Johanna K Kaakinen

Johanna K Kaakinen
University of Turku | UTU · Turku Institute for Advanced Studies / Department of Psychology

PhD

About

62
Publications
20,389
Reads
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1,563
Citations
Additional affiliations
August 2011 - present
University of Turku
Position
  • Lecturer

Publications

Publications (62)
Article
Full-text available
Very little is known about the processes underlying second language (L2) speakers’ understanding of written metaphors and similes. Moreover, most of the theories on figurative language comprehension do not consider reader-related factors. In the study, we used eye-tracking to examine how native Finnish speakers (N = 63) read written English nominal...
Article
Full-text available
The role of individual differences during dynamic scene viewing was explored. Participants (N=38) watched a gameplay video of a first-person shooter (FPS) videogame while their eye movements were recorded. In addition, the participants’ skills in three visual attention tasks (attentional blink, visual search, and multiple object tracking) were asse...
Article
Full-text available
The present aim was to investigate emotion-related physiological responses and subjective ratings of two groups of active gamers (N=24) in response to both playing and watching a video of a first-person shooter game. Participants of one group had high preferences for game dynamics in first-person shooter games, whereas the other group disliked such...
Article
Theoretical models of irony comprehension pose different hypotheses about the time course of resolving ironic interpretation of an utterance, and they propose several context-, phrase-, and reader-related factors that influence the ease or difficulty of processing irony. In recent years, these factors have been examined using eye tracking, which al...
Article
Full-text available
Mental health problems like anxiety, depression, and stress have been increasing in many countries and the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic has further exacerbated their toll. Mindfulness-based interventions have been shown to provide evidence-based treatments for anxiety and depression, and accumulating evidence is emerging in support of using mindfulness a...
Article
Full-text available
In our current era, learners are confronted with many and varying sources of information, such as news media, books, websites, social media, scientific articles, communicative interactions, and more. In addition, individuals must learn from such sources, making it important to critically examine the factors underlying learning from text and discour...
Article
Full-text available
In this commentary to the Special Issue of Educational Psychology Review on visual perceptual processes, I tie the empirical studies reported in the issue with previous research in other domains to offer some points to be considered in future studies. First, I will point out to issues related to the operationalization of the theoretical constructs....
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the present study was to examine effects of relevance instructions and elaborative interrogation on the processing of and memory for expository texts. Eye movements of 132 undergraduate students were tracked while they read expository texts. After reading each text, they produced an oral summary. Participants were divided into two four e...
Preprint
Full-text available
Very little is known about the processes underlying second language (L2) speakers’ understanding of written metaphors and similes. Most of the theories on figurative language comprehension do not consider reader-related factors. In the study, we used eye-tracking to examine how native Finnish speakers (N = 63) read written English nominal metaphors...
Preprint
Full-text available
Theoretical models of irony comprehension pose different hypotheses about the time-course of resolving ironic interpretation of an utterance, and propose several context-, phrase- and reader-related factors that influence the ease or difficulty of processing irony. In recent years, these factors have been examined using eye tracking, which allows a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper presents the integration of eye-tracking in the MarSEVR (Maritime Safety Education with VR) technology to increase the precision of the trainee focus on delivering the learning episodes of the technology with enhanced impressiveness and user engagement. MarSEVR is part of the Safe Oceans concept, a green ocean technology that integrates...
Article
Full-text available
The present study utilized a novel combination of eye movement and motion capture recordings to examine cognitive engagement during reading on a hand-held tablet computer. Participants read a multiple-page text with a specific task in mind and after reading recalled the main contents of text from memory. The results showed that head distance from s...
Chapter
The present chapter is a brief introduction to research on eye movements during reading. In the chapter, we will describe what the eye movement methodology has revealed about word recognition, syntactic parsing of sentences, and comprehension of longer segments of text. The typical eye movement pattern in reading is one where the reader makes a seq...
Chapter
According to certain player typologies, players report preferring some game dynamics more than others [1]. However, it is unclear whether these self-reported preferences show carryover effects during actual playing. For instance, do players who report liking dynamics of killing and shooting show positive emotions during playing games that incorpora...
Article
Full-text available
Prior research shows that increased distance and decreased light result in less correct eyewitness identifications, yet their combined effect is not well understood. The aim of the present study was to establish the maximum distance in low lux (lx) where an eyewitness’s later identification in target present (TP) line-ups is no longer reliable. We...
Article
Full-text available
Comprehension and summarizing are closely related. As more strategic and selective pro-cessing during reading should be reflected in higher quality of summaries, the aim of this study was to use eye movement patterns to analyze how readers who produce good quality summaries process texts. 40 undergraduate students were instructed to read six exposi...
Article
A core feature of sarcasm is that there is a discrepancy between the literal meaning of the utterance and the context in which it is presented. This means that a sarcastic statement embedded in a story introduces a break in local coherence. Previous studies have shown that sarcastic statements in written stories often elicit longer processing times...
