Jörg Lewald

Jörg Lewald
Ruhr-Universität Bochum | RUB · AG Auditory Cognitive Neuroscience

Prof. Dr.

About

97
Publications
6,943
Reads
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3,219
Citations
Citations since 2016
19 Research Items
1197 Citations
2016201720182019202020212022050100150
2016201720182019202020212022050100150
2016201720182019202020212022050100150
2016201720182019202020212022050100150
Additional affiliations
July 1996 - August 2022
Ruhr-Universität Bochum
Position
  • Principal Investigator
July 1983 - October 1993
Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Fakultät für Biologie
Position
  • Researcher
Education
January 2005 - April 2015
Ruhr-Universität Bochum
Field of study
  • Cognitive Neuroscience
July 1996 - February 2005
Ruhr-Universität Bochum
Field of study
  • Cognitive Neuroscience
January 1985 - March 1989
Ruhr-Universität Bochum
Field of study
  • Zoology, Neurobiology

Publications

Publications (97)
Article
The issue of where in the human cortex coding of sound location is represented still is a matter of debate. It is unclear whether there are cortical areas that are specifically activated depending on the location of sound. Are identical or distinct cortical areas in one hemisphere involved in processing of sounds from the left and right? Also, the...
Article
Crossmodal reorganization processes in the brain are mainly associated with early blindness, on the assumption that recruitment of genuine visual areas, such as primary visual cortex, for non-visual functions results in superior auditory and tactile performance of blind, compared to sighted, humans. This study shows that in sighted subjects the acc...
Article
This functional magnetic resonance imaging study was focused on the neural substrates underlying human auditory space perception. In order to present natural-like sound locations to the subjects, acoustic stimuli convolved with individual head-related transfer functions were used. Activation foci, as revealed by analyses of contrasts and interactio...
Article
The question of whether there is a right-hemisphere dominance in the processing of auditory spatial information in human cortex as well as the role of the corpus callosum in spatial hearing functions is still a matter of debate. Here, we approached this issue by investigating two late-callosotomized subjects and one subject with agenesis of the cor...
Article
Full-text available
Previous studies on auditory space perception in patients with neglect have investigated localization of free-field-sound stimuli or lateralization of dichotic stimuli that are perceived intracranially. Since those studies in part revealed contradictory results, reporting either systematic errors to the left or systematic errors to the right, we re...
Article
Full-text available
Audiovisual cross-modal training has been proposed as a tool to improve human spatial hearing. Here, we investigated training-induced modulations of event-related potential (ERP) components that have been associated with processes of auditory selective spatial attention when a speaker of interest has to be localized in a multiple speaker (“cocktail...
Preprint
Audiovisual cross-modal training has been proposed as a tool to improve human spatial hearing. Here, we investigated training-induced modulations of auditory-evoked event-related potential (ERP) components that have been associated with processes of auditory selective spatial attention when a speaker of interest has to be localized in a multiple sp...
Preprint
Full-text available
Computer game playing has been suggested to be an effective training to enhance perceptual and cognitive abilities. Focusing on potential improvements in auditory selective spatial attention induced by computer gaming, we compared a passive waiting-control group with two gaming groups, playing either a first-person audio-only action game requiring...
Article
Understanding the contribution of cognitive processes and their underlying neurophysiological signals to behavioral phenomena has been a key objective in recent neuroscience research. Using a diffusion model framework, we investigated to what extent well-established correlates of spatial attention in the electroencephalogram contribute to behaviora...
Article
Even though it is widely believed that cross-modal neuroplasticity in blindness results in enhanced auditory spatial abilities, a growing number of studies also indicate disadvantages of blind persons for specific, more demanding audiospatial tasks. Here, the effects of blindness on horizontal sound localization were compared for simple localizatio...
Article
Full-text available
The capacity to selectively focus on a particular speaker of interest in a complex acoustic environment with multiple persons speaking simultaneously—a so-called “cocktail-party” situation—is of decisive importance for human verbal communication. Here, the efficacy of single-dose transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) in improving this abil...
