Johannes M. Bauer

Johannes M. Bauer
Michigan State University | MSU · Department of Media and Information

Ph.D.

About

163
Publications
40,582
Reads
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1,946
Citations
Citations since 2017
31 Research Items
758 Citations
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Introduction
Johannes M. Bauer currently holds the Quello Chair for Media and Information Policy in the Department of Media and Information at Michigan State University. His research focuses on Industrial Organization, Institutional Economics, and Law and Economics. He has a strong interest in the digital economy and its repercussions for management and policy. Current research projects address questions of 5G policy, digital innovation, Internet governance, and the governance of complex adaptive systems.
Additional affiliations
July 2019 - present
Michigan State University
Position
  • Chair
Description
  • Direct the Quello Center for Media and Information Policy, dedicated to rigorous, applied, and practically relevant research on governing the digital economy for the benefit of humankind.
January 2013 - June 2019
Michigan State University
Position
  • Chair
Description
  • Served as chair of medium-sized department with 22 tenure system faculty and a similar number of professors of professors of practice and adjunct faculty.
January 1990 - July 2014
Michigan State University
Position
  • Professor and Chairperson
Education
October 1984 - May 1989
Vienna University of Economics and Business
Field of study
  • Economics

Publications

Publications (163)
Presentation
Full-text available
Recently, governments have taken a more proactive role in shaping the digital economy. Motives, methods, and patterns of interventions differ between countries and regions. However, the main unifier appears to be the swift acceptance of government interdiction after decades in which the state withdrew from telecommunications and media industries re...
Article
This paper investigates the effects of “big tech” platform acquisitions on venture capital (VC) funding for start-ups. We analyze observations of more than 32,000 venture capital deals in 173 different segments of the technology industry and 392 tech start-up acquisitions made worldwide between 2010 and 2020 by Google, Facebook, Amazon, Apple, and...
Article
Increasing interdependencies and deepening uncertainty change how the information society can be governed sustainably. In response, policy approaches worldwide are being reconsidered and new approaches developed that are more appropriate to these conditions. This article explores the conditions under which policies that worked in the past remain ap...
Article
Review of: Farm Fresh Broadband: The Politics of Rural Connectivity , Christopher Ali (2021) Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 306 pp., ISBN 978-0-26254-306-4, p/bk, USD $35.00
Article
This article examines the roles and consequences of different approaches to 5G market design for innovation. The analysis is grounded in a conceptual framework that explicitly considers the complementarities among networks, applications, and services. Good policy arrangements align the legal and regulatory framework with the technical and economic...
Article
Fifth generation (5G) networks raise governance and management challenges that did not exist in 3G and 4G wireless technologies. Advanced wireless functionality enables new applications and services based on smart, physical, network infrastructures, many of them expected to be localized. As a general-purpose technology, 5G can be configured in nume...
Article
Full-text available
Deep uncertainty and increasing interdependence among players change how the information society can be governed. To remain effective, governance must better reflect these conditions. Systems approaches and adaptive forms of governance are needed to augment established policy models. Moreover, a reassessment of the normative principles upon which i...
Article
Full-text available
Some have pointed to divides in the availability of fixed home broadband Internet access as a contributor to rural students’ lower levels of educational attainment. Based on standardized exams (SAT Suite) and a survey of rural Michigan students in grades 8-11, we find that rural students with broadband home Internet access are more interested in sc...
Article
Disparities in broadband access and use reduce the economic and social benefits of digital technology. Consequently, many countries are searching for effective solutions to narrow digital divides. This paper proposes a framework that can help to design more effective policies for the expansion of broadband. Building on research on the drivers of br...
Article
Social scientists have long been interested in the motives of hackers, particularly financially motivated attackers. This article analyzes web defacements, a less studied and more public form of cyberattack, in which the content of a web page is deliberately substituted with unwanted text and graphics chosen by the perpetrator. These attacks use a...
