Johanna Mappes

Johanna Mappes
University of Helsinki | HY · Faculty of Biological and Environmental Sciences

PhD

About

268
Publications
65,268
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9,467
Citations
Introduction
I have always been curious to understand how things work in nature, in particularly the interplay between evolution and ecology. I enjoy designing experiments. Evolution of animal signalling, warning coloration and mimicry are my favourite topics.
Additional affiliations
January 2000 - present
University of California, Santa Barbara
January 1993 - December 2012
Jyväskylän yliopisto

Publications

Publications (268)
Article
Full-text available
Conspicuous warning signals of unprofitable prey are a defense against visually hunting predators. They work because predators learn to associate unprofitability with bright coloration and because strong signals are detectable and memorable. However, many species that can be considered defended are not very conspicuous; they have weak warning signa...
Article
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1.Polymorphism in warning coloration is puzzling because positive frequency-dependent selection by predators is expected to promote monomorphic warning signals in defended prey. 2.We studied predation on the warning-coloured wood tiger moth (Parasemia plantaginis) by using artificial prey resembling white and yellow male colour morphs in five separ...
Article
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Insect communities consist of aposematic species with efficient warning colours against predation, as well as abundant examples of crypsis. To understand such coexistence, we here report results from a field experiment where relative survival of artificial larvae, varying in conspicuousness, was estimated in natural bird communities over an entire...
Article
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Animal colour patterns are a model system for understanding evolution because they are unusually accessible for study and experimental manipulation. This is possible because their functions are readily identifiable. In this final paper of the symposium we provide a diagram of the processes affecting colour patterns and use this to summarize their f...
Article
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Warning signals are predicted to develop signal monomorphism via positive frequency‐dependent selection (+FDS) albeit many aposematic systems exhibit signal polymorphism. To understand this mismatch, we conducted a large‐scale predation experiment in four countries, among which the frequencies of hindwing warning coloration of the aposematic moth,...
Article
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Advertising escape ability could reduce predatory attacks. However, the effectiveness of certain phenotypic cues (e.g., color, shape, and size) in signaling evasiveness is still unknown. Understanding the role of such signals in driving predator learning is important to infer the evolutionary mechanisms leading to convergent evasiveness signals amo...
Preprint
Chemical defences often vary within and between populations both in quantity and quality, which is puzzling if prey survival is dependent on the strength of the defence. We investigated the within- and between-population variability in chemical defence of the wood tiger moth (Arctia plantaginis). The major components of its defences, SBMP (2secbuty...
Preprint
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Colour is often used as an aposematic warning signal, with predator learning expected to lead to a single colour pattern within a population. However, there are many puzzling cases where aposematic signals are also polymorphic. The wood tiger moth, Arctia plantaginis , uses bright hindwing colours as a signal of unpalatability, and males have discr...
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Phenotypic variation is suggested to facilitate the persistence of environmentally growing pathogens under environmental change. Here we hypothesized that the intensive farming environment induces higher phenotypic variation in microbial pathogens than natural environment, because of high stochasticity for growth and stronger survival selection com...
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The definition of colour polymorphism is intuitive: genetic variants express discretely coloured phenotypes. This classification is, however, elusive as humans form subjective categories or ignore differences that cannot be seen by human eyes. We demonstrate an example of a 'cryptic morph' in a polymorphic wood tiger moth (Arctia plantaginis), a ph...
Article
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Social information use is well documented across the animal kingdom, but how it influences ecological and evolutionary processes is only just beginning to be investigated. Here we evaluate how social transmission may influence species interactions and potentially change or create novel selection pressures by focusing on predator–prey interactions,...
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Understanding Batesian mimicry is a classic problem in evolutionary biology. In Batesian mimicry, a defended species (the model) is mimicked by an undefended species (the mimic). Prior theories have emphasized the role of predator behavior and learning as well as evolution in model-mimic complexes but have not examined the role of population dynami...
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Antibiotics have long been used in the raising of animals for agricultural, industrial or laboratory use. The use of subtherapeutic doses in diets of terrestrial and aquatic animals to promote growth is common and highly debated. Despite their vast application in animal husbandry, knowledge about the mechanisms behind growth promotion is minimal, p...