Article
Speech perception in “cocktail-party” situations, in which a sound source of interest has to be extracted out of multiple irrelevant sounds, poses a remarkable challenge to the human auditory system. Studies on structural and electrophysiological correlates of auditory selective spatial attention revealed critical roles of the posterior temporal co...
Preprint
Full-text available
Understanding the contribution of cognitive processes and their underlying neurophysiological signals to behavioral phenomena has been a key objective in recent neuroscience research. Using linear mixed modeling and a diffusion-model framework, we investigated to what extent well-established correlates of spatial attention in the electro-encephalog...
Article
The visual half-field technique has been shown to be a reliable and valid neuropsychological measurement of language lateralisation, typically showing higher accuracy and faster correct responses for linguistic stimuli presented in the right visual field (RVF) than left visual field (LVF). The RVF advantage corresponds to the well-known dominance o...
Article
Neural mechanisms of selectively attending to a sound source of interest in a simulated "cocktail-party" situation, composed of multiple competing sources, were investigated using event-related potentials in combination with a spatial oddball design. Subjects either detected rare spatial deviants in a series of standard sounds or passively listened...
Article
Full-text available
Speech recognition starts with representations of basic acoustic perceptual features and ends by categorizing the sound based on long-term memory for word meaning. However, little is known about whether the reverse pattern of lexical influences on basic perception can occur. We tested for a lexical influence on auditory spatial perception by having...
Conference Paper
Extracting a sound source of interest out of multiple distracter sounds poses a remarkable challenge to the human auditory system. As shown recently, the ability to manage this so-called cocktail-party problem can be modulated by non-invasive brain stimulation, namely transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). The goal of this study was to exa...
Conference Paper
So-called cocktail-party situations [1], in which a sound source of interest has to be extracted out of multiple distracter sounds, pose a remarkable challenge to the human auditory system. Recently, it has been shown that sound-localization performance under these acoustically complex conditions can be modulated by transcranial direct current stim...
Article
Successful speech perception in complex auditory scenes with multiple competing speakers requires spatial segregation of auditory streams into perceptually distinct and coherent auditory objects and focusing of attention toward the speaker of interest. Here, we focused on the neural basis of this remarkable capacity of the human auditory system and...
Article
Localizing and selectively attending to the source of a sound of interest in a complex auditory environment is an important capacity of the human auditory system. The underlying neural mechanisms have, however, still not been clarified in detail. This issue was addressed by using bilateral bipolar-balanced transcranial direct current stimulation (t...
Article
The interplay of perception and memory is very evident when we perceive and then recognize familiar stimuli. Conversely, information in long-term memory may also influence how a stimulus is perceived. Prior work on number cognition in the visual modality has shown that in Western number systems long-term memory for the magnitude of smaller numbers...
Article
Analogous to the visual system, auditory information has been proposed to be processed in two largely segregated streams: an anteroventral ("what") pathway mainly subserving sound identification and a posterodorsal ("where") stream mainly subserving sound localization. Despite the popularity of this assumption, the degree of separation of spatial a...
Article
Adaptation to visual or auditory motion affects within-modality motion processing as reflected by visual or auditory free-field motion-onset evoked potentials (VEPs, AEPs). Here, a visual-auditory motion adaptation paradigm was used to investigate the effect of visual motion adaptation on VEPs and AEPs to leftward motion-onset test stimuli. Effects...
Article
Full-text available
Successful speech perception in multi-speaker environments depends on auditory scene analysis, comprising auditory object segregation and grouping, and on focusing attention toward the speaker of interest. Changes in speaker settings (e.g., in speaker position) require object re-selection and attention re-focusing. Here, we tested the processing of...
Article
Detecting, localizing, and selectively attending to a particular sound source of interest in complex auditory scenes composed of multiple competing sources is a remarkable capacity of the human auditory system. The neural basis of this so-called "cocktail-party effect" has remained largely unknown. Here, we studied the cortical network engaged in s...
