Joel Kevin Thompson

Joel Kevin Thompson
University of South Florida | USF · Department of Psychology

Ph.D.

About

305
Publications
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Citations

Publications

Publications (305)
Article
Body image is a critical component of an individual’s sexual experiences. This makes it critical to identify demographic and sociocultural correlates of sexuality-related body image: the subjective feelings, cognitions, and evaluations related to one’s body in the context of sexual experience. We examined how sexuality-related body image differed b...
Article
According to the tripartite influence model, body dissatisfaction is shaped by internalizing cultural appearance ideals stemming from appearance-related family, peer, and media pressures. This model was developed for women, but emerging evidence points to its relevance for men’s body image. This study advanced this budding research by (a) integrati...
Article
Racial minority men and women face a wide variety of appearance-related pressures, including ones connected to their cultural backgrounds and phenotypic features associated with their identity. These body image concerns exist within a larger context, wherein racial minorities face pressures from multiple cultures or subcultures simultaneously to ac...
Article
Objectification theory and the tripartite influence model provide useful frameworks for understanding the body image experiences of men and women. However, there is little systematic investigation of how sexual orientation moderates the links between these constructs and body image satisfaction. It has been hypothesized, for example, that the assoc...
Article
Objectification theory proposes that widespread sexualization causes women to engage in surveillance of their appearance. We integrated this concept into a model with constructs from the tripartite influence model, which proposes that body dissatisfaction is a result of internalizing cultural notions of thin ideal beauty that stem from family, peer...
Article
The relationship between social media usage and body image has been well-established in the literature; however, social media companies’ use of algorithms may intensify this association, as algorithms provide viewers with personalized content that is often more extreme, less monitored, and designed to keep users engaged for longer periods of time....
Article
Despite growing interest in comparing body image experiences across diverse groups, limited work has examined whether body image measures operate similarly across different populations, raising important questions about the appropriateness of comparing scale means across demographic groups. This study employed measurement invariance testing to eval...
Article
The objective of this study was to re-examine the factor structure of the Body Image Quality of Life Inventory (BIQLI), a measure that quantifies perceived effects of one’s body image on various aspects of psychosocial functioning. Data on the 19-item BIQLI from a community sample of 11,620 U.S. men and women were split into cross-validation sample...
Article
We examined how gender, body mass, race, age, and sexual orientation were linked to appearance evaluation, overweight preoccupation, and body image-related quality of life among 11,620 adults recruited via Mechanical Turk. Men were less likely than women to report low appearance evaluation, high overweight preoccupation, negative effects of body im...
Article
We examined how demographic factors (gender, sexual orientation, racial group, age, body mass) were. linked to measures of sociocultural appearance concerns derived from objectification theory and the tripartite influence model (McKinley & Hyde, 1996; Schaefer et al., 2015) among 11,620 adults. Men were less likely than women to report high body su...
Article
Full-text available
The tripartite influence model suggests that appearance pressures from family, peers, and the media contribute to thin-ideal internalization, which leads to increased body dissatisfaction and subsequent eating disorder pathology. The tripartite influence model was initially developed and tested among primarily White samples, and emerging research s...
Article
Studies of the Tripartite Influence Model conducted with female samples suggest that thinness-oriented pressures, internalization, and appearance comparisons may be risk factors for disordered eating. However, limited work has investigated this model among men utilizing measures specifically designed to assess both muscularity- and thinness-oriente...
Article
Objective The primary aims of this paper were to reexamine the factor structure of the 21-item Compensatory Eating and Behaviors in Response to Alcohol Consumption Scale (CEBRACS), a measure of Food and Alcohol Disturbance (FAD), and investigate an alternative scoring structure. FAD is the use of disordered eating behaviors within an alcohol use ep...
Article
Appearance ideal internalization and appearance pressures are empirically-supported risk factors for body image disturbance and disordered eating in Western countries. Such a relationship has emerged also in the Italian context, where high rates of body dissatisfaction and disordered eating are present. The Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearanc...