Article
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A big question in behavioral ecology is what drives diversity of color signals. One possible explanation is that environmental conditions, such as light environment, may alter visual signaling of prey, which could affect predator decision-making. Here, we tested the context-dependent predator selection on prey coloration. In the first experiment, w...
Article
Sex pheromones in many insect species are important species-recognition signals that attract conspecifics and inhibit attraction between heterospecifics; therefore, sex pheromones have predominantly been considered to evolve due to interactions between species. Recent research, however, is uncovering roles for these signals in mate choice, and that...
Article
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Aposematic organisms warn predators of their unprofitability using a combination of defenses, including visual warning signals, startling sounds, noxious odors, or aversive tastes. Using multiple lines of defense can help prey avoid predators by stimulating multiple senses and/or by acting at different stages of predation. We tested the efficacy of...
Article
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We report the assembly and annotation of the complete mitochondrial genome of the warningly-coloured wood tiger moth (Arctia plantaginis) and investigate its phylogenetic position within Arctiinae. The A.plantaginis mitogenome is 15,479 bp long with 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and an A + T-rich region (D-loop)....
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Social transmission of information is taxonomically widespread and could have profound effects on the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of animal communities. Demonstrating this in the wild, however, has been challenging. Here we show by field experiment that social transmission among predators can shape how selection acts on prey defences. Usin...
Article
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Warning signals are a striking example of natural selection present in almost every ecological community – from Nordic meadows to tropical rainforests, defended prey species and their mimics ward off potential predators before they attack. Yet despite the wide distribution of warning signals, they are relatively scarce as a proportion of the total...
Article
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Predator-induced plasticity in life-history and antipredator traits during the larval period has been extensively studied in organisms with complex life-histories. However, it is unclear whether different levels of predation could induce warning signals in aposematic organisms. Here, we investigated whether predator-simulated handling affects warni...
Article
Sex pheromones in many insect species are important species-recognition signals that attract conspecifics and inhibit attraction between heterospecifics; therefore, sex pheromones have predominantly been considered to evolve due to interactions between species. Recent research, however, is uncovering roles for these signals in mate choice, and that...
Article
Full-text available
Polymorphic warning signals in aposematic systems are enigmatic because predator learning should favor the most common form, creating positive frequency-dependent survival. However, many populations exhibit variation in warning signals. There are various selective mechanisms that can counter positive frequency-dependent selection and lead to tempor...
Article
Most research on aposematism has focused on chemically defended prey, but the signalling difficulty of capture remains poorly explored. Similar to classical Batesian and Müllerian mimicry related to distastefulness, such ‘evasive aposematism' may also lead to convergence in warning colours, known as evasive mimicry. A prime candidate group for evas...
Article
Full-text available
Insects live in a dangerous world and may fall prey to a wide variety of predators, encompassing multiple taxa. As a result, selection may favour defences that are effective against multiple predator types, or target-specific defences that can reduce predation risk from particular groups of predators. Given the variation in sensory systems and hunt...
Article
Full-text available
Background Diploid genome assembly is typically impeded by heterozygosity because it introduces errors when haplotypes are collapsed into a consensus sequence. Trio binning offers an innovative solution that exploits heterozygosity for assembly. Short, parental reads are used to assign parental origin to long reads from their F1 offspring before as...
Article
Full-text available
Warning coloration should be under strong stabilizing selection but often displays considerable intraspecific variation. Opposing selection on color by predators and temperature is one potential explanation for this seeming paradox. Despite the importance of behavior for both predator avoidance and thermoregulation, its role in mediating selection...
Preprint
Full-text available
Phenotypic variation allows adaptation of opportunistic pathogens to variable conditions in the outside-host environment with strong effects on their epidemiology and pathogenicity in hosts. Here we found that the isolates of an opportunistic fish pathogen >| |< from fish farming environment had higher phenotypic variation between two morphotypes i...
