Johanna Ray Vollhardt

Johanna Ray Vollhardt
Clark University · School of Psychology

PhD

About

65
Publications
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2,062
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Publications

Publications (65)
Article
Social psychological research on collective victimhood has often focused on comparisons between the ingroup's and outgroups' collective victimization (i.e. comparative victim beliefs such as competitive victimhood or inclusive victim beliefs). This qualitative study examines how people in different contexts of collective victimization and its after...
Article
Against the backdrop of significant social and political change in the US, dominant groups’ perceptions of discrimination against their group have increased. Previous research shows that group threat and legitimizing beliefs augment these perceptions. However, the concurrent role of individuals’ attitudes towards hierarchy in perceived discriminati...
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We investigated the relationship between general inclusive victimhood (i.e., perceived similarity between the ingroups’ and other victim groups’ experiences of collective victimization) and willingness to engage in direct, intimate (e.g., intimate relationships) and distant (e.g., neighbors) contact with the adversary group in the aftermath of coll...
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Social psychological research on collective victimhood has focused on just a few ways in which people think about the ingroup's victimization that imply certain assumptions and limit our understanding of collective victim beliefs. Additionally, different historical and socio-political contexts may make different collective victim beliefs relevant....
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Collective memories of historical ingroup victimization can be linked to prosocial or hostile intergroup outcomes. We hypothesize that such discrepant responses are predicted by different construals of the ingroup’s victimization in relation to other groups (i.e., comparative victim beliefs). Using improved measures of inclusive and exclusive victi...
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Although many Koreans’ attitudes towards Japan are marked by hostility and distrust due to the memories of Japanese colonization, others have different views on the past and different preferences for dealing with Japan. The current study examines the links between different construals of historical victimization (i.e., collective victim beliefs) an...
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Social psychological research on relations between oppressed groups has highlighted the role of how people compare their own and other groups’ oppression—that is, comparative victim beliefs. However, this research has examined comparative victim beliefs concerning single-identity groups such as ethnicity or religion. Consequently, beliefs regarding...
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This chapter examines the different meaning and outcomes of inclusive victim consciousness, depending on who is claiming similarities with whom, and which power dynamics are involved. Drawing on perspectives in rhetorical psychology, the authors argue that these inclusive victimhood claims have a rhetorical function and are always expressed with an...
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This chapter introduces the volume and gives a brief overview of its structure and the content of each chapter. The chapter describes the nature of social psychological research on collective victimhood to date, defines the concept, and provides an organizing framework for scholarship on collective victimhood. This framework emphasizes the interpla...
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To understand the current relations between Japan and Korea, it is crucial to understand how Koreans construe the historical experience of victimization due to Japanese colonization. We analyzed news articles from major Korean newspapers, examining three time periods during which the conflict between Japan and South Korea over how to address the pa...
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In much of the literature on peacebuilding and reconciliation in the after- math of collective violence, it is implied or assumed that acknowledgment of the group’s collective experiences of victimization matters and is even a fundamental need. “Survivors of violence often ache for . . . public acknowl- edgment of what happened,” notes Minow (1998,...
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Whether attitudes toward postconflict justice and reconciliation are complementary or contradictory has been long debated. We posit that the answer to this question is context-dependent. Multilevel analyses of two large-scale surveys among war-affected communities in the former Yugoslavia (total N = 11,843), combined with geo-coded data on conflict...
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Social psychological research on resistance has mostly been limited to collective action: collective, overt, organized, material resistance. However, people targeted by collective violence and oppression engage in many other resistance strategies, including individual, covert, everyday, and psychological resistance. This review differentiates dimen...
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This chapter reviews research on how historical genocide continues to affect victim and perpetrator groups’ beliefs, emotions, and intergroup attitudes in the present. The authors organize their review around four central psychological processes that help in understanding why and how members of victim and perpetrator groups respond in such divergen...
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Although our experiences are shaped by multiple social identities such as race, class, and gender, most research has focused on single‐identity groups (e.g., race). This includes research on collective victimization, which assumes that violence impacts group members uniformly. Conversely, work on intersectional consciousness examines awareness of h...
