Joel West

Joel West
Keck Graduate Institute | KGI · Riggs School of Applied Life Sciences

PhD

About

128
Publications
154,947
Reads
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12,636
Citations
Introduction
My research is on open innovation, communities and ecosystems. Because I check ResearchGate every 2-4 months, I cannot respond to messages or requests sent via ResearchGate (or LinkedIn or other similar services). See full CV and links to pubs at http://www.joelwest.org/About/CV.html Please email kgi@joelwest.org for any article requests.
Additional affiliations
August 2011 - present
Keck Graduate Institute
Position
  • Professor
August 2002 - July 2011
San Jose State University
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
Description
  • Associate Professor, 2002-2009; Professor, 2009-2011
August 1994 - September 2000
University of California, Irvine
Position
  • Research Assistant
Description
  • Research Assistant, 1994-1997; Senior Research Associate, 2000-2001
Education
September 1994 - September 2000
UC Irvine
Field of study
  • Management

Publications

Publications (128)
Article
Full-text available
Anthrax is caused by Bacillus anthracis and can result in nearly 100% mortality due in part to anthrax toxin. Antimalarial amodiaquine (AQ) acts as a host-oriented inhibitor of anthrax toxin endocytosis. Here, we determined the pharmacokinetics and safety of AQ in mice, rabbits, and humans as well as the efficacy in the fly, mouse, and rabbit model...
Article
While open innovation ecosystems allow a firm to harness external sources of value creation, these external ties can also constrain its ability to adapt its innovation strategy to pursue new opportunities. This article looks at how an incumbent firm approached such constraints, and used cognitive artifacts to transform its value chain into a collab...
Article
Full-text available
Researchers have debated the relative importance of technology push and demand pull policies in the adoption of environmental technologies. Here, we examine how internationally distributed technology push and demand pull policies interact to support the diffusion of a renewable energy technology. We analyze 40 years (1974–2013) of solar photovoltai...
Article
Full-text available
With its focus on value creation and value capture, open innovation research explicitly or implicitly examines the competitive impacts of collaboration. However, to date such research has not considered the effects of a blockbuster industry structure upon open innovation. Here, we examine a particular form of multilateral collaboration, the open R&...
Article
Research Summary: Open innovation is about firms harnessing knowledge flows across firm boundaries, but limited research has examined the nature and antecedents of these flows for start‐up firms, as well as the interdependence of inbound and outbound flows. From a new sample of start‐up firms making 3D printers, we show how their degree of openness...
Article
Research Summary Strategic openness—firms voluntary forfeiting of control over resources—seemingly challenges the premise of the resource‐based view (RBV), which posits that firms should control valuable, rare, and inimitable (VRI) resources. We reconcile this apparent paradox by formalizing whether and when firms—consisting of resource bundles and...
Chapter
There are many similarities in how firms pursuing an open innovation strategy can utilize crowds and communities as sources of external innovation. At the same time, the differences between these two network forms of collaboration have previously been blurred or overlooked. In this chapter, we integrate research on crowds and communities, identifyi...
Chapter
Theories of platform strategy and adoption have been largely derived from studies of their application in the information and communications technology (ICT) sector. These platforms vary in openness, with the model of open source software providing the best-known exemplar for open platforms. This exploratory field study examines the degree to which...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
To explain and promote the adoption of new technologies, researchers have debated the relative importance of technology push and demand pull factors . Here we examine a crucial problem of contemporary innovation policy — promoting the adoption of renewable energy to reduce anthropogenic global warming — that challenges prior models for large scale...
Article
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To explain and promote the adoption of new technologies, researchers have debated the relative importance of technology push and demand pull factors . Here we examine a crucial problem of contemporary innovation policy — promoting the adoption of renewable energy to reduce anthropogenic global warming — that challenges prior models for large scale...
Article
Full-text available
Interest in open innovation (OI) as a field of research has grown exponentially since the phrase was coined by Chesbrough in his 2003 book, with numerous articles, special issues, books, and conference sessions. Various reviews of the literature have summarized prior work, offered new frameworks, and identified opportunities for future research. He...
