Jörg-Tobias Kuhn

Jörg-Tobias Kuhn
Technische Universität Dortmund | TUD · Faculty of Rehabilitation Sciences

Prof. Dr.

About

75
Publications
18,858
Reads
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904
Citations
Introduction
My current research broadly deals with two topics, learning disorders and educational assessment. I am especially interested in the assessment of developmental dyscalculia and the design and evaluation of computer-based interventions. Methodologically, I am currently focusing on (a) IRT models including response times as well as (b) curriculum-based assessment to better understand individual differences in cognitive processes and learning in mathematical tasks.
Additional affiliations
October 2017 - present
Technische Universität Dortmund
Position
  • Professor
April 2016 - September 2017
University of Münster
Position
  • Researcher
October 2015 - March 2016
FernUniversität in Hagen
Position
  • Professor

Publications

Publications (75)
Article
The purpose of this study was to meta-analyze the effectivity of interventions for children with mathematical difficulties. Furthermore, we investigated whether the fit between characteristics of participants and interventions was a decisive factor. Thirty-five evaluation studies that used pre-post-control group designs with at least 10 participant...
Article
Full-text available
To monitor students’ progress and adapt instruction to students’ needs, teachers are increasingly using repeated assessments of equivalent tests. The present study investigates whether equivalent reading tests can be successfully developed via rule-based item design. Based on theoretical considerations, we identified three item features for reading...
Article
Full-text available
Several studies have aimed to identify subtypes of dyscalculia. In many of these studies, either pre-defined groups (e.g., children with reading and mathematical difficulties vs. children with isolated mathematical difficulties) were analyzed regarding their cognitive profiles (top-down approach), or clusters of children with dyscalculia (CwD) were...
Article
The term speed-accuracy tradeoff is used when an increase in response speed comes at the expense of response accuracy. Although originally a concept from experimental psychology, the speed-accuracy tradeoff has been a topic in psychological assessment, too. In the first part of the manuscript, we discuss motivational factors that may be responsible...
Article
Background Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and dyscalculia, also called mathematics disorder, frequently co-occur, yet the etiology of this comorbidity is poorly understood. Aims This study investigated whether impairments in the understanding of numbers and magnitudes (basic numerical skills) are a unique risk factor for mathemati...
Article
Full-text available
An important prerequisite of progress monitoring as one source to support instructional decision-making is the existence of equivalent booklets. This study assesses this prerequisite with respect to a German elementary school math curriculum based measurement instrument (LVD-M 2-4; Strathmann & Klauer, 2012). Every second week of a 19-weeks period,...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we propose a latent trait model for the response times in the items of a psychological test. The latent trait model consists of two components. The first component is a model for the marginal response time distributions in the single items. It is based on an approximation of the marginal response time distributions via a spline hazar...
Article
Zusammenfassung. Einleitung: Nach aktueller Literaturlage ergeben sich die kognitiven Profile von Kindern mit komorbiden Lernstörungen (gleichzeitiges Auftreten von Lese-/Rechtschreibstörung und Rechenstörung) additiv aus den kognitiven Profilen von Kindern mit isolierten Lernstörungen. Allerdings dürfen nicht signifikante Ergebnisse in den übliche...
Article
Van der Linden's hierarchical model for responses and response times can be used in order to infer the ability and mental speed of test takers from their responses and response times in an educational test. A standard approach for this is maximum likelihood estimation. In real-world applications, the data of some test takers might be partly irregul...
Article
Full-text available
Number line estimation tasks have been considered a good indicator of mathematical competency for many years and are traditionally analyzed by fitting individual regression curves to individual responders. We innovate on this technique by applying growth mixture modeling and compare it to traditional regression using a sample of 2nd graders (n = 32...
Article
The hierarchical model of van der Linden is the most popular model for responses and response times in tests. It is composed of two separate submodels—one for the responses and one for the response times—that are joined at a higher level. The submodel for the response times is based on the lognormal distribution. The lognormal distribution is a ske...
Article
Diffusion-based item response theory models are models for responses and response times on psychological tests, which can be used as measurement models in the same way as standard item response theory models (Tuerlinckx, Molenaar, & van der Maas, 2016). Their range of application, however, is narrowed by the fact that multidimensional versions of t...
Data
We developed a multidimensional Direct Behavior Rating (DBR-MIS) with different dimensions for externalizing, internalizing, and positive behaviors that are relevant in daily classroom situations. Along the lines of other established screening tools (i.e., the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ); Goodman, 1997, 2001; Voss & Gebhardt, 201...