Article
Previous eye-tracking studies suggest that when resolving the meaning of sarcastic utterances in a text, readers often initiate fixations that return to the sarcastic utterance from subsequent parts of the text. We used a modified trailing mask paradigm to examine both the role of these look-back fixations in sarcasm comprehension and whether there...
Preprint
Prior research shows that increased distance and decreased light result in less correct eyewitness identifications, yet their combined effect is unknown. The aim of the present study was to establish the maximum distance in low lux (lx) where an eyewitness’s later identification in target present (TP) line-ups is no longer reliable. We randomized p...
Article
Previous research on how stereotypes affect perceptions of intimate partner violence and domestic homicide has found that violence committed by men is perceived as more severe and judged more harshly than violence committed by women. The present mock jury study investigated how perpetrator sex (male or female), crime type (familicide or filicide),...
Chapter
Full-text available
Emotions guide our actions and have a profound influence on how we approach, experience and later remember information. This chapter provides an overview of the role of emotions in reading and describes how emotional processes differ across digital and print texts. After introducing what emotions are and how they can be measured, we discuss the inf...
Preprint
Full-text available
Previous research on how stereotypes affect perceptions of intimate partner violence and domestic homicide has found that violence committed by men is perceived as more severe and judged more harshly than violence committed by women. The present mock jury study investigated how perpetrator sex (male or female), crime type (familicide or filicide),...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major health problem that often requires intensive and long-term rehabilitation. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine whether rehabilitative digital gaming facilitates cognitive functioning and general well-being in people with TBI. Methods: A total of 90 Finnish-speaking adults with T...
Article
Full-text available
Syllabification by hyphens (e.g., hy-phen-a-tion) is a standard procedure in early Finnish reading instruction. However, recent findings indicate that hyphenation slows down children’s reading already during the first grade (Häikiö, Hyönä, & Bertram, 2015, 2016). In the present study, it was examined whether this slowdown is indicative of deeper pr...
Article
The present study utilized a novel methodological combination of eye tracking and postural movement recordings to study task-induced changes in cognitive engagement during expository text reading. Thirty-three participants read an expository text with a specific task in mind while their eye and postural movements were concurrently recorded, and aft...
Article
Full-text available
Are synaesthetic experiences congenital and so hard-wired, or can a functional analogue be created? We induced an equivalent of form-colour synaesthesia using hypnotic suggestions in which symbols in an array (circles, crosses, squares) were suggested always to have a certain colour. In a Stroop type-naming task, three of the four highly hypnotizab...
Article
In a single eye movement experiment we investigated the effects of context on the time course of local and global anomaly processing during reading in adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). In one condition short paragraph texts contained anomalous target words. Detection of the anomaly was only possible through evaluation of word meaning in r...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, we examine digital game preferences by identifying game dynamics, i.e. player–game interaction modes, of 700 contemporary digital games, and players' (N = 1717) desire to play games with specific types of dynamics. Based on statistical analysis of the data, 5 game dynamics preference categories (“assault,” “manage,” “journey,” “care,...
Article
While many studies have focused on eyewitness' perception and memory, few studies on earwitness' ability to understand and remember complex sound events have been conducted. The present study included 73 participants and explored whether it is possible for children and adults to understand and later recall a complex sound event. The aim was to reso...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose To establish potential markers of visual expertise in eye movement (EM) patterns of early residents, advanced residents, and specialists who interpret abdominal computed tomography (CT) studies. Materials and Methods The institutional review board approved use of anonymized CT studies as research materials and to obtain anonymized eye-track...
Article
Is inferring readers’ literacy skills possible by analyzing their eye movements during text reading? This study used Support Vector Machines (SVM) to analyze eye movement data from 61 undergraduate students who read a multiple-paragraph, multiple-topic expository text. Forward fixation time, first-pass rereading time, second-pass fixation time, and...
Article
In this study, we used eye-tracking methodology for deeper understanding of the refutation text effect on online text comprehension. A refutation text acknowledges the reader's alternative conceptions about a phenomenon, refutes them and presents the correct conceptions. We tested two hypotheses about its facilitation effect: the coherence hypothes...
Article
The present study examined individual differences in the processing of different forms of figurative language. Sixty participants read sarcastic, metaphorical, and literal sentences embedded in story contexts while their eye movements were recorded, and responded to a text memory and an inference question after each story. Individual differences in...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a critical public health problem. The recovery process for people with TBI is typically slow and dependent on complex and intensive assisted rehabilitation programs. Objective: To evaluate the effects and feasibility of digital games for cognitive functioning and general well-being among people with tr...
Article
Full-text available
Previous research has suggested that individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) have difficulties understanding others communicative intent and with using contextual information to correctly interpret irony. We recorded the eye movements of typically developing (TD) adults ASD adults when they read statements that could either be interpreted...
