Johannes Beller

Johannes Beller
Hannover Medical School | MHH · Medical Sociology Unit

Dr. rer. nat.
Analyzing health trends in light of the expansion, compression, and equilibrium hypotheses of morbidity development

About

72
Publications
21,128
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1,314
Citations
Citations since 2016
55 Research Items
1209 Citations
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Introduction
I am a psychologist working in the health and medical sciences on healthy aging. Building on a strong methodological foundation my research focuses on two interrelated questions: 1) How do psychosocial factors like loneliness matter for health? And 2) How has people's health and the way people feel, think and act changed over time and across generations?

Publications

Publications (72)
Article
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Objective: Although loneliness and social isolation are distinct constructs, only few studies have examined the putative synergistic effects of loneliness and social isolation on health. The current study strives to fill this gap. We ask, "Do loneliness, social isolation, and their interaction predict mortality?" Methods: We used a large nationa...
Article
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Background Several studies have examined trends in disability, but only few have explicitly considered possible age, time period and birth cohort differences simultaneously. Objective We examined disability trends in Europe according to age, time period, and birth cohort. Methods We used population-based data of Europeans (European Social Survey,...
Article
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Objectives: The adverse health effects of loneliness are well documented, but less is known about cultural moderators of this relationship. Contributing to the literature, we examined whether cross-cultural differences in individualism moderate the effect of loneliness on health. Methods: We used population-based longitudinal data of 14 countries (...
Article
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Purpose: We examined changes in the burden of depressive symptoms between 2006 and 2014 in 18 European countries across different age groups. Methods: We used population-based data drawn from the European Social Survey (N = 64.683, 54% female, age 14-90 years) covering 18 countries (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Gre...
Article
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Aim We examined predictors of trust in the healthcare system during the COVID-19 pandemic in 27 European countries. Subjects and methods We used population-based data drawn from the Living, working and COVID-19 survey (N = 21,884, 52% female, ages 18 to 92 years) covering 27 European countries dated June and July 2020. Multilevel linear regression...
Article
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Objectives: Examine trends in limitations among young (15–39), middle-aged (40–64) and older age-groups (>=65) and their socioeconomic differences. Methods: Population-based European Social Survey data ( N = 396,853) were used, covering 30 mostly European countries and spanning the time-period 2002–2018. Limitations were measured using a global act...
Article
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Several studies have examined trends in depression, but only few have explicitly considered possible generational differences. I examined changes in the burden of depressive symptoms between 2002 and 2017 according to age, time period and birth cohort in Germany. I used population-based data drawn from the German Aging Survey (N = 33,723, 54% femal...
Article
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The early COVID-19-pandemic was characterized by changes in decision making, decision-relevant value systems and the related perception of decisional uncertainties and conflicts resulting in decisional burden and stress. The vulnerability of clinical care professionals to these decisional dilemmas has not been characterized yet. Methods: A cross-se...
Article
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Background: Pandemics are related to changes in clinical management. Factors that are associated with individual perceptions of related risks and decision-making processes focused on prevention and vaccination, but perceptions of other healthcare consequences are less investigated. Different perceptions of patients, nurses, and physicians on conse...
Article
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Return-to-work self-efficacy (RTW-SE) is an important predictor of the duration until employees return to work after a sickness-related absence. The aim of the present validation study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the German RTW-SE scale. Data were obtained from three independent samples of employees who were in outpatient care...
Chapter
Angesichts der demografischen Alterung der Bevölkerung wird von einer wachsenden Zahl chronisch kranker Menschen ausgegangen und vor diesem Hintergrund ein Anstieg des gesundheitlichen Versorgungsbedarfs prognostiziert. Dieser eher pessimistischen Einschätzung einer Morbiditätsexpansion wird mit der These der Morbiditätskompression ein positives Zu...
Article
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Against the backdrop of population aging and growing strain on pension systems, monitoring the development of Working Life Expectancy (WLE) is vital to assess whether the policies taken are effective. This is the first study investigating time trends and educational inequalities in WLE based on German health insurance data. The analyses are based o...
Article
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(1) Background: Uncertainty is typical for a pandemic or similar healthcare crisis. This affects patients with resulting decisional conflicts and disturbed shared decision making during their treatment occurring to a very different extent. Sociodemographic factors and the individual perception of pandemic-related problems likely determine this deci...
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Population ageing poses growing challenges to social security systems, in particular to public pension funds. The study analyses how Working Life Expectancy (WLE) and Healthy Working Life Expectancy (HWLE) in terms of three health indicators developed in Germany. Based on the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP) from 2002 to 2018 ( n = 211,141), tim...
