Johannes Kobler

Johannes Kobler
Umweltbundesamt, Austria · Ökosystemforschung und -monitoring

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52
Publications
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Citations

Publications

Publications (52)
Article
Full-text available
Research in global change ecology relies heavily on global climatic grids derived from estimates of air temperature in open areas at around 2 m above the ground. These climatic grids do not reflect conditions below vegetation canopies and near the ground surface, where critical ecosystem functions occur and most terrestrial species reside. Here, we...
Preprint
Full-text available
Research in environmental science relies heavily on global climatic grids derived from estimates of air temperature at around 2 meter above ground1-3. These climatic grids however fail to reflect conditions near and below the soil surface, where critical ecosystem functions such as soil carbon storage are controlled and most biodiversity resides4-8...
Article
Full-text available
Information about forest background reflectance is needed for accurate biophysical parameter retrieval from forest canopies (overstory) with remote sensing. Separating under- and overstory signals would enable more accurate modeling of forest carbon and energy fluxes. We retrieved values of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) of the f...
Article
Full-text available
Excess nitrogen (N) deposition and gaseous N emissions from industrial, domestic, and agricultural sources have led to increased nitrate leaching, the loss of biological diversity, and has affected carbon (C) sequestration in forest ecosystems. Nitrate leaching affects the purity of karst water resources, which contribute around 50% to Austria’s dr...
Article
Full-text available
Anthropogenic emissions of nitrogen (N) and sulphur (S) compounds and their long-range transport have caused widespread negative impacts on different ecosystems. Critical loads (CLs) are deposition thresholds used to describe the sensitivity of ecosystems to atmospheric deposition. The CL methodology has been a key science-based tool for assessing...
Article
Full-text available
With climate change the occurrence of summer droughts is expected to increase in Central Europe. This could lead to increased nitrate (NO3⁻) leaching when water scarcity affects the N-uptake capacity of trees and increases soil N availability due to early leaf senescence and higher litter input. In the present study, we used 16 years of ecological...
Article
Full-text available
ContextThe contribution of forest understory to the temperate forest carbon sink is not well known, increasing the uncertainty in C cycling feedbacks on global climate as estimated by Earth System Models.Objectives We aimed at quantifying the effect of woody and non-woody understory vegetation on net ecosystem production (NEP) for a forested area o...
Article
Full-text available
Context Varying altitudes and aspects within small distances are typically found in mountainous areas. Such a complex topography complicates the accurate quantification of forest C dynamics at larger scales. Objectives We determined the effects of altitude and aspect on forest C cycling in a typical, mountainous catchment in the Northern Limestone...
Article
The international Long-Term Ecological Research Network (ILTER) encompasses hundreds of long-term research/monitoring sites located in a wide array of ecosystems that can help us understand environmental change across the globe. We evaluated long-term trends (1990–2015) for bulk deposition, throughfall and runoff water chemistry and fluxes, and cli...
Article
Full-text available
Protected Areas are a key component of nature conservation. They can play an important role in counterbalancing the impacts of ecosystem degradation. For an optimal protection of a Protected Area it is essential to account for the variables underlying the major Ecosystem Services an area delivers, and the threats upon them. Here we show that the pe...
Data
List of mistakes made in the surveys and the ways used to correct them. Categories are Ecosystem Services (ES), Threats (Thr), and Ecosystem Types (ETy). The variable which was originally indicated (“between quotation marks”) is followed by our Remark on it (unless it may have been renamed). For the Actions taken: Split means that the term is split...
Data
Harmonisation tables for all variables. (S2a) ecosystem services, (S2b) threats, and the classification of the variables into variables of biotic, abiotic or socio-economic (anthropogenic) nature, grey cells are variables indicated by PA managers. (PDF)
Data
Example of the survey sent to PA managers. (PDF)
Data
Example of the survey sent to, and answers from, the scientists working on protected areas. (PDF)
Data
List of ecosystem types. Indicated for the transitional waters (TW) and the mountainous (MO) protected areas. (PDF)
Article
Full-text available
AimsSlow or failed tree regeneration after forest disturbance is increasingly observed in the central European Alps, potentially amplifying the carbon (C) loss from disturbance. We aimed at quantifying C dynamics of a poorly regenerating disturbance site with a special focus on the role of non-woody ground vegetation. Methods Soil CO2 efflux, fine...
Article
Full-text available
Climate change and excess deposition of airborne nitrogen (N) are among the main stressors to floristic biodiversity. One particular concern is the deterioration of valuable habitats such as those protected under the European Habitat Directive. In future, climate-driven shifts (and losses) in the species potential distribution, but also N driven nu...
Data
Site- and scenario-specific effects of climate change and N deposition. (PDF)
Data
List of all distinctive plant species for the study sites. (PDF)
Data
Methods used for soil and climate input data for VSD+. (PDF)
Data
Future changes at the site level. (PDF)
Data
Methods and results for forest growth. (PDF)
Data
Future changes in the occurrence probability of plant species. (PDF)
Article
Full-text available
Nitrogen (N) cycle processes in terrestrial ecosystems are highly sensitive to temperature and soil moisture variations. Thus, future climate change may affect the degree to which N deposited from the atmosphere will be retained in forest ecosystems. We evaluated the effect of future changes in climate and N deposition on ecosystem N cycling using...
Article
Empirical evidence based on integrated environmental monitoring including physical, chemical and biological variables is essential for evaluating the ecosystem benefits of costly emission reduction policies. The international multidisciplinary ICP IM (International Cooperative Programme on Integrated Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Ecosystem...
Article
Full-text available
1. The ongoing changes to climate challenge the conservation of forest biodiversity. Yet, in thermally limited systems, such as temperate forests, not all species groups might be affected negatively. Furthermore, simultaneous changes in the disturbance regime have the potential to mitigate climate-related impacts on forest species. Here, we (i) inv...
Article
Full-text available
Karst systems are important for drinking water supply. Future climate projections indicate increasing temperature and a higher frequency of strong weather events. Both will influence the availability and quality of water provided from karst regions. Forest disturbances such as windthrow can disrupt ecosystem cycles and cause pronounced nutrient los...
Article
Forest management and climate change, directly or indirectly, affect drinking water resources, both in terms of quality and quantity. In this study in the Northern Limestone Alps in Austria we have chosen model calculations (LandscapeDNDC) in order to resolve the complex long-term interactions of management and climate change and their effect on ni...
Article
Forest management and climate change, directly or indirectly, affect drinking water resources, both in terms of quality and quantity. In this study in the Northern Limestone Alps in Austria we have chosen model calculations (LandscapeDNDC) in order to resolve the complex long-term interactions of management and climate change and their effect on ni...
Poster
Climate change research predicts an increase in weather extremes like severe droughts and heavy rainfalls in central Europe. Since soil moisture is one of the most important drivers of soil respiration, a change in precipitation regime is likely to influence ecosystem C cycling. During drying of soils, soil microbial activity decreases and dead mic...
Article
Full-text available
Karst systems are important for drinking water supply. Future climate projections indicate increasing temperature and a higher frequency of strong weather events. Both will influence the availability and quality of water provided from karst regions. Forest disturbances such as windthrow can disrupt ecosystem cycles and cause pronounced nutrient los...
Article
In central European mountain forests, bark beetle abatement measures implemented after wind and bark beetle disturbances represent a well-defined disturbance regime. We used a biometric approach extended by soil CO2 efflux measurements to study the effects of disturbance-induced stand patchiness on the net ecosystem productivity (NEP) of a mature N...
Article
Full-text available
The productivity of tropical forests is driven by climate (precipitation, temperature, light) and soil fertility (geology, topography). While large-scale drivers of tropical productivity are well established, knowledge on the sensitivity of tropical lowland net primary production to climate anomalies remains scarce. We here analyze seven consecutiv...
Article
In this paper, we analyse the patterns and determinants of cacti invasion in 22 European countries. We compiled a checklist for each country. Cacti were classified for each country according to their invasion status as casuals, locally established (1–5 localities of small population size) and widely established (>5 localities of considerable popula...
Article
Anthropogenic trace element emissions have declined. However, top soils all over the world remain enriched in trace elements. We investigated Pb and Cd migration in forest soils of a remote monitoring site in the Austrian limestone Alps between 1992 and 2004. Large spatial variability masked temporal changes in the mineral soil of Lithic Leptosols...
Article
Full-text available
The integrated modelling of coupled socio-ecological systems in land-change science requires innovative model concepts capable of grasping the interrelations between socioeconomic and natural components. Here, we discuss the integrated socio-ecological model SERD (Simulation of Ecological Compatibility of Regional Development) that was developed fo...