Article
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The explicit goal of the inaugural World Open Innovation Conference (WOIC) was to attract both leading academic researchers in open innovation and leading industry practitioners of open innovation, seeking to get these two groups to engage with one another. This introductory article sets the intellectual context of the WOIC, summarizes the “top” fo...
Article
Open innovation is about firms harnessing knowledge flows across firm boundaries, but limited research has examined the nature and antecedents of these flows for startup firms. From a new sample of startup firms making 3D printers, we show how their degree of openness for inbound and outbound knowledge flows relates to the firms’ initial capabiliti...
Chapter
Originally offered as a normative managerial framework for improving a firm’s innovation performance, open innovation has since evolved to encompass a wide range of innovation practices and phenomena, both new and existing. What is common is that they involve innovation-related knowledge crossing the boundaries of a firm (or other organization) to...
Article
Selective openness allows a firm to sell a systemic innovation that combines both open and proprietary technologies. Such firm strategies are now common for open source software and other information goods. However, they pose conceptual and practical uncertainties for hardware-focused companies, particularly as research on open hardware has emphasi...
Article
Full-text available
A longstanding and still-increasing threat to the effective treatment of infectious diseases is resistance to antimicrobial countermeasures. Potentially, the targeting of host proteins and pathways essential for the detrimental effects of pathogens offers an approach that may discover broad-spectrum anti-pathogen countermeasures and circumvent the...
Article
Virtual communities have become increasingly important as a source of innovation, support, brand identity and other complementary goods and services. While in some cases communities act independently of any company, firms are increasingly interested in encouraging and harnessing the efforts of external voluntary communities to support their strateg...
Article
This article reviews research on open innovation that considers how and why firms commercialize external sources of innovations. It examines both the “outside-in” and “coupled” modes of Enkel et al. (2009). From an analysis of prior research on how firms leverage external sources of innovation, it suggests a four-phase model in which a linear proce...
Chapter
This volume examines an important area of potential research: the intersection of strategic alliances and open innovation. Although these two streams of research have developed separately, with distinct assumptions and research questions, there is a natural affinity between them in terms of phenomena, theoretical predictions, and managerial implica...
Article
Our understanding of open source models of innovation is primarily based on research on open source software. This research focuses on the underlying challenges in developing a user-based community as a complementary asset, and at the same time strengthening appropriability regimes without losing control over the technologies that are fundamental t...
Chapter
Full-text available
Two key factors in the success of general-purpose computing platforms are the creation of a technical standards architecture and managing an ecosystem of third-party suppliers of complementary products. Here, we examine Symbian Ltd., a startup firm that developed a strong technical architecture and broad range of third-party complements with its Sy...
Article
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In this chapter, we investigate how firms work with universities in the course of their innovation activities. We provide an overview of three main modes of direct interaction between firms and universities: IP licensing, research services and research partnerships. We outline the main characteristics of each mode, its relative importance for firms...
Article
Full-text available
Throughout its brief history, California has established itself as a national or international leader in key industries—such as aerospace, computing and entertainment—through early mover pre-emption and strong clustering effects. California firms were the initial world leaders in producing photovoltaic (PV) solar cells and dominated the initial aer...
Article
This paper reviews research on open innovation that considers how and why firms commercialize external sources of innovations. It examines both the “outside-in” and “coupled” modes of open innovation. From an analysis of prior research on how firms leverage external sources of innovation, it suggests a four-phase model in which a linear process—(1)...
Article
Research from a variety of perspectives has argued that innovation no longer takes place within a single organization, but rather is distributed across multiple stakeholders in a value network. Here we contrast the vertically integrated innovation model to open innovation, user innovation, as well as other distributed processes (cumulative innovati...
Article
Throughout its brief history, California has established itself as a national or international leader in key industries — such as aerospace, computing and entertainment — through early mover pre-emption and strong clustering effects. California was also an early leader in the three key technologies of solar energy generation, but has failed to sust...
Article
Full-text available
Silicon Valley is the global exemplar for geographical agglomeration effects in technologyintensive industries. Given it success, it has been frequently studied by social science researchers and journalists, having a major impact not only on the U.S. economy, but also on theory and practice of regional economic development.