Article
Objective: The literature on alexithymia has multiplied in recent decades as the construct has important implications for mental health. The so far used inventories are of limited use in epidemiological research, primary care, and other clinical settings where time and effort are important factors in assessment. Based on items of the authorized Ge...
Article
Objectives: It is examined whether older adults' cognitive ability in terms of delayed recall and verbal fluency is improving over time, whether this occurs over all educational levels and both sexes, and whether these changes are due to increasing proportions of individuals with higher education. Methods: Analyses are based on the German sample...
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Although the adverse association of loneliness with health and mortality are well documented, less is known about moderating factors of this relationship. According to the “buffering theory,” it is argued that positive affect moderates the negative associations of stressors with health. The current study contributes to the literature by asking: Doe...
Article
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Background: While numerous studies suggest that single motherhood is associated with socioeconomic disadvantages and poor health, few studies have analyzed how these conditions have evolved over time. Addressing this gap, we examined the temporal development of self-rated health (SRH) among single compared to partnered mothers, and the role of soc...
Article
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Background Participant dropout poses significant problems in longitudinal survey studies. Although it is often assumed that a participant’s health predicts future study dropout, only a few studies have examined this topic, with conflicting findings. This study aims to contribute to the literature by clarifying the relationship between different asp...
Article
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Objectives Limited evidence exists regarding the reasons for secular changes in cognitive functioning over historical time. Thus, we examined potential explanatory factors for changes in cognitive speed, a central dimension of cognitive functioning. Methods Population-based data of middle-aged and older adults from Germany ( N = 5443) was used wit...
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Background: Healthcare staff is confronted with intensive decisional conflicts during the pandemic. Due to the specific burden of this moral distress in oncology, the investigation aimed at quantification of these conflicts and identification of risk factors that determine the extent and severity of these conflicts. We examined the heterogeneity o...
Article
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Aim: I examined health/morbidity profles across 20 countries, determined their associated demographic characteristics and risk factors and compared the distribution of these health/morbidity profles across countries. Subject and methods: I used population-based data drawn from the European Social Survey (N = 20092, 52% female, ages 40+) covering 20...
Article
Objective The psychometric properties of the Somatic Symptom Scale 8 (SSS-8) have been investigated in different studies. However, there is no study examining its psychometric properties on representative data of adolescents. The study at hand will present results from a large representative sample of German adolescents (13 to 18 years). Methods T...
Article
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Background: Life expectancy is increasing in most high-income countries, but gains in life years are maximized if spent in good health and if cognitive abilities are maintained until old age. Age-related decline of cognitive abilities does nevertheless occur, but the pace of decline is decisive. This was the starting point for our study that aims t...
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Background Following the 2008 economic crisis many countries implemented austerity policies, including reducing public spending on health services. This paper evaluates the trends and equity in the use of health services during and after that period in Spain – a country with austerity policies – and in Germany – a country without restriction on hea...
Article
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Participant dropout poses significant selectivity problems in longitudinal studies. Although it is often assumed that participant's value structures predict future participation and dropout, there is insufficient evidence supporting this proposition. This study aims to contribute to the literature by clarifying the relationship between participants...
Article
Objectives: We investigated changes in the prevalence of disabilities among individuals with type 2 diabetes and analyzed the contribution of comorbidities on this change. Methods: Data were drawn from the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). We estimated predicted probabilities of impaired (instrumental) activities of daily...
Article
Objectives: Only a few studies on health inequalities in terms of lung cancer are available. We examined whether social inequalities are present for the occurrence of lung cancer. Confining the analyses to patients, it was also examined whether survival over the observation period and over a standardised period of 18 months differed by occupational...
Article
Measurement invariance and normative data of the 8-item short form of the Center of Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D-8)Objectives: Female gender is a risk factor for depression. It is questionable whether a given psychometric instrument depicts depressive symptom severity in men and women alike. Therefore, we examined measurement inv...
Article
Background Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a rising global epidemic with lower socioeconomic status (SES) groups being more affected. Considering specific population subgroups to examine prevalence and SES inequalities in T2D is rare. In addition, using only one indicator to depict SES inequalities in health has been a common practice despite evidence on...
Article