Article
Full-text available
Ride-hailing platforms such as Uber offer service suppliers more flexible work conditions but lower security than permanent jobs. This study examines the preferences of ride-hailing drivers when they are offered contract and platform design options related to flexibility, financial security, and information features. The sample design and the discr...
Article
Web defacement is a form of hacking that involves altering the content of a website, resulting in repairs to the website code, loss of revenue, internal loss of productivity, and reputational damage. Limited research has examined the frequency of web defacements, the factors that distinguish them from other hacking motives, and the extent to which...
Article
Full-text available
The field of artificial intelligence (AI) is experiencing a period of intense progress due to the consolidation of several key technological enablers. AI is already deployed widely and has a high impact on work and daily life activities. The continuation of this process will likely contribute to deep economic and social changes. To realise the trem...
Technical Report
Middle and high school students who do not have access to the Internet from home, or are dependent on a cell phone for access, perform lower on a range of metrics, including digital skills, homework completion, grade point average, and standardized test scores, such as the SAT. Those without fast, home Internet access are also less likely to plan t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The network neutrality debate addresses issues that are fundamental to the governance of the Internet. Of the nearly 50 countries that have adopted explicit network neutrality policies, most rely on regulation to implement them. In these countries, competition policy is typically seen as complementary to regulation. The United States and other coun...
Chapter
Strong dynamics and multifaceted innovations characterise the Internet. In this rapidly evolving ecosystem, challenges but also questions concerning innovation, integration and sustainability arise. The Internet of things brings disruptive innovations which are no longer limited to communication applications, but rather spur the transition of tradi...
Technical Report
Full-text available
5G wireless services will constitute an integral part of the future gigabit communication network infrastructure. Policy makers worldwide are striving to design legal and regulatory frameworks that best support 5G services. There is wide agreement that a competitive sector organization is superior, but the emerging models differ in the specific rol...
Preprint
Full-text available
5G services will require investment in a differentiated infrastructure and complementary applications and services. Exploring the full innovation potential of 5G will require entrepreneurial experiments, which are best supported by a competitive, deregulated environment. National and European ex ante regulation of this dynamic market environment ri...
Technical Report
Full-text available
5G-Dienste erfordern Investitionen in eine ausdifferenzierte Infrastruktur sowie in komplementäre Anwendungen und Dienste. Um die Innovationspotentiale von 5G auszuschöpfen, sind unternehmerisches Risiko und Experimentierfreudigkeit unerlässlich-Unternehmertum wird in einem wettbewerbsfreundlichen, deregulierten Umfeld am besten gefördert. Bei eine...
Article
One of the central goals of network neutrality policies is to safeguard Internet-based innovation. Historically, entrepreneurial activities in applications and services were a main driver of innovation and stimulated complementary advances in networking. With the increasing heterogeneity of services, this virtuous cycle of complementary innovation...
Article
Information and communication technologies (ICTs) influence income distribution directly and indirectly. A diverse pattern of decreases and increases in income inequality has emerged in parallel with increasing fixed and mobile connectivity. Building on earlier research, this paper develops a socio-technical model to examine the contribution of hyp...
Working Paper
Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have enabled tremendous innovation and contributed to economic growth. Co-evolving with the opening of national economies to international trade and the liberalization of infrastructure and services markets, ICTs have helped lifting millions of individuals and families in low income countries out of...
Article
Full-text available
The fight against botnets has been going on for more than a decade, but they still impose significant costs. ISPs have become increasingly central to the effort, as they can undertake mitigation more economically and efficiently than end users. A study evaluates the role and performance of ISPs in botnet mitigation across 60 countries.
Chapter
This entry describes the provisioning of voice services using the internet. Often integrated with other multimedia services such as messaging, video, and document sharing, internet telephony offers a media-rich environment of communication. The entry describes uses and effects, the political economy of internet telephony, and governance issues.