Article
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Antipredator adaptations in the form of animal coloration are common and often multifunctional. European vipers (genus Vipera) have a characteristic dorsal zigzag pattern, which has been shown to serve as a warning signal to potential predators. At the same time, it has been suggested to decrease detection risk, and to cause a motion dazzle or flic...
Preprint
Full-text available
Most research on aposematism has focused on chemically defended prey, but signalling difficulty of capture remains poorly explored. Similarly to classical Batesian and Müllerian mimicry related to distastefulness, such "evasive aposematism" may also lead to convergence in warning colours, known as evasive mimicry. A prime candidate group for evasiv...
Article
Full-text available
To understand how variation in warning displays evolves and is maintained, we need to understand not only how perceivers of these traits select color and toxicity but also the sources of the genetic and phenotypic variation exposed to selection by them. We studied these aspects in the wood tiger moth Arctia plantaginis, which has two locally co-occ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Warning signals are predicted to develop signal monomorphism via positive frequency-dependent selection (+FDS) albeit many aposematic systems exhibit signal polymorphism. To understand this mismatch, we conducted a large-scale predation experiment in four locations, among which the frequencies of hindwing warning coloration of aposematic Arctia pla...
Article
Full-text available
Müllerian mimicry is a classic example of adaptation, yet Müller’s original theory does not account for the diversity often observed in mimicry rings. Here, we aimed to assess how well classical Müllerian mimicry can account for the color polymorphism found in chemically defended Oreina leaf beetles by using field data and laboratory assays of pred...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Diploid genome assembly is typically impeded by heterozygosity, as it introduces errors when haplotypes are collapsed into a consensus sequence. Trio binning offers an innovative solution which exploits heterozygosity for assembly. Short, parental reads are used to assign parental origin to long reads from their F1 offspring before assem...
Article
Full-text available
To make adaptive foraging decisions, predators need to gather information about the profitability of prey. As well as learning from prey encounters, recent studies show that predators can learn about prey defences by observing the negative foraging experiences of conspecifics. However, predator communities are complex. While observing heterospecifi...
Article
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An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
Article
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Many prey species contain defensive chemicals that are described as tasting bitter. Bitter taste perception is, therefore, assumed to be important when predators are learning about prey defenses. However, it is not known how individuals differ in their response to bitter taste, and how this influences their foraging decisions. We conducted taste pe...
Article
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Video playback provides a promising method to study social interactions, and the number of video playback experiments has been growing in recent years. Using videos has advantages over live individuals as it increases the repeatability of demonstrations, and enables researchers to manipulate the features of the presented stimulus. How observers res...
Article
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Insect metamorphosis is one of the most recognized processes delimiting transitions between phenotypes. It has been traditionally postulated as an adaptive process decoupling traits between life stages, allowing evolutionary independence of pre- and post-metamorphic phenotypes. However, the degree of autonomy between these life stages varies depend...
Article
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Antipredator strategies of the pupal stage in insects have received little attention in comparison to larval or adult stages. This is despite the fact that predation risk can be high during the pupal stage, making it a critical stage for subsequent fitness. The immobile pupae are not, however, defenceless; a wide range of antipredator strategies ha...
Article
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Aposematic organisms couple conspicuous warning signals with a secondary defense to deter predators from attacking. Novel signals of aposematic prey are expected to be selected against due to positive frequency-dependent selection. How, then, can novel phenotypes persist after they arise, and why do so many aposematic species exhibit intrapopulatio...
Article
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1.Trade‐offs have been shown to play an important role in the divergence of mating strategies and sexual ornamentation, but their importance in explaining warning signal diversity has received less attention. In aposematic organisms, allocation costs of producing the conspicuous warning signal pigmentation under nutritional stress could potentially...
Article
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1.Aposematism is an effective antipredator strategy. However, the initial evolution and maintenance of aposematism is paradoxical because conspicuous prey are vulnerable to attack by naïve predators. Consequently, the evolution of aposematic signal mimicry is also difficult to explain. 2.The cost of conspicuousness can be reduced if predators learn...
Article
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Allocation to different components of defence has been suggested as an explanation for the existence of multiple aposematic morphs in a single population. We tested whether there are trade-offs between warning colouration and chemical defence or whether these have an additive effect when combined, using blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) as predators...