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This chapter discusses the framework of conflict and peace, which distinguishes between different phases within a cycle of violence. These are nonviolent intergroup conflict, organized intergroup violence, and postviolence. Different problem analyses and intervention strategies are required depending on the phase of a conflict. Conflict analysis ai...
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Das folgende Kapitel gibt einen Überblick über die sozialpsychologische Friedens- und Konfliktforschung. Es stellt zunächst den Gegenstandsbereich und einige ausgewählte historische Meilensteile vor. Anschließend berichtet es über jüngere integrierende Rahmenmodelle auf der Grundlage eher positivistischer Forschung. Es folgen drei konstruktivistisc...
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Most social psychological research on collective victimhood has examined its consequences for intergroup relations. Less attention has been paid to individual and intragroup processes associated with collective victimization, which the present study aimed to examine. We conducted eight focus group interviews among four diaspora communities (Armenia...
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Collective victimhood, which results from the experience of being targeted as members of a group, has powerful effects on individuals and groups. The focus of this Special Issue is on how people respond to collective victimhood and how these responses shape intergroup relations. We introduce the Special Issue with an overview of emerging social psy...
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Does social influence exerted through role modeling of collective action impact social change in contexts that are not conducive to collective action, such as long-lasting violent conflicts? We examined this question in two field experiments in the Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. We created two versions of an episode of an existing media inte...
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The present study (N = 1074) examined the impact of a theory-driven media intervention aimed at violence prevention and intergroup reconciliation in Burundi. We used a novel methodology utilizing audio-based surveys to assess attitudes related to intergroup conflict and reconciliation among community members. We conducted a propensity score analysi...
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What motivates minority group members to support other minorities, rather than compete for resources? We tested whether inclusive victim consciousness —i.e., perceived similarities between the ingroup's and outgroups’ collective victimization—predicts support for other minority groups; and whether personal and family experiences of group-based vict...
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Inclusive victim beliefs (i.e., perceived similarity with other victim groups worldwide) can have positive effects on intergroup relations. However, there may be limitations to these seemingly constructive construals. We investigated in the Northern Irish context whether inclusive victimhood might sometimes also act as an obstacle to intergroup rec...
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Rwanda's postgenocide government has implemented policies that resemble social psychological models of single recategorization, banning references to ethnic groups and replacing these with a superordinate, Rwandan identity. While social psychological research suggests problems with this approach, little is known about how people make sense of recat...
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In many cases of mass violence and genocide there is ambiguity and uncertainty as to whether and how external bystanders (i.e., third parties) should respond. How does the way we construe genocide influence our evaluations of particular cases of mass violence and our willingness to intervene? In five studies, using content analyses and experiments,...
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We report on a field experiment and a focus group interview study that examine the impact of a media-based intervention (i.e., radio drama) aimed at promoting peaceful intergroup relations in the Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). In Study 1, we used a priming paradigm to assess the causal impact of the intervention among 1,522 Congolese c...
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In this chapter, we review Daniel Bar-Tal’s pioneering work on collective victim beliefs and how they influence intractable conflicts and intergroup relations more generally. Bar-Tal’s early work on siege mentality and on societal beliefs related to collective victimhood stimulated research in social and political psychology on this important, unde...
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While researchers and policy makers often focus their attention on the detrimental consequences of collective victimhood, it has been posited that these negative outcomes are linked to particular construals of the ingroup's victimization: namely those that focus on the uniqueness of these experiences (exclusive victim consciousness). In contrast, p...
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Mass atrocities and their prevention are not a primary area of research within the field of social psychology, which is concerned with the ways in which the social situation influences individuals’ thoughts, feelings, and behaviors (Allport, 1985). Yet genocide and mass atrocity prevention have captured the interest and attention of social psycholo...
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Four experiments in the context of the Armenian Genocide (Study 1), the Kielce Pogrom (Study 2), and the Holocaust (Studies 3 and 4) examined the effects of experiencing acknowledgment (vs. lack of acknowledgment) of historical ingroup victimization on psychological well-being and on intergroup relations. Armenian and Jewish American participants,...
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The present research examined the differential relationship between distinct construals of collective victimhood—specifically, inclusive and exclusive victim consciousness—and intergroup attitudes in the context and aftermath of mass violence. Three surveys in Rwanda (N = 842), Burundi (N = 1,074), and Eastern DRC (N = 1,609) provided empirical sup...