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Little is known about trends in the age of onset of first myocardial infarction. Thus, we examined trends in the age of onset distribution of first myocardial infarction using two population-based datasets from Germany. First, we used German claims data based on an annual case number of approximately 2 million women and men covering the period from...
Article
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Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a rising global epidemic with lower socioeconomic groups being more affected. Considering specific population subgroups to examine prevalence and socioeconomic inequalities in T2D is rare. Moreover, using one indicator to depict socioeconomic inequalities in health is a common practice despite evidence on differences in wha...
Article
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Objectives: Although personal values guide one’s life in several important aspects, no study has examined how personal values relate to mortality. The current study strives to fill this gap. I ask: Which personal values prospectively predict mortality? Design: A large population-based sample of middle-aged and older adults in Germany was used (N=60...
Article
The „Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale“ (CES-D; Radloff, 1977) is a questionnaire used world-wide to measure depressive symptoms. Although the original four-factor-structure has been widely accepted and replicated, some studies point to other factor-structures like a one- and two-factor-structure. The goal of the current study was...
Article
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a severe mental disorder which is accompanied by impaired functioning, complex psychosocial problems and incurs large costs. However, it rarely has been examined whether BPD symptoms form a hierarchical (Mokken) scale, which would imply that symptoms are ordered along a latent dimension of borderline severit...
Article
Some argue that religiosity is one of the main causes of religious extremist violence, such as suicide attacks, while others propose that adverse circumstances associated with religiosity like perceived religious discrimination are responsible. Directly comparing these two perspectives, we investigated how religiosity (personal importance of religi...
Article
Xenophobia denotes prejudice towards those perceived as foreign. I examined trends in xenophobia according to age, time period, and birth cohort, using population-based data of Germans (ALLBUS, N = 20,023), aged 18 to 97 years, spanning a time period from 1996–2016. I found that xenophobia increased strongly with age and decreased, to a lesser exte...
Article
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Background: Against the backdrop of rising statutory retirement age in Germany, we analyzed time trends in self-rated health (SRH) among the elderly population between 50 and 70 years of age and explored the mediating role of leisure time physical activity (LTPA) on the relationship between time period and self-rated health (SRH). Methods: We used...
Article
Religion is seen as one of the main causes of honor violence; yet, empirical studies investigating this purported relationship remain scarce. Therefore, we investigated how individual and social religious practices, religious fundamentalism, and demographic variables contribute to support for honor killings of women and men. We analyzed multination...
Article
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Grip strength is seen as an objective indicator of morbidity and disability. However, empirical knowledge about trends in grip strength remains incomplete. As trends can occur due to effects of aging, time periods and birth cohorts, we used hierarchical age-period-cohort models to estimate and disentangle putative changes in grip strength. To do th...
Chapter
Wissenschaftliches Arbeiten setzt komplexe Fertigkeiten wie Recherchieren, Strukturieren, Verfassen und zielgruppenorientiertes Präsentieren voraus. Studierende können deren Anforderungsgrad jedoch häufig schlecht einschätzen und meiden daher die Auseinandersetzung damit. Zudem erschweren heterogene Leistungsstände der Studierenden, hohe Teilnehmen...
Article
Support for corporal punishment (CP) has been associated with religiosity. Yet, little is known about which aspects of religiosity predict support for CP. To close this gap in the literature, we investigated how individual and social religiosity, religious fundamentalism, belief in heaven, belief in hell, and demographic variables contribute for th...
Article
Religiosity is considered to be a protective factor in delinquency research; however, recently published studies found contradictory results with respect to the influence of religiosity on German Muslims. It therefore remained unclear whetherMuslim religiosity is associated with diminished or increased delinquency. The question arises whether indiv...
Article
Objective: Regular consumption of fruits and vegetables has been found to contribute to physical health and physical functioning. However, health is not limited to the absence of physical diseases but also encompasses mental health and cognition. Thus, we wanted to examine how the consumption of fruit and vegetables is associated with overall healt...
Article
Objectives Consumption of fruits and vegetables has been shown to contribute to mental and cognitive health in older adults from Western industrialized countries. However, it is unclear whether this effect replicates in older adults from non-Western developing countries. Thus, the present study examined the contribution of fruit and vegetable consu...
Article
Religion has been seen as one of the most important predictors of female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C), yet there are almost no studies that empirically examine how religion affects the parents’ decision to subject their daughters to FGM/C. Thus, the authors investigated how several aspects of religiosity—religious affiliation, prayer frequenc...
Article
Religion is often seen as one of the main causes of extremist violence, such as suicide attacks. Because empirical studies analyzing this purported relationship are scarce, we investigated how religious practices and attitudes, perceived threat, and demographic variables contribute to support for extremist violence. We analyzed multinational face-t...
Article