Chapter
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Prior research on technology standardization has focused on two common patterns: processes in which product developers and other stakeholders cooperate to achieve a consensus outcome, and “standards wars” in which competing technologies vie for dominance in the market. This study examines Microsoft’s responses to 12 software technologies in the per...
Article
In 2003, Chesbrough coined the term “open innovation” as a new paradigm for industrial innovation. In this paper, we review and synthesize the growing literature that follows Chesbrough by studying the commercialization of external innovations — one of the key open innovation practices.This paper provides a comprehensive overview and process model...
Conference Paper
A recurring theme in the literature on technology and organizations is the concept of mirroring, which posits a duality between technological and organizational design decisions. In this paper we highlight a second, orthogonal duality between components and interfaces: designers of both products and organizations must decide what information to hid...
Article
While industrial innovation was once assumed to be a vertically integrated process, three recent streams of research — open innovation, user innovation and cumulative innovation — have examined how innovation is created outside the boundaries of the firm. However, within these streams are multiple paths by which innovations are created and commerci...
Article
Since the mid-1990s, the mobile phone industry has sought widespread adoption of mobile data services, envisioning a new “mobile Internet” with its own complex value network delivered through smartphone terminals. With its iPhone, Apple rapidly gained smartphone market share while spurring widespread adoption of mobile data services in the United S...
Chapter
The impact of patents and patent royalties are a major concern of standards setting organisations. Here we examine the patents filed in the UMTS 3rd generation mobile phone standard, governed by the ETSI IPR policy in response to patent issues faced during the earlier GSM standardization. We contrast firm strategies and policy effectiveness between...
Article
During the 1980s, economists developed the concept of positive network effects and switching costs as the key dynamics of de facto standards competition. They concluded that a positive feedback loop usually “tips” a market to the standard with the most users and complementary assets. While recent scholars have acknowledged that not all markets tip,...
Article
The impact of patents and patent royalties are a major concern of standards setting organizations. This study examines the patents filed in the standardization of UMTS, the third-generation mobile phone technology developed under sponsorship of the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) and others, using a patent policy developed in...
Article
The impact of patents and patent royalties are a major concern of standards setting organisations. Here we examine the patents filed in the UMTS 3rd generation mobile phone standard, governed by the ETSI IPR policy in response to patent issues faced during the earlier GSM standardization. We contrast firm strategies and policy effectiveness between...
Article
Recent research on the commercialization of scientific discoveries has emphasized the use of formal intellectual property rights (notably patents) as a mechanism for aligning the academic and entrepreneurial incentives for commercialization. Without such explicit intellectual property rights and licensing, how is such open science commercialized? T...
Article
Firms that practice open innovation strategies rely on the cooperation of external firms to provide components, complements and customers for the innovations of the focal firm (Chesbrough, 2003). Such strategies can be quite complex in systems-based industries, which inherently require coordinating across a wide range of partners to deliver custome...
Article
Full-text available
Research on open source software, user innovation and open innovation have increasingly emphasized the role of communities in creating, shaping and disseminating innovations. However, the comparability of such studies has been hampered by the lack of a precise definition of the community construct. In this paper we review prior definitions (implici...
Article
Full-text available
Most research on open source software communities has focused on those that are community founded. More recently, firms have founded their own open source communities. How do sponsored open source communities differ from their autonomous counterparts? With comparative examination of 12 open source projects initiated by corporate sponsors, we identi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Rudi Bekkers, Joel West (2008). Paper presented at the
Chapter
Here we present a qualitative study of how organizations do (or do not) adopt a new computer server platform standard; namely, Linux using PC-compatible hardware. While discussions of Linux typically focus on its open source origins, our respondents were interested primarily in low price. Despite this relative advantage in price, incumbent standard...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The impact of patents and patent royalties are a major concern of standards setting organisations. Here we examine the patents filed in the UMTS 3rd generation mobile phone standard, governed by the ETSI IPR policy in response to patent issues faced during the earlier GSM standardization. We contrast firm strategies and policy effectiveness between...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Firms involved in open source software face inherent limits on their ability to appropriate returns from technological innovation. Here I examine the business models used by IT vendors given the limited appropriability available for open source software. I show how firms capture value through complementary assets, while creating value and positive...