Article
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1.Predation is an important selective pressure and some prey have evolved conspicuous warning signals that advertise unpalatability (i.e. aposematism) as an antipredator defence. Conspicuous colour patterns have been shown effective as warning signals, by promoting predator learning and memory. Unexpectedly, some butterfly species from the unpalata...
Article
Full-text available
Many animals have evolved remarkable strategies to avoid predation. In diurnal, toxic harlequin toads (Atelopus) from the Amazon basin, we find a unique colour signal. Some Atelopus populations have striking red soles of the hands and feet, visible only when walking. When stationary, the toads are hard to detect despite their yellow-black dorsal co...
Article
Full-text available
Many animals have evolved remarkable strategies to avoid predation. In diurnal, toxic harlequin toads (Atelopus) from the Amazon basin, we find a unique colour signal. Some Atelopus populations have striking red soles of the hands and feet, visible only when walking. When stationary, the toads are hard to detect despite their yellow-black dorsal co...
Article
Full-text available
Predation has driven the evolution of diverse adaptations for defence among prey, and one striking example is the deimatic display. While such displays can resemble, or indeed co-occur with, aposematic ‘warning’ signals, theory suggests deimatic displays may function independently of predator learning. The survival value of deimatic displays agains...
Preprint
1. Predation is an important selective pressure and some prey have evolved warning colour signals advertising unpalatability (i.e. aposematism) as an antipredator strategy. Unexpectedly, some butterfly species from the unpalatable tribe Ithomiini possess transparent wings, an adaptation rare on land but common in water where it helps avoiding preda...
Article
Full-text available
Polymorphic warning signals in aposematic organisms are puzzling because efficient predator learning should select for the most efficient warning colouration. Yet, there are many examples of polymorphic and aposematic organisms in nature. Here, we investigated whether perceived trade-offs between natural and sexual selection, combined with differen...
Article
Full-text available
Many harmless organisms gain a survival advantage by mimicking venomous species. This is the case of the endangered smooth snake (Coronella austriaca), which mimics venomous vipers. Although this may protect the smooth snake against most of its natural predators, it may render them at greater risk of mortality from humans, who are more inclined to...
Article
Full-text available
Chemically defended animals often display conspicuous color patterns that predators learn to associate with their unprofitability and subsequently avoid. Such animals (i.e., aposematic), deter predators by stimulating their visual and chemical sensory channels. Hence, aposematism is considered to be "multimodal." The evolution of warning signals (a...
Article
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Polyandry is widespread among many animal taxa, yet the benefits for females are still debated. The two main hypotheses to explain its evolution are the direct benefits and the genetic benefits hypotheses, which are not mutually exclusive. We tested both in the wood tiger moth Arctia plantaginis (Arctiidae) by comparing fitness components in single...
Article
Full-text available
Multiple-model mimicry, whereby different morphs of an aposematic species each resemble another defended species sharing the costs of predator education, has been proposed as a mechanism allowing colour polymorphisms in aposematic species. Male wood tiger moths, Arctia plantaginis (Linnaeus, 1758), are chemically defended and polymorphic (yellow, w...
Article
Full-text available
Multiple-model mimicry, whereby different morphs of an aposematic species each resemble another defended species sharing the costs of predator education, has been proposed as a mechanism allowing colour polymorphisms in aposematic species. Male wood tiger moths, Arctia plantaginis (Linnaeus, 1758), are chemically defended and polymorphic (yellow, w...
Article
Full-text available
Although predation is commonly thought to exert the strongest selective pressure on colouration in aposematic species, sexual selection may also influence colouration. Specifically, polymorphism in aposematic species cannot be explained by natural selection alone. 2.Males of the aposematic wood tiger moth (Arctia plantaginis) are polymorphic for hi...
Article
Full-text available
Many animals protect themselves from predation with chemicals, both self-made or sequestered from their diet. The potential drivers of the diversity of these chemicals have been long studied, but our knowledge of these chemicals and their acquisition mode is heavily based on specialist herbivores that sequester their defenses. The wood tiger moth (...