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The rhetoric of good and evil is prevalent in many areas of society and is often used to garner support for "redemptive violence" (i.e., using violence to rid and save the world from evil). While evil is discussed in psychological literature, beliefs about good and evil have not received adequate empirical attention as predictors of violent versus...
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This article examines the consequences of different representations of the Holocaust for intergroup relations, focusing on the role of acknowledgment of different groups’ fate that is inherent in these construals. Holocaust representations have become increasingly universal. Research on recategorization suggests prosocial outcomes of such superordi...
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Interest in the aftermath of genocide and mass violence has increased in the last few years, and some researchers in various subdisciplines of psychology have begun to address this urgent social issue. Genocide and mass violence continue to influence intergroup relations, conflicts, and policy attitudes. Nevertheless, these topics are still underst...
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A field experiment in Rwanda investigated the impact of a radio drama designed to increase perspective-taking with regard to the history of intergroup conflict. An audio-based priming technique was used to assess the causal impact of the radio drama. Rwandan participants (N = 842) listened to an audio-delivered questionnaire recorded either in the...
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In our age of human rights, there has been an increased focus not only on the rights of people and collectives harmed through mass atrocities and other injustices, but also on the duty to redress this harm. Building on Passini’s (2011) call for an integration of rights and duties through responsibility, I argue that movements in this direction are...
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This chapter discusses the role of collective victimization in inciting, sustaining, and preventing intergroup conflict. The emerging psychological literature on this topic has studied collective victimization that was experienced directly in one's lifetime, as well as collective victimization experienced indirectly, through transgenerational and s...
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This article reports the results of 2 studies examining altruism born of suffering (E. Staub & J. R. Vollhardt, 2008). More specifically, we examined inclusive altruism born of suffering, which is directed toward members of disadvantaged outgroups. Drawing on and integrating clinical and social psychological theories, we hypothesized that individua...
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Reviews the book, Human Development and Political Violence by Colette Daiute (see record 2010-09825-000). One of the most innovative methodologies presented in the book is within the ‘‘inquiry genres,’’ asking participants to construct a survey for the youth in the other workshops. The author presents a thorough theoretical background of the worksh...
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This study examined the effect of close and extended intercultural contact on attributions for behaviour of out-group members. Specifically, it was hypothesized that extended intercultural contact would enhance the ability to make external and culturally sensitive attributions for ambiguous behaviour of out-group members, while decreasing the commo...
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This article discusses the role of victim beliefs in intergroup relations, as well as characteristics of victim beliefs and the processes by which they instigate and sustain violence, focusing on the Israeli–Palestinian conflict. This article then argues that victim beliefs do not inevitably contribute to violence. Instead, victim beliefs that reco...
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This paper introduces the concept of “altruism born of suffering,” and provides a review and integration of relevant research and theories from various disciplines. In contrast to the well-supported notion that prosocial behavior is rooted in positive experiences, whereas violence and adversity often contribute to further violence and antisocial be...
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Issues of tolerance, understanding, solidarity, and social cohesion represent a key foundation for building cultures of peace (United Nations 1999). Tolerance and understanding ensure that perceived differences in group membership, values, or lifestyle do not result in discrimination and violence (Vogt 1997), whereas social cohesion and solidarity...
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Research on altruism has focused on its positive roots, whereas research on the effects of victimization and suffering has focused on aggression and difficulties in functioning. However, anecdotal evidence, case studies, and some empirical research indicate that victimization and suffering can also lead people to care about and help others. This ar...
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This article examines the overlap between social psychology and the psychological study of peace. We suggest that, within mainstream social psychology, a substantial body of research exists that can be referred to as "social psychological peace research" (SPPR). We present a framework that defines the subject matter and introduces conceptual and me...
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This article describes an interdisciplinary and theory-based radio cam-paign that has been developed to counteract, and sensitize citizens to hate speech in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). The article pro-vides a brief overview of the instrumentalization of hate speech and the violent effects it has had in the Great Lakes region of Afri...
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Die meisten Menschen werden wohl einige Bilder vor Augen haben, wenn sie an das Stichwort „Geschlecht und Film“ denken, etwa: Das Paar, das vor der Kinokasse steht und sich streitet — er will in einen Actionfilm, sie in einen Liebesfilm, der von ihm abfällig als Schnulze bezeichnet wird. Oder eine typische Szene aus amerikanischen Teenagerfilmen: S...

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