Article
Full-text available
Speech understanding in complex and dynamic listening environments requires (a) auditory scene analysis, namely auditory object formation and segregation, and (b) allocation of the attentional focus to the talker of interest. There is evidence that pre-information is actively used to facilitate these two aspects of the so-called "cocktail-party" pr...
Article
Localizing sound sources of interest in cluttered acoustic environments-as in the 'cocktail-party' situation-is one of the most demanding challenges to the human auditory system in everyday life. In this study, stroke patients' ability to localize acoustic targets in a single-source and in a multi-source setup in the free sound field were directly...
Article
Neurophysiological findings suggested that auditory and visual motion information is integrated at an early stage of auditory cortical processing, already starting in primary auditory cortex. Here, the effect of visual motion on processing of auditory motion was investigated by employing electrotomography in combination with free-field sound motion...
Article
Objective: Beyond visual field defects, patients with hemianopia have been suggested to perceive horizontal visual space in a distorted manner. However, the pattern of these distortions remained debatable. The aim of this study was to estimate the geometry of the visual representation of space in hemianopia using an auditory marker. Method: Pati...
Article
Blindness induces processes of neural plasticity, resulting in recruitment of the deafferentated visual areas for non-visual sensory functions. These processes are related to superior abilities of blind compared with sighted individuals for specific auditory and tactile tasks. Recently, an exceptional performance of the blind has been demonstrated...
Article
Full-text available
Listening to and understanding people in a "cocktail-party situation" is a remarkable feature of the human auditory system. Here we investigated the neural correlates of the ability to localize a particular sound among others in an acoustically cluttered environment with healthy subjects. In a sound localization task, five different natural sounds...
Article
Recently, it has been demonstrated that men outperform women in spatial analysis of complex auditory scenes (Zündorf et al., 2011). The present study investigated the relation between the effects of ageing and sex on the spatial segregation of concurrent sounds in younger and middle-aged adults. The experimental design allowed simultaneous presenta...
Article
Blind people may compensate for their visual loss by the increased use of auditory spatial information, thus showing normal or even supra-normal ability to localize sources of sound. However, the problem of how blind persons develop and maintain an internal concept of the topography of the auditory space in the absence of calibration by visual info...
Conference Paper
Schizophrenia patients often perceive hallucinations as located “outside their heads”; spatial location and emotional tone of the voices define these abnormal perceptions. Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) may seem to originate in the external space due to a failure in the neural path responsible for spatial location of speech sources. Thus, sch...
Article
Full-text available
The world around us appears stable in spite of our constantly moving head, eyes, and body. How this is achieved by our brain is hardly understood and even less so in the auditory domain. Using electroencephalography and the so-called mismatch negativity, we investigated whether auditory space is encoded in an allocentric (referenced to the environm...
Article
Full-text available
Techniques employed in rehabilitation of visual field disorders such as hemianopia are usually based on either visual or audio-visual stimulation and patients have to perform a training task. Here we present results from a completely different, novel approach that was based on passive unimodal auditory stimulation. Ten patients with either left or...
Article
The detection of a change in space is an essential prerequisite of adequate responding to dynamic aspects of our auditory environment, be it induced by smooth motion or abrupt and discontinuous displacements of ongoing sound sources. Here, we investigated the auditory processing of different types of spatial change using electroencephalography. Whi...
Chapter
Neben dem visuellen System repräsentiert das auditive System die einzige Sinnesmodalität, die uns räumliche Informationen über entfernte Ereignisse in unserer Umwelt liefert. Im Gegensatz zur visuellen Lokalisation ist Richtungshören jedoch auch im rückwärtigen Raumbereich möglich. Lässt man den sehr engen Winkelbereich des fovealen Sehens außer Ac...
Article
The onset of motion in an otherwise continuous sound elicits a prominent auditory evoked potential, the so-called motion onset response (MOR). The MOR has recently been shown to be modulated by stimulus-dependent factors, such as velocity, while the possible role of task-dependent factors has remained unclear. Here, the effect of spatial attention...