Cover Page
Full-text available
Call for Papers Special Issue of the Journal for Educational Research Online (JERO): Design, Construction and Analysis of Progress Monitoring Assessments in Schools Papers on the following topics within formative assessment will be considered: Conceptualization, Construction and development of progress monitoring instruments within or across subst...
Article
Full-text available
Die präzise Vorhersage der mathematischen Kompetenz am Ende der Grundschulzeit ist für die Unterrichts- und Förderplanung entscheidend. Unspezifische Prädiktoren der mathematischen Kompetenz (z. B. Intelligenz) können dabei von solchen unterschieden werden, die spezifische mathematische Fertigkeiten messen (z. B. arithmetischer Faktenabruf). Indivi...
Article
Full-text available
Direct Behavior Rating (DBR) as a behavioral progress monitoring tool can be designed as longitudinal assessment with only short intervals between measurement points. The reliability of these instruments has been mostly evaluated in observational studies with small samples based on generalizability theory. However, for a standardized use in the ped...
Preprint
Full-text available
Direct Behavior Rating (DBR) as a behavioral progress monitoring tool can be designed as longitudinal assessment with only short intervals between measurement points. The reliability of these instruments has been evaluated mostly in observational studies with small samples based on generalizability theory. However, for standardized use in the pedag...
Article
Im vorliegenden Beitrag wird auf Kriterien eingegangen, die eine computer- bzw. onlinebasierte Diagnostik mathematischer Kompetenzen erfüllen muss, damit für Grundschulkinder mit einer Rechenstörung optimale Fördermaßnahmen abgeleitet werden können. Testverfahren, die auf neuropsychologischer oder entwicklungspsychologischer Grundlage entwickelt wu...
Article
In this manuscript, a new model is proposed for the responses and the response times in attitudinal or personality inventories with graded response format. The model is based on the lognormal race model (Heathcote & Love, 2012) and assumes two accumulators that aggregate evidence in favor of and against the statement made by an item of an inventory...
Article
Diffusion-based item response theory models for responses and response times in tests have attracted increased attention recently in psychometrics. Analyzing response time data, however, is delicate as response times are often contaminated by unusual observations. This can have serious effects on the validity of statistical inference. In this artic...
Article
Van der Linden’s (2007, Psychometrika, 72, 287) hierarchical model for responses and response times in tests has numerous applications in psychological assessment. The success of these applications requires the parameters of the model to have been estimated without bias. The data used for model fitting, however, are often contaminated, for example,...
Article
Full-text available
In diesem Beitrag wird der computergestützte Lernverlaufstest "Goldmünzenjagd" vorgestellt, der in ein Online-Training für Kinder mit Rechenschwierigkeiten eingebettet ist. Der nach dem robust indicator-Ansatz konstruierte Test bildet den Lernfortschritt in zwei wichtigen mathematischen Basiskompetenzen ab: dem arithmetischen Faktenwissen (Addition...
Article
Full-text available
In diesem Kurzbeitrag schildern wir Herausforderungen bei der Normierung von Verfahren zur Lernverlaufsdiagnostik, die sich bei der Statusdiagnostik in dieser Form nicht stellen. Diese betreffen insbesondere die Frage, ob Normen für regulären Unterricht oder intensive Förderung benötigt werden, aber auch die Unterschiedlichkeit von Lernzuwächsen in...
Article
Full-text available
In low-stakes tests some test takers do not work with high motivation but respond carelessly. This has serious consequences for item response models as careless responses impair model calibration and trait inference. In this manuscript we describe an approach to data analysis that reduces the negative implications of careless responding and allows...
Article
Full-text available
The respective roles of the approximate number system (ANS) and an access deficit (AD) in developmental dyscalculia (DD) are not well known. Most studies rely on response times (RTs) or accuracy (error rates) separately. We analyzed the results of two samples of elementary school children in symbolic magnitude comparison (MC) and non-symbolic MC us...
Article
Symbolic and non-symbolic magnitude representations, measured by digit or dot comparison tasks, are assumed to underlie the development of arithmetic skills. The comparison distance effect (CDE) has been suggested as a hallmark of the preciseness of mental magnitude representations. It implies that two magnitudes are harder to discriminate when the...
Article
The present study investigated the stability of fluid self-estimated intelligence (SEI) directly, one, and two weeks after the administration of an IQ test in N = 238 German high school students (tested group, TG) in comparison to N = 316 untested high school students (control group, CG). Multigroup latent change analysis indicated that, in compari...