Chapter
Here we present a qualitative study of how organizations do (or do not) adopt a new computer server platform standard; namely, Linux using PC-compatible hardware. While discussions of Linux typically focus on its open source origins, our respondents were interested primarily in low price. Despite this relative advantage in price, incumbent standard...
Article
Here we present a qualitative study of how organizations do (or do not) adopt a new computer server platform standard; namely, Linux using PC-compatible hardware. While discussions of Linux typically focus on its open source origins, our respondents were interested primarily in low price. Despite this relative advantage in price, incumbent standard...
Article
Open innovation is a powerful framework encompassing the generation, capture, and employment of intellectual property at the firm level. We identify three fundamental challenges for firms in applying the concept of open innovation: finding creative ways to exploit internal innovation, incorporating external innovation into internal development, and...
Article
Full-text available
Market selection of product compatibility standards has long been explained through aggregate positive-feedback theoretical models of economic utility. Explaining aggregate patterns of organizational standards adoption requires two additional steps — not only differences between organizations, but also differences within organizations. Here we pres...
Conference Paper
Not Available
Article
The early period after a technological discontinuity allows an innovative startup to exploit a phase of foment and great uncertainty. Entrepreneurial efforts of new firms compete against the intrapreneurial initiatives (if any) of incumbents to identify those technological and business resources that will be valuable under the new regime. The conce...
Article
Full-text available
Open standards have long been popular among buyers of goods and services in the information technology sector. Self-interested buyers and sellers, however, have had incentives to overstate (or understate) the openness of various standards. This paper rejects the simplified view that there is a single model of an open standard, as well as the assump...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding Open Source Licensing: Three How-To Guides Joel West Reviews of Open Source Software Law by Rod Dixon, Understanding Open Source and Free Software Licensing by Andrew M. St. Laurent, and Open Source Licensing by Lawrence Rosen A Complete Code-Reading Source Angela Jury Review of Code Reading: The Open Source Perspective by Diomidis Sp...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Prior characterizations of open source projects have been based on the model of a community-founded project. More recently, a second model has emerged, where organizations spinout internally developed code to a public forum. Based on field work on open source projects, we compare the lifecycle differences between these two models. We identify probl...
Conference Paper
Industrial buyers who seek to procure inputs have the option of contracting the process out to procurement intermediaries. Many of these intermediaries now operate using Internet-based software to enhance the efficiency of their services. We develop ...
Article
Full-text available
Various models of strategic IT deployment (McFarlan et al 1983; Henderson & Venkatraman 1993) have explained how firms align IT applications to provide business value. Recent trends in IT spending raise questions about whether IT has largely become a commodity that no longer provides competitive advantage. While prior models allow for variation bet...
Article
Prior characterizations of open source projects have been based on the model of a community-founded project. More recently, a second model has emerged, where organizations spinout an existing code base developed internally to a public forum. Based on field work on open source projects, we compare the lifecycle differences between these two models....
Article
Full-text available
I gratefully acknowledge the constructive comments and suggestions received on earlier versions of this work in progress by Scott Gallagher, Shane Greenstein, Kai Jacobs and Ken Krechmer As always, the errors and omissions remain mine alone.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Research on open source software has focused mainly on the motivations of open source programmers and the organization of open source projects (Kogut and Metiu, 2001 and Lerner and Tirole, 2002). Some researchers portray open source as an extension of the earlier open systems movement (West and Dedrick, 2001). While there has been some research on...
Article
Technical interoperability standards play an important role in the creation and use of information systems. However, that role has been understudied in the MIS field, much as previous researchers have concluded that the role of technology has been understudied by the field.
Article
There is a rich stream of research that studies technology adoption by individuals and organizations (Rogers, 1962; Tornatzky and Fleischer, 1990; Cooper & Zmud, 1990).
Article
Computer platforms provide an integrated architecture of hardware and software standards as a basis for developing complementary assets. The most successful platforms were owned by proprietary sponsors that controlled platform evolution and appropriated associated rewards.Responding to the Internet and open source systems, three traditional vendors...