (mastery goals, performance-approach goals, performance-avoidance goals, work-avoidance goals) in predicting specific and general scholastic outcomes (interests, importance, grades). Therefore, high-school students (N = 1210;...
Technical Report
Compulsory military service is a uniformed life event disrupting the lives of young men (and sometimes women) in countries with conscription. Consequently, the development of personality and subjective well-being during service was investigated using representative population data from the German Socio-Economic Panel. In line with previous findings...
Article
Für zwei deutsche Studierfähigkeitstests wird untersucht, ob diese die Studienleistungen von Frauen unterschätzen und wenn ja, ob dieser Befund mit geschlechts-spezifischen Persönlichkeitseigenschaften zusammenhängt. Die Datenbasis liefern 356 Studienanfänger in Wirtschaftswissenschaften und 269 Studienanfänger in Naturwissenschaften. Neben den Not...
Article
This study explores how reasoning facets relate to tests of scholastic aptitude and to academic performance. Intelligence test scores and academic aptitude test scores from freshman students in science (n = 284) and economics (n = 359) as well as subsequent grades from their first year in college were used to analyze structural equation models. The...
Article
Der Lehrerberuf wird mit viel Freizeit, aber auch mit einer hohen Stressbelastung assoziiert. Bisherige Befunde zu Belastungen im Lehrerberuf sind widersprüchlich und weisen Interpretationsgrenzen auf. Basierend auf den repräsentativen Daten des Sozio-Ökonomischen Panels (SOEP) kontrastierten wir Arbeitszufriedenheit und -belastung von 425 Lehrkräf...
Article
Full-text available
This is the first meta-analysis that investigates the differential prediction of undergraduate and graduate college admission tests for women and men. Findings on 130 independent samples representing 493,048 students are summarized. The underprediction of women's academic performance (d = 0.14) and the overprediction of men's academic performance (...
Article
Tests of cognitive ability play a major role in the selection of students. Still, data regarding the fairness of standardized tests in Germany is scarce. We use three samples (N = 2,616; 58% women) from German universities to investigate the sex‐specific differential prediction of college performance based on intelligence tests. The predictive bias...
Article
This study investigates how school achievement and personality traits relate to professional success, using representative data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (154 ? n ? 589). Conscientiousness is the only Big Five factor that has a substantial predictive validity with regard to job satisfaction two years after graduation from college. Person...
Article
Emotional sweating and malodour production represent a relevant challenge to today's antiperspirant (AP) and deodorant products as stress in everyday life increases continuously. The aim of this study was to investigate stress-induced sweating in teenagers who are known to experience various stressful situations, e.g. exams at school or job intervi...
Poster
Full-text available
Die Kriteriumsvalidität spielt bei Auswahlverfahren eine entscheidende Rolle, da die Testergebnisse zukünftige Leistungen vorhersagen sollen. Prädiktive Validität ist als Korrelation zwischen dem Testscore und dem Kriterium definiert. Ist diese Korrelation für einzelne Personengruppen unterschiedlich, spricht man von differenzieller Validität. Dage...
Article
Effects of nutritional supplements on psychological wellbeing receive increasing attention. This double-blind placebo-controlled study investigated effects of a four week intake of powder of fertilized eggs (Young Tissue Extract; YTE) in a laboratory protocol (Trier Social Stress Test; TSST). Aside the laboratory stress test, we examined differenti...
Article
Arbeiten zur affektiven Modulation von Verhaltens- und physiologischen Parametern zeigen häufig einen Verarbeitungsvorteil von erregenden angenehmen und unangenehmen gegenüber neutralen Reizen. Davon ausgehend wurde die Erkennungsleistung von Bildern untersucht, wobei versucht wurde mögliche perzeptuelle Unterschiede zwischen den Kategorien zu mini...

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