Article
Cognitive psychometric models embed cognitive process models into a latent trait framework in order to allow for individual differences. Due to their close relationship to the response process the models allow for profound conclusions about the test takers. However, before such a model can be used its fit has to be checked carefully. In this manusc...
Chapter
Das Bundesinstitut für Bildungsforschung, Innovation und Entwicklung des österreichischen Schulwesens (BIFIE) führt die Überprüfung der Bildungsstandards in Österreich durch. Large-Scale Assessment mit R ist ein Handbuch der grundlegenden Methodik, die bei diesen Überprüfungen zum Einsatz kommt. Angefangen bei der Testkonstruktion bis zu Aspekten d...
Article
Full-text available
Background Tinnitus is a result of hyper-activity/hyper-synchrony of auditory neurons coding the tinnitus frequency, which has developed due to synchronous mass activity owing to the lack of inhibition. We assume that removal of exactly these frequencies from a complex auditory stimulus will cause the brain to reorganize around tonotopic regions co...
Article
Objective: Deficits in basic numerical skills, calculation, and working memory have been found in children with developmental dyscalculia (DD) as well as children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This paper investigates cognitive profiles of children with DD and/or ADHD symptoms (AS) in a double dissociation design to obtain a...
Article
The aim of the present study was to investigate the cognitive profiles of primary school children (age 82-133 months) on a battery of basic number processing and calculation tasks. The sample consisted of four groups matched for age and IQ: Arithmetic disorder only (AD; N = 20), Reading disorder only (RD; N = 40), a comorbid group (N = 27) and an u...
Article
Psychological tests are usually analyzed with item response models. Recently, some alternative measurement models have been proposed that were derived from cognitive process models developed in experimental psychology. These models consider the responses but also the response times of the test takers. Two such models are the Q-diffusion model and t...
Article
In this article, a new model for test response times is proposed that combines latent class analysis and the proportional hazards model with random effects in a similar vein as the mixture factor model. The model assumes the existence of different latent classes. In each latent class, the response times are distributed according to a class-specific...
Article
Developmental dyscalculia (DD) is a specific learning disorder that affects the acquisition of arithmetic skills and number processing in children. A high comorbidity between DD and other neurodevelopmental disorders (e.g., dyslexia, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD]) as well as substantial heterogeneity in cognitive profiles have bee...
Article
In this article, a latent trait model is proposed for the response times in psychological tests. The latent trait model is based on the linear transformation model and subsumes popular models from survival analysis, like the proportional hazards model and the proportional odds model. Core of the model is the assumption that an unspecified monotone...
Article
Working memory (WM) has received considerable attention in psychological research, a core finding being a close relationship between WM and measures of complex cognition. However, only a limited amount of studies investigated this relationship in samples of children. This study explored the contribution of storage-and-processing tasks (WM), a measu...
Article
Full-text available
The joint analysis of responses and response times in psychological tests with latent trait models has become popular recently. Although numerous such models have been proposed so far there are only few tests of model fit. In this manuscript a new approach to the evaluation of model fit is presented. The approach is based on the differences between...
Article
Latent trait models for responses and response times in tests are often pure statistical models without a close connection to features of the assumed response process. In the present paper, a new model is presented that is more closely related to assumptions about the response process. The model is based on two increasing stochastic processes. Each...
Article
In this manuscript a new approach to the analysis of person fit is presented that is based on the information matrix test of White (1982). This test can be interpreted as a test of trait stability during the measurement situation. The test follows approximately a $\chi^2$-distribution. In small samples, the approximation can be improved by a higher...
Article
Full-text available
Research on the improvement of elementary school mathematics has shown that computer-based training of number sense, e.g., processing magnitudes or locating numbers on the number line, can lead to substantial achievement gains in arithmetic skills. Recent studies, however, have highlighted that training domain-general cognitive abilities, e.g., wor...
Article
Full-text available
Several techniques have been developed in recent years to generate optimal large-scale assessments (LSAs) of student achievement. These techniques often represent a blend of procedures from such diverse fields as experimental design, combinatorial optimization, particle physics, or neural networks. However, despite the theoretical advances in the f...
Article
Full-text available
Laut ICD-10 und DSM-IV-TR muss für die Diagnose einer Dyskalkulie eine Diskrepanz zwischen der allgemeinen kognitiven Leistungsfähigkeit und der tatsächlichen oder vorhergesagten Leistung in einem Mathematiktest vorliegen. Diese Definition impliziert, dass sich rechenschwache Kinder, die diese Diskrepanz aufweisen, von rechenschwachen Kindern ohne...