Article
Full-text available
The modulation of brain activity as a function of auditory location was investigated using electro-encephalography in combination with standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography. Auditory stimuli were presented at various positions under anechoic conditions in free-field space, thus providing the complete set of natural spatial cu...
Article
Sex differences exist in the structural organization of the human brain and are related to cognitive abilities. Females usually outperform men in verbal fluency, verbal memory, perceptual speed, numerical calculation, and fine motor skills, whereas males are superior in visuospatial abilities, throwing accuracy, and mathematical reasoning. Here we...
Article
The effect of acoustic pre-stimulation on cortical processing of subsequent sound motion was investigated in free-field space, using electroencephalography and a psychophysical motion-discrimination task. Subjects heard sound stimuli that moved from a central position (0°) to the left or right. The onset of motion was preceded by either stationary...
Article
The neural substrates of auditory motion processing are, at present, still a matter of debate. It has been hypothesized that motion information is, as in the visual system, processed separately from other aspects of auditory information, such as stationary location. Here we aimed to differentiate the location of auditory motion processing in human...
Article
Cortical processing of horizontal and vertical sound motion in free-field space was investigated using high-density electroencephalography in combination with standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA). Eighteen subjects heard sound stimuli that, after an initial stationary phase in a central position, started to move ce...
Article
Several studies have shown that handedness has an impact on visual spatial abilities. Here we investigated the effect of laterality on auditory space perception. Participants (33 right-handers, 20 left-handers) completed two tasks of sound localization. In a dark, anechoic, and sound-proof room, sound stimuli (broadband noise) were presented via 21...
Article
The effect of the type of the auditory motion stimulus on neural correlates of motion processing were investigated using high-density electroencephalography. Sound motion was implemented by (a) gradual shifts in interaural time or (b) level difference; (c) motion of virtual 3D sound sources; or (d) successive activation of 45 loudspeakers along the...
Article
Sound localization was investigated in patients with homonymous hemianopia, a visual field defect characterized by a loss of vision in one hemifield that is caused by unilateral brain lesions involving the visual cortex or its afferents. The primary aim was to clarify whether or not the known distortion of visual space in hemianopia results in proc...
Article
The perception of body orientation in space can be significantly affected by unilateral brain damage. One syndrome associated with such a disorder is homonymous hemianopia, resulting from lesions in postchiasmatic afferent visual pathways. Several studies in patients with hemianopia have shown that their subjective straight ahead is shifted to the...
Article
Representational momentum refers to the tendency to displace the judged final position of a moving auditory or visual target as being too far forward along the path of motion. This phenomenon was investigated here by comparing apparent displacements in final position with constant or with irregularly varying target velocities. Final positions of au...
Article
The perception of motion is an essential prerequisite to responding adequately to the dynamic aspects of sensory information in the environment. The neural substrates of auditory motion processing are, at present, still a matter of debate. It has been hypothesized that motion information is, as in the visual system, processed separately from other...
Article
Full-text available
The final position of a moving sound source usually appears to be displaced in the direction of motion. We tested the hypothesis that this phenomenon, termed auditory representational momentum, is already emerging during, not merely after, the period of motion. For this purpose, we investigated the localization of a moving sound at different points...
Article
Several studies have shown a right-hemispheric advantage for sound localisation. However, most of these studies used stationary sound stimuli, although in most everyday situations humans are in motion when localising sound, or face a moving sound source. To elucidate the question of a functional asymmetry in cortical processing of auditory motion i...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Although the symptoms primarily associated with Parkinson’s disease (PD) are motor and cognitive ones, sensory deficits may also be involved. Using auditory, visual, or somatosensory stimuli, previous studies have revealed a generalized disorder of temporal discrimination in PD patients. Here, we investigated whether PD patients show deficits also...
Article
The effect of gaze direction on the localization of sound sources was investigated in the azimuthal and elevational dimension using a pointing task. In both dimensions, eccentric eye-position induced a significant shift in sound localization that was opposite to the direction of eccentricity. This finding is in accordance with the view that the azi...