Article
Full-text available
Internalization of the thin-ideal is a risk factor for eating disorders that frequently persists into recovery and increases patient risk for relapse. Addressing thin-ideal internalization as a core element of eating disorder prevention and treatment produces significant reductions in eating pathology. However, research has not yet quantified level...
Article
Appearance-ideal internalization and appearance pressures are empirically-supported risk factors for body image disturbance and disordered eating in Western countries. Such a relationship has emerged also in the Italian context, where high rates of body dissatisfaction and disordered eating are present. The Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearanc...
Article
Accurate measurement of constructs under investigation is an often-overlooked ingredient of research. However, sound use of strategies to ensure valid and reliable assessment is the building block for any research design, data analysis, and outcome interpretation. In this paper, we note how Thomas F. Cash has pioneered and steered this process in t...
Article
Weight status misperception is related to disordered eating outcomes, but little research has explored the differential impacts of misperception directionality, nor factors that explain these relationships. Self-Discrepancy Theory applied to body image gives a framework to how weight status over-perception may prompt a drive for thinness, which in...
Article
This cross-sectional study explored similarities and differences between heterosexual, bisexual, and lesbian women in levels of, and relationships between, the following constructs using a Tripartite Influence Model framework: family, peer, and media appearance pressures, thin and muscular ideal internalization, and eating disorder (ED) pathology....
Article
This study utilized Mattel’s new line of Fashionista Barbie dolls to examine attitudes about body shape and size in a sample of young girls. A total of 84 girls, ages of 3 to 10 years of age were asked to assign positive or negative traits to Barbie dolls which varied in size and shape (original, tall, petite, and curvy). Participants also answered...
Article
Objective: Eating disorder (ED) symptoms are common and impairing in males, despite their perception as "female" disorders. As existing self-report symptom measures were developed and primarily validated in women, there is a need to establish the utility of these measures in men. The present study used differential item functioning (DIF) analyses...
Article
Full-text available
Although a growing body of literature demonstrates negative effects of internalized weight bias (IWB), the relationships between IWB and relevant social, psychological, and behavioral variables have not yet been evaluated systematically. The purpose of the present study was to create and assess a model of hypothesized risks and outcomes of IWB. In...
Article
Embodiment is defined as a state in which one experiences one's physical body as an essential aspect of one's lived experiences, a potential protective factor against body image and eating disturbance. The Physical Activity Body Experiences Questionnaire (PABEQ) was rationally derived as a measure of embodiment based on focus groups, literature rev...
Article
Research among Western adult and adolescent males suggests that sociocultural influences are implicated in the drive for muscularity and weight-change behaviors. However, few studies have examined these relationships among adolescent boys from non-Western backgrounds. The current study sought to assess the psychometric properties of the Sociocultur...
Article
Objective Evidence suggests that eating disorders (EDs) may be under‐detected in males. Commonly used measures of EDs such as the Eating Disorder Examination‐Questionnaire (EDE‐Q) were initially developed within female samples, raising concern regarding the extent to which these instruments may be appropriate for detecting EDs in males. The current...
Article
Objective: Food and Alcohol Disturbance (FAD), colloquially coined "drunkorexia," is a set of behaviors that encompasses restriction of calories, over-exercise, and other compensatory behaviors before, during, or after alcohol use to offset caloric intake or maximize intoxication. To date, this phenomenon has not been compared in a cross-cultural...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Il Sociocultural Attitudes Toward Appearance Questionnaire-4R (SATAQ-4R; Schaefer, Harriger, Heinberg, Soderberg, & Thompson, 2016) è uno strumento volto a rilevare gli atteggiamenti verso le influenze socioculturali sull’immagine corporea distinguendo tra pressioni a raggiungere i canoni estetici promossi dalla società e interiorizzazione di tali...
Article
“Drunkorexia” is a term that has been used to describe behaviors such as restricting food intake in anticipation of alcohol consumption to offset total caloric intake, and/or to enhance the intoxicating effect of alcohol consumption. Scattered studies over the past few years have indicated the potential problematic nature of the intersection of the...