Article
Latent trait models for responses and response times in tests often lack a substantial interpretation in terms of a cognitive process model. This is a drawback because process models are helpful in clarifying the meaning of the latent traits. In the present paper, a new model for responses and response times in tests is presented. The model is base...
Article
It is common practice to log-transform response times before analyzing them with standard factor analytical methods. However, sometimes the log-transformation is not capable of linearizing the relation between the response times and the latent traits. Therefore, a more general approach to response time analysis is proposed in the current manuscript...
Article
The information matrix can equivalently be determined via the expectation of the Hessian matrix or the expectation of the outer product of the score vector. The identity of these two matrices, however, is only valid in case of a correctly specified model. Therefore, differences between the two versions of the observed information matrix indicate mo...
Book
Full-text available
Die Einführung der Bildungsstandards ist vom Leitgedanken getragen, im österreichischen Schulsystem mehr Verbindlichkeit anzustreben und grundlegende Kompetenzen bei allen Schülerinnen und Schülern sicherzustellen. Die Befunde aus internationalen Schülerleistungsstudien wie PISA haben belegt, dass mehr als 20 % der Schüler/innen nach neun Jahren Sc...
Article
Research findings indicate that response times in personality scales are related to the trait level according to the so-called speed–distance hypothesis. Against this background, Ferrando and Lorenzo-Seva proposed a latent trait model for the responses and response times in a test. The model consists of two components, a standard item response mode...
Article
The Latin Square Task (LST) was developed by Birney, Halford, and Andrews [Birney, D. P., Halford, G. S., & Andrews, G. (2006). Measuring the influence of cognitive complexity on relational reasoning: The development of the Latin Square Task. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 66, 146–171.] and represents a non-domain specific, language-fre...
Article
This article explores the measurement properties of the Questionnaire on Current Motivation (QCM; Rheinberg, Vollmeyer, & Burns, 2001), which measures four factors of current achievement motivation (anxiety, challenge, interest, and probability of success) in the context of taking an abstract reasoning test. Two studies were conducted. In study 1,...
Article
Latent trait models for response times in tests have become popular recently. One challenge for response time modeling is the fact that the distribution of response times can differ considerably even in similar tests. In order to reduce the need for tailor-made models, a model is proposed that unifies two popular approaches to response time modelin...
Chapter
Frauen erzielen im Studentenpisa-Test schlechtere Gesamtergebnisse als Männer, sie gaben im Durchschnitt deutlich weniger richtige Antworten als Männer. Aber waren die Fragen überhaupt fair? Oder hatten Männer einen Vorteil? Diesen Fragen nach der Geschlechtsfairness des Studentenpisa-Tests wird hier – wie auch im nachfolgenden Beitrag – nachgegang...
Thesis
Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit werden Ergebnisse aus drei Studien berichtet, die sich mit dem Zusammenhang von Arbeitsgedächtnis und schlussfolgerndem Denken bei Kindern befassen. Das Arbeitsgedächtnis hat sich bei komplexen Denkprozessen oft als ein kritischer Faktor erwiesen. In der ersten Studie konnte gezeigt werden, dass das Arbeitsgedächtnis sich vo...
Article
In this study, a large sample with a clustered data structure from an educational context was utilized to analyze the relationship between cognitive abilities, school type, gender, and divergent thinking. The sample comprised 1098 students in 55 classrooms. A sequence of nested multilevel regression analyses revealed that processing capacity, as a...
Article
The present study investigated gender differences in scholastic achievement (school grades in sciences and languages) as mediated by reasoning ability in a large sample with a clustered data structure from an educational context. Whereas girls outperformed boys in languages, boys excelled in sciences and reasoning. Multilevel analyses indicated a s...
Article
In current psychological research, the analysis of data from computer-based assessments or experiments is often confined to accuracy scores. Response times, although being an important source of additional information, are either neglected or analyzed separately. In this article, a new model is developed that allows the simultaneous analysis of acc...
Article
Full-text available
The present study explores the factorial structure and the degree of measurement invariance of 12 divergent thinking tests. In a large sample of German students (N = 1328), a three-factor model representing verbal, figural, and numerical divergent thinking was supported. Multigroup confirmatory factor analyses revealed that partial strong measureme...