Chapter
Bei der auditiven Lokalisation wirken unterschiedliche zentralnervöse Mechanismen zusammen. Interaurale Differenzen in Zeit und Schalldruckpegel dienen hauptsächlich zur Bestimmung des Schalleinfallswinkels in der Horizontalen. Für das Richtungshören in der Vertikalen sowie die Unterscheidung zwischen Schalleinfall von vorn und hinten werden zusätz...
Article
The integration of auditory and visual spatial information is an important prerequisite for accurate orientation in the environment. However, while visual spatial information is based on retinal coordinates, the auditory system receives information on sound location in relation to the head. Thus, any deviation of the eyes from a central position re...
Article
The symptoms primarily associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) are of a motor and cognitive nature, but sensory deficits may also be involved. Previous studies have reported disturbed spatial perception in visual and tactile tasks. We have investigated whether PD patients show deficits in auditory spatial perception. For this purpose, we employed...
Article
The processing of auditory spatial information in cortical areas of the human brain outside of the primary auditory cortex remains poorly understood. Here we investigated the role of the superior temporal gyrus (STG) and the occipital cortex (OC) in spatial hearing using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). The right STG is known to...
Article
This study aimed to investigate gender-related functional asymmetries in monaural sound localization in the vertical plane. In a simple pointing task, right-handed subjects localized vertical positions of sound sources using only one ear. Results show that females were more precise when listening with the left ear, while males did better with the r...
Article
Die bilaterale Cochleaimplantation hat in jüngster Zeit zunehmende Anwendung erfahren. Die Vorteile einer beidseitigen Versorgung sind einerseits in einer Verbesserung des Sprachverständnisses andererseits in einem verbesserten Richtungshören zu erwarten. An unserer Klinik wurden bislang 24 Patienten beidseits CI versorgt, davon 8 Erwachsene und 16...
Article
In a psychophysical outdoor experiment with human subjects, the point of subjective simultaneity (PSS) of auditory and visual stimuli was measured for distances from 1 to 50 m. Repetitive sound and light pulses were presented with various stimulus-onset asynchronies, and subjects judged which modality came first. With increasing distance of the sti...
Article
Neuroimaging studies in human subjects and single-unit recordings in monkeys have suggested the primate posterior parietal cortex (PPC) to be involved in auditory space perception. Here we tested this hypothesis by combining repetitive focal transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the right PPC with a task of pointing to free-field-sound stimul...
Article
The final position of a moving visual object usually appears to be displaced in the direction of motion. We investigated this phenomenon, termed representational momentum, in the auditory modality. In a dark anechoic environment, an acoustic target (continuous noise or noise pulses) moved from left to right or from right to left along the frontal h...
Article
Under certain conditions, auditory and visual information are integrated into a single unified percept even when they originate in different locations in space. The present study shows how this illusion, known as the ventriloquism effect, depends on spatial, temporal and cognitive factors. A method of psychophysical scaling was employed in combinat...
Article
Full-text available
The so-called ventriloquism aftereffect is a remarkable example of rapid adaptative changes in spatial localization caused by visual stimuli. After exposure to a consistent spatial disparity of auditory and visual stimuli, localization of sound sources is systematically shifted to correct for the deviation of the sound from visual positions during...
Article
The effect of passive whole-body tilt in the frontal plane on the lateralization of dichotic sound was investigated in human subjects. Pure-tone pulses (1 kHz, 100 ms duration) with various interaural time differences were presented via headphones while the subject was in an upright position or tilted 45 degrees or 90 degrees to the left or right....
Article
Up to now, there is an unsolved contradiction between the view that the development of an auditory spatial representation needs calibration by vision and the psychophysical demonstration of quite precise sound localization in early blind humans. The present study provides a link between these two competing conceptions. Two experiments were conducte...
Article
Full-text available
The human posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is well known to be involved in various functions of multisensory spatial perception. However, the specific role of the PPC in hearing has, up to now, remained unclear. To allow more reliable conclusions to be drawn on this issue, we have used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in healthy subjects...