Article
Researchers have observed variation in levels of body image disturbance and eating pathology among women from different Western countries. Examination of cross-cultural differences in the established risk factors (i.e., thin-ideal internalization, muscular-ideal internalization, and appearance pressures from family, peers, and media) for negative o...
Article
Appearance comparison processes are implicated in the development of body image disturbance and disordered eating. The Physical Appearance Comparison Scale-Revised (PACS-R) assesses the simple frequency of appearance comparisons, however, research suggests that other aspects of appearance comparisons (e.g., comparison direction) may moderate the as...
Article
Objective: Objectification theory posits that self-objectification increases risk for disordered eating. Method: The current study sought to examine the relationship between self-objectification and disordered eating using meta-analytic techniques. Results: Data from 53 cross-sectional studies (73 effect sizes) revealed a significant moderate...
Article
Objectification theory asserts that self-objectification, which manifests as self-surveillance, leads to increased body shame and subsequent eating pathology. Although evidence supports the core mediational model, the majority of this work utilizes primarily White samples, limiting generalizability to other ethnic groups. The current study examined...
Article
While research consistently supports the negative impact of thinness pressures on body image, this work has primarily utilized White samples in the United States, limiting generalizability to other ethnicities. Further, limited research has examined ethnic differences in thinness pressures from distinct sociocultural influences. This study examined...
Article
Objective: Although the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire (SATAQ) and Ideal Body Stereotype Scale (IBSS) are used interchangeably to assess thin ideal internalization, limited work has examined the assumption that the two measures index the same construct. Method: The current study utilized confirmatory factor analysis to...
Article
In June 2013, the American Medical Association (AMA) released the controversial decision to designate obesity a disease. Proponents predicted the decision would lead to reduced weight-related stigma, whereas opponents predicted designating a third of the population as “diseased” would exacerbate stigma. To determine the effects of defining obesity...
Article
The Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-4 (SATAQ-4) is a 22-item five-factor measure that assesses thin- and muscular-ideal internalization as well as appearance-related pressures from peers, family, and media. The scale has been validated in Western cultures, but has not yet been examined in Eastern samples. Two studies were c...
Article
Media portrayals of Caucasian women have received a great deal of research attention. However, substantially less research exists examining media portrayals of women of color. This content analytic study examined appearance messages and standards for women of color present in popular magazines. The 17 magazines (aimed for female audiences) with the...
Article
Objective: The Sociocultural Attitudes Toward Appearance Questionnaire-4 (SATAQ-4) is a measure of internalization of appearance ideals (i.e., personal acceptance of societal ideals) and appearance pressures (i.e., pressures to achieve the societal ideal). The current study sought to address limitations of the scale in order to increase precision...
Article
"Fitspiration" websites are media that aim to inspire people to live healthy and fit lifestyles through motivating images and text related to exercise and diet. Given the link between similar Internet content (i.e., healthy living blogs) and problematic messages, we hypothesized that content on these sites would over-emphasize appearance and promot...
Article
This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-4 (SATAQ-4), a measure of internalization of societal appearance ideals, in French men and women. French college students completed a translation of the 22-item SATAQ-4 and measures of body image and eating concerns. Exploratory analyses...
Article
This study explored appearance-related images and messages present in pregnancy magazines (e.g. Fit Pregnancy, Pregnancy & Newborn, and Pregnancy Magazine). A substantial portion of advertisements and articles promoted appearance-related products or products for postpartum weight loss. Health messages and messages related to diet and exercise were...
Article
Research suggests that rates of body image and eating disturbance are on the rise in Turkey and may be reaching levels comparable to those observed in Western societies. However, research examining theoretically based etiological factors for disordered eating via validated assessment measures is limited. The current study aimed to examine the psych...
Article
The goal of this study was to examine lifetime weight stigmatization as a mediator of the relationships among current body mass index, childhood overweight, depression, and body dissatisfaction. Participants were 299 female undergraduates (mean age = 20.52, standard deviation = 2.57; mean body mass index = 23.29, standard deviation = 4.51). Weight...