Despite the importance of Machiavellianism, no study has examined the basic issue of its latent status: Is Machiavellianism a dimensional or a categorical construct? Or equivalently, do people differ in the extent to which they are Machiavellian, or do Machiavellianists differ categorically from non-Machiavellianists? To answer these questions, we...
Article
Religion has been seen as one of the major causes for war, yet only few empirical studies have analyzed which aspects of religion, if any, contribute to militarism. Thus, I investigated how different aspects of religion— personal importance of God (Allah), prayer frequency, mosque attendance frequency, religious fundamentalism, and belief in religi...
Article
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Objective: To examine whether different measures of social disconnectedness-subjective loneliness, network quality, network size, living alone-have differential effects on the health of older adults. Methods: We used a longitudinal sample of the German Aging Survey ( N = 4,184) and analyzed seven measures of health (life satisfaction, positive a...
Article
To examine the latent status of religious fundamentalism, we analyzed 2 large samples of Muslim youth from Egypt and Saudi Arabia, as gathered in the Youth, Emotional Energy, and Political Violence Survey. We sought to answer the following question: Is fundamentalism a dimensional or a categorical phenomenon? Equivalently, do fundamentalists repres...
Article
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A fundamental question facing every latent construct (e.g., relationship quality) is whether the construct is categorical or dimensional in nature. The authors analyzed the latent status of relationship quality in 3 large general German population samples using the Partnership Questionnaire (PFB), the Quality of Relationship Inventory, and the shor...
Article
The Partnership Questionnaire (PFB) is used favorably in the German language area to measure partnership quality. The goal of the present study is to re-analyze the subscales of the PFB (Conflict Behavior, Tenderness, Communication) via the Rasch model. Polytomous and dichotomous Rasch models were calculated in a population sample (N = 1,123) and a...
Article
The present study aims at exploring the critical role of motivation to transfer within the training transfer process. In a sample of N = 252 employees of one industrial company, one peer rating and several self-ratings of transfer were used to investigate the mediating role of motivation to transfer in the relationship between training characterist...
Article
Previous studies were able to identify numerous predictors of aggressive and violent behavior in youth. Although it is to be expected that these predictors may behave differently with varying personal and situation-specific characteristics, no study has yet empirically examined whether predictors of youth violence really exhibit differential effect...
Article
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Somatoform disorders are characterized by somatic symptoms that suggest a medical condition when such a condition is not present. Recently, Thomas and Locke (2010) and Jasper, Hiller, Rist, Bailer, and Witthöft (2012) found that the latent status of somatic symptom reporting may be best viewed from a dimensional perspective in a student, primary ca...
Article
The aim of this study was to evaluate whether communicating automation uncertainty improves the driver-automation interaction. A false system understanding of infallibility may provoke automation misuse and can lead to severe consequences in case of automation failure. The presentation of automation uncertainty may prevent this false system underst...
Article
Full-text available
Linear regression and its variants like analysis of variance are arguably the most widely used statistical techniques in psychology. By using linear regression it is merely assumed rather than empirically tested that the effects of the predictor variables are linear and homogeneous across the distribution of the dependent variable. This is problema...
Thesis
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether communicating automation uncertainty improves the driver–automation interaction. Background: A false system understanding of infallibility may provoke automation misuse and can lead to severe consequences in case of automation failure. The presentation of automation uncertainty may prevent th...
Article
Progress enables the creation of more automated and intelligent machines with increasing abilities that open up new roles between humans and machines. Only with a proper design for the resulting cooperative human–machine systems, these advances will make our lives easier, safer and enjoyable rather than harder and miserable. Starting from examples...
Conference Paper
Die fortschreitende Automatisierung von Fahrzeugen bietet auf der einen Seite Vorteile, birgt aber auch Risiken. Wenn zum Beispiel ein bedeutender Teil der Kontrolle der Fahraufgabe an eine Automation abgegeben wird, so könnte die Rückgabe von Kontrolle an den Fahrer durch die Automation zu einem Problem werden, wenn der Fahrer nicht auch unmittelb...
Conference Paper
Fahrerassistenzsysteme wie H-Mode unterstützen den Fahrer bei seiner Fahraufgabe. An die Fahreraktivität angepasste Fahrerassistenzsysteme können dabei eine bessere Unterstützung ermöglichen. Hierfür sind jedoch Parameter notwendig, die reliabel auf den Zustand des Fahrers schließen lassen. Physiologische Grundlagenforschung hat gezeigt, dass Muske...
Conference Paper
In vielen Situationen kann eine Fahrzeugautomation bzw. –Assistenz, wegen undeutlicher Umgebungserfassung, ein adäquates Funktionieren nicht garantieren. In solchen Situation kommt es zwar nur selten zu einem tatsächlichen Automationsfehlverhalten, da aber die Möglichkeit weiterhin besteht, könnte die Rückmeldung der Möglichkeit eines Fehlverhalten...
Conference Paper
Während sich in der Vergangenheit Lebewesen vor allem durch natürliche Evolution fortentwickelt haben, hat der Mensch sich weitere Möglichkeiten z.B. über die Entwicklung von Mensch-Maschine Systemen erschlossen. Obwohl es auch Unterschiede in der „Evolution“ bzw. Migration zwischen rein-natürlichen Systemen und technischen Systemen gibt, lassen si...

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Projects

Projects (6)
Project
to study time trends in health expectancies, working life expectancy, healthy working life expectancy, and the corresponding developments in social inequalities.
Project
To analyze psychosocial aspects of health.