Article
This paper focuses on key economic and social factors underpinning worldwide issues aroundcybersecurity and, identifies a new agenda for addressing these issues that is being shaped by theInternet and related information and communication technologies, such as social media. All actorsin the widening ecology of the Internet require a better social a...
Article
Focusing on the effects of policy on investment and innovation this paper examines whether the conceptual foundations of sector regulation are aligned with the current technological and economic conditions of advanced communications. One conclusion is that the prevailing theories and practices are only adequate if the policy challenge can be reason...
Article
Full-text available
The positive effects of broadband networks and services on productivity and economic growth are well established. Looking at broadband as an engine of economic prosperity, the OECD and its member states are seeking to foster its widespread adoption. However, which public policies best promote the adoption of broadband remains controversial. This ar...
Article
The net neutrality debate is one of several sites of struggles to adapt and redefine rights and obligations of stakeholders in the Internet-centric communications system. Its outcomes will shape the future of the Internet and influence the level and distribution of its benefits. We identify key values that drive the net neutrality discussion and ex...
Article
One of the pillars of the Broadband Telecommunication Opportunities Program (BTOP) was expanding broadband utilization in underserved communities through the development of library-based public computing centers (PCCs) and educational outreach. This paper reports the results of two waves of surveys of 400 participants each in spring 2011, before th...
Chapter
This chapter examines two particularly testing problems affecting cross-national comparisons of advanced communication services: the increasing importance of service and price differentiation, particularly the reliance on multipart self-selection tariffs, and the challenges created by institutional diversity for making sense of comparative observat...
Article
This volume not only examines traditional questions about broadband, such as availability and access, but also explores and evaluates new metrics that are more applicable to the evolving technologies of information access. It brings together a group of media policy scholars from a wide range of disciplines including economics, law, policy studies,...
Article
Deep Packet Inspection (DPI) has been the subject of heated policy debates. This paper examines theoretically and empirically patterns of DPI adoption during the past five years. A range of uses can drive ISPs to deploy DPI in their networks. What is less understood is the extent to which government policies encourage or discourage DPI adoption by...
Article
As more economic, educational, and social interactions occur online, broadband capabilities have become increasingly important. In the U.S., as in many countries, policy initiatives have targeted the digital divide, and one of the most prominent responses has been the creation or maintenance of public computing centers (PCCs). Building on models of...
Article
In 2009, U.S. Congress approved $7.2 billion to accelerate the deployment of advanced broadband networks and services to unserved and underserved regions of the country. Although primarily a short-term response to the economic crisis, the appropriation also indicates a willingness to seek a new balance between private sector and public sector initi...
Article
The paper reviews the historical transformation of the European regulatory framework for electronic communications from the era dominated by state-owned enterprises to the presence of regulated competition. In the course of these developments, the vision of the roles of the public and private sectors in electronic communications changed in expected...
Chapter
Full-text available
The increasing complexity of technology and of actor constellations raises daunting challenges for high-tech policy. This chapter recaps the main insights from the contributions to this book and draws lessons for public policy. The congruence of technology and policy, flexible coordination, product diversity, multiplicity of efforts and institution...
Chapter
America continues to be ranked among the most innovative high-tech economies but has historically lacked an integrated high-tech policy. One of the distinct features of the U.S. approach was the coexistence of many government measures – including massive military procurement – that promoted innovation and technology. Another driving force behind th...
Chapter
The conditions for successful innovation policy have changed since the second half of the twentieth century, when most countries primarily focused on supporting basic research. This chapter reviews the transition from this historical, linear model of research and development (R&D) policy to the second generation of non-linear, networked approaches...
Article
This paper examines the effects of sector regulation on innovation in telecommunications and related information industries. Building on innovation research, a typology of innovation processes in ICT industries is developed. The economic and policy conditions conducive to different types of innovation are analyzed to draw inferences on the effects...