Article
Full-text available
Objective Etiological models of disordered eating are limited in their consideration of racial/ethnic differences in risk factors. Appearance comparisons are consistent predictors of disordered eating outcomes, but research predominantly examines these associations among White women and overlooks the potential differential impact of upward (compari...
Chapter
There are literally hundreds of studies that have investigated the role of sociocultural factors on body image and eating disturbances. In recent years, theoretical models have evolved to postulate how these influences lead to body image and eating disturbances, either directly or indirectly by producing changes in dispositional factors such as int...
Poster
Sociocultural appearance-related pressures and appearance ideal internalization have been extensively studied in female populations and found to be strongly related with disordered eating and poor body image. Limited research among adult and adolescent males indicates that sociocultural influences are related to drive for muscularity and strategies...
Article
Full-text available
The Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 (SATAQ-3) and its earlier versions are measures designed to assess societal and interpersonal aspects of appearance ideals. Correlational, structural equation modeling, and prospective studies of the SATAQ-3 have shown consistent and significant associations with measures of body image...
Article
This study investigated the differences in eating disorder psychopathology, appearance satisfaction, and self-esteem between 194 overweight/obese college women with and without binge eating. Participants were categorized as binge eating (BE; n=56) or non-binge eating (NBE; n=138) based on reports of binge eating at least once per week on average fo...
Article
Objective: Mean-levels of thin-ideal internalization increase during adolescence and pubertal development, but it is unknown whether these phenotypic changes correspond to developmental changes in etiological (i.e., genetic and environmental) risk. Given the limited knowledge on risk for thin-ideal internalization, research is needed to guide the...
Article
The current study examined the feasibility of an appearance-based dissonance induction approach for the modification of tanning and sunscreen use behaviors. Undergraduate female students were randomized to: a healthy lifestyle condition, an appearance-based dissonance condition, or an appearance-based psychoeducation condition. Reports of tanning a...
Article
"Healthy" living blogs are a recent addition to internet media that offer advice on improving physical and mental health. Often, these sites include information on eating, exercise, and self-image. This study was a content analysis designed to evaluate the information included on these sites. A sample of 21 blogs was selected from a larger sample f...
Article
Recent studies suggest that body hair may be of increasing importance in men's overall body image. Body depilation is a relatively new area of clinical and research inquiry among men with much of the documented evidence of the phenomenon split between mass media accounts and descriptive scientific investigations. This study was undertaken to furthe...
Article
Background Validation of body esteem measures in pre- and early adolescent male and female populations is essential as gender differences regarding weight and body size concerns often emerge during this developmental period. Objective The purpose of the current study was to analyze psychometric properties of the Body Esteem Scale for Adolescents an...
Article
Objective: To examine gender differences in unhealthy weight-control behaviors (UWCB) and identify key psychosocial and demographic correlates of UWCB among sixth-graders. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was completed by 146 boys and 153 girls at a middle school. Secondary data analyses included bivariate tests and multivariable logistic regre...
Article
Objective: Current research on the etiology of thin-ideal internalization focuses on psychosocial influences (e.g., media exposure). The possibility that genetic influences also account for variance in thin-ideal internalization has never been directly examined. This study used a twin design to estimate genetic effects on thin-ideal internalizatio...
Article
Background: Older meta-analyses of the effects of the media's portrayal of the ideal physique have found small effects revealing that exposure to the ideal physique increases body image concerns. These meta-analyses also included correlational, quasi-experimental, and experimental studies, with limited examination of moderators and other relevant...
Article
Multiple ratings of breast and chest size preferences were assessed in 68 male and 120 female undergraduates and related to overall levels of appearance satisfaction, body image anxiety, and general self-esteem. Discrepancies between personal ideals, perceived ideals of the opposite sex, and current size ratings were differentially related, by gend...