Article
Full-text available
Although a large body of research has been published with respect to arithmetic word problems, few studies have investigated statistical word problems in detail. This article therefore pursues two goals: Firstly, a review of current design and analysis of statistical word problems is provided. Secondly, results from a pilot study with systematicall...
Article
Full-text available
This study explored the latent structure of divergent thinking as a cognitive ability across gifted and non-gifted samples of students utilizing multiple-group analysis of mean and covariance structures (MG-MACS). Whereas Spearman’s law of diminishing returns postulates lower g saturation of cognitive tests with increasing ability level and consequ...
Article
Der CFT 20-R ist ein in der psychologischen Praxis häufig eingesetzter Test zur Diagnostik der fluiden Intelligenz. Er dient damit auch zur Diagnose von Hochbegabung. Gegenstand dieses Artikels ist die psychometrische Überprüfung der Kurzform 1 des Grundintelligenztests (CFT 20-R; Weiß, 2006) hinsichtlich der Messäquivalenz des Verfahrens zwischen...
Article
A large body of research has shown substantial correlations between working memory capacity and measures of intelligence. In contrast, studies focusing on test–retest reliability and other psychometric properties of working memory tasks have been less common and provided mixed results. The purpose of the present study therefore was to further explo...
Article
Die Benutzbarkeit von Softwareprodukten lässt sich anhand unterschiedlicher Methoden bestimmen. Hier kommen sowohl formal-analytische Verfahren, als auch Fragebogeninstrumente sowie Usability-Tests zum Einsatz. Der vorliegende Beitrag gibt zunächst einen Überblick über aktuelle Standards und Methodiken der Software-Evaluation. Er diskutiert anschli...
Article
The usability of software products may be evaluated by a large number of differing methods. Formal-analytic measures are available for this purpose, as are questionnaires and usability tests. The present contribution gives at first an overview of instruments for software evaluation. It then discusses the pros and cons of several questionnaires in d...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Die Organisation und Verfügbarkeit von Informationen stellt eine zentrale Ressource moderner Organisationen dar. Unter Wissensmanagement lässt sich dabei eine Managementstrategie verstehen, die den zielorientierten und optimalen Umgang mit Informationen verspricht. Besonders onlinegestützte Wissensmanagementsysteme erfreuen sich wachsender Beliebth...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Münster: ERCIS - Arbeitsberichte des Kompetenzzentrums Internetökonomie und Hybridität ; 35
Technical Report
Full-text available
Münster: ERCIS - Arbeitsberichte des Kompetenzzentrums Internetökonomie und Hybridität ; 41
Technical Report
Full-text available
Münster: ERCIS - Arbeitsberichte des Kompetenzzentrums Internetökonomie und Hybridität ; 15
Technical Report
Full-text available
Münster: ERCIS - Arbeitsberichte des Kompetenzzentrums Internetökonomie und Hybridität ; 6

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Projects (3)
Project
Progress monitoring remains an essential element for the prevention and treatment of scholastic difficulties and lagging academic development. This research domain includes not just special education, but also general education and psychology. Despite the great interest in this topic, there are only a limited number of instruments available for progress assessment or curriculum based measurment in schools. Both conceptual and methodological challenges can help explain this dearth of instruments. Therefore, it is essential to gather up-to-date research and conduct new studies relating to progress monitoring. Arbeiskreis Verlaufsdiagnostik Die Verlaufsdiagnostik stellt ein wesentliches Element der Prävention von wie auch der Intervention bei schulischen Minderleistungen und Fehlentwicklungen dar. Der Ansatz ist jedoch nicht nur aus sonderpädagogischer Perspektive ein bedeutsames Forschungsfeld, auch aus Reihen der Psychologie und der allgemeinen Schulpädagogik sind vermehrt Forschungsaktivitäten zu verzeichnen. Trotz des großen Interesses an diesem Thema, fällt das Repertoire derzeit verfügbarer Instrumente zur Verlaufsdiagnostik im Bereich der (vor-)schulischen Entwicklung jedoch eher gering aus. Konzeptionelle wie auch methodische Aspekte führen dazu, dass die Verlaufsdiagnostik eine Herausforderung für die Forschung darstellt. Vor diesem Hintergrund erscheint es notwendig, aktuelle Forschungsbeiträge sowie -aktivitäten zu bündeln, welche sich mit Fragen der Verlaufsdiagnostik befassen. In diesem Kontext wurde der Arbeitkreis (Lern-)Verlaufsdiagnostik im schulischen Feld ins Leben gerufen (Mehr Informationen unter www.lvd.uni-rostock.de).