Article
Big data is widely seen as a promising area of innovation and growth in the information economy. A vast amount of data will be generated by internetworked communication devices such as sensors, monitors, and meters. Forecasts vary widely but most agree that by 2020 the number of devices connected to the Internet will exceed the number of individual...
Article
Understanding broadband demand is critical for both policymakers and access providers. Over the past decade, research has extended our knowledge on how consumers value broadband access and how price affects their decision to adopt the technology or switch providers. However, broadband is a rather complex good, fundamentally, because consumers pay f...
Article
Background and Purpose: To mark the 40th anniversary of the first TPRC Conference in 1972, this Panel will bring together experts from TPRC and sister regional research organizations, like LIRNEasia, EuroCPR, DIRSI (in Latin America) and Research ICT Africa!, to examine the topical issue of National Broadband Strategies from their different context...
Article
Full-text available
Information and communication technologies (ICTs) are an important determinant of productivity growth and innovation. This study examines the effects of sector regulation on innovation in telecommunications and related information industries. A typology of innovation processes in ICT industries is developed. The conditions conducive to innovation u...
Article
Full-text available
Efforts to promote sustainable broadband Internet adoption urge new attention to the classic diffusion of innovations paradigm. For this study, innovation attributes were reconceptualized following Social Cognitive Theory (SCT). In a sample of inner-city residents, the model accounted for 36% of the variance in intentions to adopt broadband technol...
Book
The book examines the conditions for successful high-technology policy from theoretical and empirical perspectives. It enhances the predominant national systems of innovation approach to innovation policy with concepts based on new developments in the govern-ance of complex systems and processes. The conceptual framework of complex networks and sys...
Article
Full-text available
Discussions of fundamental directions of communications policy are rare. More typically, incremental problems are addressed as they arise, although the accumulation of such small changes may have big consequences. The network neutrality debate is one of these rare opportunities to reflect on the bigger issues of information and communications polic...
Article
Full-text available
As the United States faces challenges in developing and deploying next generation broadband technologies, it has reopened the debates regarding the best way to organize the telecommunication industry to achieve these goals. Yet this requires organizing network service providers, application providers, technology developers, and advertisers, each of...
Article
The NTIA’s broadband mapping initiative, implementing the goals of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act and the Broadband Data Improvement Act (BDIA), provides information about broadband Internet services in the United States at an unprecedented level of detail. Whereas the first release has some weaknesses, this public data base invites new...
Article
Full-text available
One of the challenges of developing a cost effective distribution system that supports the proliferation of video streams is allocating the video files optimally among various means of media storage. In this paper we develop simple mathematical representations of the cost characteristics of two internet video distribution systems: Content Delivery...
Article
Although next-generation information network infrastructure is prerequisite for continued economic growth, the United States is losing ground in important areas relative to peer countries. Businesses and regulators have grown concerned that the U.S. lacks the correct regulatory and business incentives to upgrade the existing network. Due to the com...
Article
Purpose International benchmarking is increasingly used to inform information and communications policy. The paper aims to discuss the conditions under which learning from the experience in other jurisdictions (communities, nations, and super‐national regions) is possible. Design/methodology/approach Research from different disciplines is reviewed...
Article
Many countries expect e-government to increase the efficiency of public administration and revitalize government–citizen interaction. This paper reviews the existing research on e-government and expands it with a detailed examination of China, where e-government development is considered an important component of the national informatization strate...
Article
Full-text available
Botnets, networks of machines infected with malicious software, are widely regarded as a critical security threat. Measures that directly address the owners of the infected machine end users are useful, but have proven insufficient to reduce the overall problem. Recent studies have shifted attention to key intermediaries – most notably, Internet Se...
Article
Full-text available
Communications policy decisions are forward-looking, intended to govern the information and communication technology (ICT) sector to achieve more desirable outcomes or to prevent undesirable ones. Policy choices often address situations that have no direct historical precedent. For example, network neutrality policy defines a framework for the futu...