Article
Full-text available
In the present study, second graders (n= 23), fourth graders (n= 16), sixth graders (n= 24) and adults (n= 21) read texts adopted from children’s science textbooks either with the task to answer a “why” question presented as the title of the text or for comprehension when their eye movements were recorded. Immediately after reading, readers answere...
Article
Full-text available
We examined processing of written irony by recording readers' eye movements while they read target phrases embedded either in ironic or non-ironic story context. After reading each story, participants responded to a text memory question and an inference question tapping into the understanding of the meaning of the target phrase. The results of Expe...
Article
The present study examined how eye movements during scene viewing are modulated by adopting psychological perspectives in both adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and typically developing adults. In the current study, participants viewed house scenes with either non-perspective-taking (look for valuable items/features of the house that need...
Article
Full-text available
In the research reported here, we examined whether task demands can induce momentary tunnel vision during reading. More specifically, we examined whether the size of the functional visual field depends on task relevance. Forty participants read an expository text with a specific task in mind while their eye movements were recorded. A display-change...
Article
Full-text available
The present eye-movement study assessed the effect of expertise on eye-movement behaviour during image perception in the medical domain. To this end, radiologists, computed-tomography radiographers and psychology students were exposed to nine volumes of multi-slice, stack-view, axial computed-tomography images from the upper to the lower part of th...
Article
Full-text available
In the study, 33 participants viewed photographs from either a potential homebuyer's or a burglar's perspective, or in preparation for a memory test, while their eye movements were recorded. A free recall and a picture recognition task were performed after viewing. The results showed that perspective had rapid effects, in that the second fixation a...
Article
Full-text available
Kaakinen, J. K., Salonen, J., Venäläinen P. & Hyönä, J. (2011). Influence of text cohesion on the persuasive power of expository text. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology52, 201–208. The present study examined how global text cohesion affects persuasion and memory for message arguments presented in expository text. Sixty-nine participants who held a...
Article
Full-text available
The present study examined how proofreading and reading-for-comprehension instructions influence eye movements during reading. Thirty-seven participants silently read sentences containing compound words as target words while their eye movements were being recorded. We manipulated word length and frequency to examine how task instructions influence...
Article
The present article reports results of an eye-tracking experiment, which examines whether the perspective-driven text comprehension framework applies to comprehension of narrative text. Sixty-four participants were instructed to adopt either a burglar's or an interior designer's perspective. A pilot test showed that readers have more overlapping pr...
Article
Full-text available
The present study examined the influence of perspective instructions on online processing of expository text during repeated reading. Sixty-two participants read either a high or a low prior knowledge (HPK vs. LPK) text twice from a given perspective while their eye movements were recorded. They switched perspective before a third reading. Reading...
Article
Full-text available
Strategy use in the traditional reading span test was examined by recording participants' eye movements during the task (Experiment 1) and by interviewing participants about their strategy use (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, no differences between individuals with a low, medium, and high span were observed in how they distributed processing time b...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, 36 participants read an expository text describing 4 rare illnesses from a given perspective. Their eye movements were recorded during reading, and think-alouds were probed after 10 relevant and 10 irrelevant sentences. A free recall was collected after reading. The results showed that in addition to increasing the fixation time and...
Article
Full-text available
Ruchkin et al.'s view of working memory as activated long-term memory is more compatible with language processing than models such as Baddeley's, but it raises questions about individual differences in working memory and the validity of domain-general capacity estimates. Does it make sense to refer to someone as having low working memory capacity i...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined how prior knowledge and working memory capacity (WMC) influence the effect of a reading perspective on online text processing. In Experiment 1, 47 participants read and recalled 2 texts of different familiarity from a given perspective while their eye movements were recorded. The participants' WMC was assessed with the reading s...
Article
Full-text available
Eye fixation patterns were used to identify reading strategies of adults as they read multiple-topic expository texts. A clustering technique distinguished 4 strategies that differed with respect to the ways in which readers reprocessed text. The processing of fast linear readers was characterized by the absence of fixations returning to previous t...
Article
Full-text available
Eye fixation patterns were used to identify reading strategies of adults as they read multiple-topic expository texts. A clustering technique distinguished 4 strategies that differed with respect to the ways in which readers reprocessed text. The processing of fast linear readers was characterized by the absence of fixations returning to previous t...
Article
Full-text available
The effect of a reading perspective on online text processing was studied by record-ing readers' eye movements during reading. Participants read an expository text about 4 countries with the goal of deciding whether one of the countries, designated by the experimenter as the reading perspective, would be a good new place of resi-dence. The results...