Article
It is widely held that early-blind people compensate their visual loss by a general sharpening of spatial hearing. The present study reports a possible exception to this view: when the vertical position (elevation) of a sound source had to be localized, four out of six early-blind subjects exhibited systematic deviations in pointing, while two earl...
Article
It has been proposed that patients with extinction show a chronic bias of spatial attention towards the ipsilesional side. In this case, the law of 'prior entry' predicts that ipsilesional events should be perceived earlier than physically synchronous contralesional stimuli. In line with this prediction, previous studies have revealed substantial d...
Article
The accuracy of localizing remembered sound sources was investigated by employing a delayed-response task, where a small light spot, projected onto a screen by a laser diode attached to the head, had to be spatially aligned with either actual or remembered stimulus positions. Systematic errors indicated overestimation of the eccentricity of remembe...
Article
The perceptual coherence of auditory and visual information is achieved by integrative brain processes. Specialized single neurons with spatial and temporal interactions of auditory and visual stimuli have been demonstrated by several neurophysiological studies. The present, psychophysical, study investigates possible perceptual correlates of these...
Article
The effect of passive whole-body rotation about the earth-vertical axis on the lateralization of dichotic sound was investigated in human subjects. Pure-tone pulses (1 kHz; 0.1 s duration) with various interaural time differences were presented via headphones during brief, low-amplitude rotation (angular acceleration 400°/s2; maximum velocity 90°/s...
Article
The effect of eccentric eye position on the localization of sound in rear space was investigated, using a two-alternative forced-choice method in combination with a visual fixation task. The azimuthal position of the rear sound was perceived as shifted slightly (mean 1.2 degrees ) to the left of the subjects' median plane when fixation was 30 degre...
Article
We investigated the effect of vestibular stimulation on the lateralization of dichotic sound by cold-water irrigation of the external auditory canal in human subjects. Subjects adjusted the interaural level difference of the auditory stimulus to the subjective median plane of the head. In those subjects in whom dizziness and nystagmus indicated suf...
Article
This study investigates the influence of head-to-trunk position on auditory localization in humans. Various methods of head pointing, of two-alternative forced choice, and hand pointing were employed. Head-pointing toward actual sound sources in darkness, by using only the subjective median plane of the head as a reference, resulted in systematic u...
Article
The relation of three main effects of eye-position on perceived direction was investigated using a method of hand pointing in the horizontal plane: (1) Retinal eccentricity is overestimated with respect to the fovea by a constant factor of 2.6 degrees; (2) an extraretinal signal induces a shift in perceived visual direction (slope 0.12) that is opp...
Article
The effect of transcutaneous vibration of the posterior neck muscles on the lateralization of dichotic sound was investigated in human subjects. Two-alternative forced-choice (left/right) judgements were made on acoustic stimuli presented with different interaural level differences via headphones during neck-muscle vibration. A shift of the subject...
Article
The alignment of auditory and visual spatial perception was investigated in four experiments, employing a method of laser pointing toward acoustic targets in combination with various tasks of visual fixation in six subjects. Subjects had to fixate either a target LED or a laser spot projected on a screen in a dark, anechoic room and, while doing so...
Article
The effect of horizontal head position on the lateralization of dichotic sound stimuli was investigated in four experiments. In experiment 1, subjects adjusted the interaural level difference (ILD) of a stimulus (band-pass noise) to the subjective auditory median plane (SAMP) while simultaneously directing the beam of a laser attached to the head t...
Article
We studied the auditory neurons in the optic tectum of the unanesthetized pigeon, using single-unit recordings and acoustic free-field stimulation. Most units showed spatial tuning, with best areas located in the contralateral hemifield. All units responded also to visual stimuli, the auditory best areas being in rough alignment with visual recepti...
Article
This study investigates the influence of eye position on the localization of a free-field sound source by employing a pointing method. While fixating visual targets in various directions, the subjects indicated the perceived direction of a sound source by adjusting the azimuthal angle of a swivel pointer. The perceived sound azimuth shifted consist...