Article
Full-text available
Since the nineteenth century, the state has played different roles in telecommunications, from owner-operator and regulator to facilitator of private sector activities. Whereas direct government involvement has diminished since the 1980s, recent years have witnessed renewed demands for intervention and a stronger role of the state. This article rev...
Conference Paper
Although next-generation information network infrastructure is prerequisite for continued economic growth, the United States is falling behind in this area relative to many other countries. Businesses and regulators have grown concerned that the U.S. lacks the correct regulatory and business incentives to upgrade its network. Due to the complex and...
Article
A diverse body of research in engineering and the social sciences documents the working of systems that require technical artifacts and social arrangements to function. Single plants, firms, or entire industrial sectors constitute socio-technical systems if technological components and social arrangements are so intertwined that their design requir...
Article
Somewhere around 10% of all machines connected to the Internet are thought to be infected with malicious software. This has allowed the emergence of so-called ‘botnets’– networks of sometimes millions of infected machines that are remotely controlled by malicious actors. Botnets are mostly used for criminal purposes, but they also enable large-scal...
Article
Full-text available
Information security breaches are increasingly motivated by fraudulent and criminal motives. Reducing their considerable costs has become a pressing issue. Although cybersecurity has strong public good characteristics, most information security decisions are made by individual stakeholders. Due to the interconnectedness of cyberspace, these decentr...
Article
With growing reliance on information services, cybersecurity has become a pressing issue. Providing and maintaining a desirable level of information security is complicated by the global nature of the problem and the interdependence between the diversity and heterogeneity of players. Security decisions are afflicted with positive and negative exter...
Article
Since it became involved in telecommunications during the course of the nineteenth century, the state has played several roles in telecommunications: owner-operator, regulator, facilitator, and stopgap for private sector deficiencies. During the past two decades direct state involvement in telecommunications has been reduced, renewed demands for st...
Article
A growing number of countries are reexamining telecommunications policies in search of approaches that better support investment and innovation in advanced communication networks and services. In addition to regulatory instruments, a broad range of fiscal and industrial policy measures are being revitalized. These instruments affect regulated and u...
Chapter
Mobile TV is considered an important component of the future portfolio of mobile services. It illustrates many of the challenges of developing sustainable business models for advanced mobile services. The value net of mobile TV requires coordination and collaboration among a larger number of market players than mobile voice services. Using South Ko...
Conference Paper
Policy-makers worldwide face the task of balancing the conditions that are most conducive to investment in next-generation infrastructures with traditional objectives of communications regulation. This short article elaborates on the major trade-offs faced by regulators and sketches a way forward.
Chapter
US information and communications (I&C) industries are a particularly interesting case for exploring the responses of associations to external change. They represent a large segment of the economy and have even higher indirect importance as critical material and immaterial infrastructures, closely intertwined with nearly all other social and econom...
Article
Full-text available
Malicious software, or malware for short, has become a critical security threat to all who rely on the Internet for their daily business, whether they are large organisations or home users. While originating in criminal behaviour, the magnitude and impact of the malware threat are also influenced by the decisions and behaviour of legitimate market...
Article
Full-text available
In many cases, an economic perspective on cybersecurity – and malware in particular – provides us with more powerful analysis and a fruitful starting point for new governmental policies: incentive structures and market externalities. This report sets out to develop this perspective, building on the innovative research efforts of the past six years....
Article
This paper pursues three goals. It first discusses why a mix of exclusive rights and open access regimes is the norm in many areas of resource allocation. Arguing that such coexistence can also be expected in spectrum, the paper identifies the determinants of the optimal mix of spectrum management regimes. Second, the paper discusses and illustrate...
Article
This paper describes and critically comments on this transformation of the theoretical underpinnings of practical regulation in the U.S. and assesses its relevance for other nations and regions. The next section provides a brief historical review as to how investment and innovation issues were addressed (or neglected) in U.S. regulation. Section th...

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