Projects

Projects (5)
Project
The Horizon 2020 project “eLTER” (European Long-Term Ecosystem and socio-ecological Research Infrastructure) started in June 2015. For clear identification, we use the short name “eLTER H2020”. eLTER H2020, which runs until 2019, will serve as the flagship for the further development of the Long-term Ecosystem Research infrastructure and community in Europe. eLTER H2020 will closely interact with two other major elements in this effort: eLTER ESFRI process, a formalization process in the framework of the European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures (eLTER was recently accepted as an “emerging ESFRI infrastructure”) LTER-Europe network of national networks (25 countries with a pool of around 400 LTER Sites and 35 LTSER Platforms). LTER-Europe is the formal European regional group of the global ILTER network. It provides multiple networking activities with permanent governance structures. The specific role of eLTER H2020 is to catalyze conceptual and service developments of a distributed, highly integrated and widely used research infrastructure to support a wide range of ecosystem and critical zone research questions, such as: How are ecosystems and biodiversity changing or adapting to global-change stresses? What are the determinants of ecosystem resilience? What are the threshold interactions resulting in system shifts? How can we respond locally, nationally and internationally to support systems that are more resilient to global change effects?
Project
Temperate forests were identified as major carbon (C) sinks to the atmosphere, mitigating climate change. However, these forests are also subject to climate change, and have been strongly altered by humans in the past. We here study the 20th century legacy on the future C trajectories of a temperate forest landscape under a broad range of potential climate change and disturbance scenarios during the 21th century.
Project
Long-term ecosystem monitoring and research in a forested catchment in the Northern Limestone Alps in Austria See LTER Data Repository at https://deims.org/8eda49e9-1f4e-4f3e-b58e-e0bb25dc32a6 See Web (German only) and more data at https://www.umweltbundesamt.at/umweltthemen/oekosystemmonitoring/zoebelboden