Article
Over the past several decades, the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children has increased considerably. While it has been widely documented that childhood obesity is related to a variety of negative health consequences, and numerous campaigns have focused on increasing physical activity and healthy food choices in children, less research ha...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Internalization of appearance ideals is considered a causal risk factor for body dissatisfaction and eating disturbance. The Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 (SATAQ-3) is a widely-used and well validated measure of appearance ideals internalization. This scale was recently revised to 1) provide for an assessment of a muscu...
Article
The goal of the current investigation was to develop and validate a measure to assess an individual's eating-related behaviors related to alcohol consumption, specifically behaviors intended to compensate for calories so that more alcohol could be consumed or restrict calories to enhance the psychoactive effects of alcohol consumption. Two hundred...
Chapter
Body image is a psychological construct that focuses on how an individual subjectively views some aspect of his or her appearance, in contrast to how another person might objectively view that individual. Disturbances in body image have been linked to a variety of psychological processes and disorders, in particular low self-esteem and disordered e...
Article
Bariatric surgery (BS) produces rapid, massive weight loss, often leaving patients with excess skin that can be esthetically disappointing and can present barriers to physical and psychosocial functioning. Thus, body contouring surgery (BCS) is frequently sought by post-BS patients. The objectives of the present study were to characterize the frequ...
Article
Full-text available
The Tripartite Influence Model of Body Image was adapted to examine the role of body satisfaction, perceived pressure to have cosmetic surgery, and internalization of societal appearance ideals in understanding cosmetic surgery attitudes. Participants were 2,048 men (N = 445) and women (N = 1,603) American college students from Florida who complete...
Article
Full-text available
The Tripartite Influence Model of Body Image was adapted to examine the role of body satisfaction, perceived pressure to have cosmetic surgery, and internalization of societal appearance ideals in understanding cosmetic surgery attitudes. Participants were 2,048 men (N = 445) and women (N = 1,603) American college students from Florida who complete...
Chapter
Recent research has implicated a number of developmental (e.g., pubertal timing), psychological (e.g., self-esteem), and sociocultural (e.g., culturally defined and transmitted messages regarding attractiveness) factors in the development and maintenance of body image disturbance and related issues in adolescents. This chapter focuses exclusively o...
Article
YouTube.com is an internet website that is viewed by two billion individuals daily, and thus may serve as the source of images and messages regarding weight acceptance or weight bias. In the current study, a targeted sample of YouTube videos that displayed fat stigmatization were content rated on a variety of video characteristics. The findings rev...
Book
Full-text available
• Modern industrialized society chronically and pervasively objectifies the female body, and many women have come to view themselves through the lens of an external observer, habitually monitoring their own appearance whether in public or private settings. Given the negative effects associated with self-objectification—such as body shame, appearanc...
Chapter
Full-text available
That gender has a considerable impact on people’s body image may seem obvious based on the considerable attention paid to women’s and men’s bodies in popular culture (Thompson, Heinberg, Altabe, & Tantleff-Dunn, 1999; Wolf, 1991).
Article
Full-text available
Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD) is a psychological disorder characterized by excessive appearance concerns. This cross-sectional study assessed an undergraduate sample of 1,041 participants from a southeastern American university to estimate an overall prevalence of BDD; investigate differences by gender, race/ethnicity, and sexual orientation; and...
Article
Three hundred and thirty-three participants rated the health and attractiveness of schematic figures varying in muscularity, adiposity, gender, and race. In general, overweight and underweight figures were rated as less healthy and attractive. However, overweight figures with high levels of muscularity were rated more highly on these dimensions tha...
Article
The current study evaluated the effects of receiving ambiguous appearance-based or nonappearance-based feedback on body image, mood states, and body change strategies. One hundred and forty-six women were randomly assigned to either an appearance condition, wherein they interacted with a confederate supposedly working for a cosmetic surgery center,...
Article
A meta-analysis was conducted to determine the relationship between appearance and weight-based teasing and three outcome measures: body dissatisfaction, restrictive eating, and bulimic behaviors. Four meta-analyses were conducted. Fifty effect sizes (N=10,618) resulted in a moderate effect size of .39 for the relationship between weight teasing an...