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Projects (7)
Archived project
The scientific phenomena impacting our lives are often very complex (e.g., climate change), and the information available on them is fragmented and confusing. This challenges individuals’ ability to filter and assimilate information, and easily leads to emotional biases in information processing and decision-making. This in turn has many unwanted consequences such as the spread of misinformation. There is an urgent need for methods that would improve skills of acquiring, evaluating, and understanding information and using it in science-based decision-making. Our solution to attaining these is fostering science capital in Finnish society. Science capital consists of cultural and social science-related capital and science-related behaviors. The multidisciplinary FINSCI project will target the different dimensions of science capital, produce new knowledge on the neurobehavioral mechanisms that underlie successful science learning and decision making, and create novel science-based methods for formal and informal science learning. The theoretical perspectives and research methodologies of psychology, neuroscience, education and social sciences are combined in a unique way to study science capital and ways to foster it at both micro and macro levels. By utilizing sociological surveys in different target groups and populations (from pre-primary school children to teacher education students and adult citizens), and state-of-the-art psychological and neuroscientific research methods to examine emotional and neurocognitive underpinnings of learning and decision-making at the level of individuals, the proposed project will shed new light into the sociological concept of science capital and renew the psychological theories of learning and decision-making. Based on research findings, the project will produce evidence-based methods for developing important skills and behaviors related to science capital. FINSCI combines research to rich co-creation activities with beneficiaries reached with the help of its Interaction partners and ecosystem. The strong involvement of stakeholders in creating and testing the methods will ensure that they respond to real-life, concrete needs. This will improve everyday decision-making for individuals as well as the quality of public discourse leading to actions and decisions at the societal level.
Archived project
This is my dissertation project. The purpose of the project is threefold: First, to explore how readers resolve the meaning of written irony (using eye-tracking). Second, to compare does the resolving of ironic meaning differ from resolving the other forms of non-literal language (e.g. metaphors). Last, to explore are there individual differences in the processing of written irony.