Joel A. Middleton

Joel A. Middleton
University of California, Berkeley | UCB

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15
Publications
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259
Citations

Publications

Publications (15)
Article
In the analysis of causal effects in non-experimental studies, conditioning on observable covariates is one way to try to reduce unobserved confounder bias. However, a developing literature has shown that conditioning on certain covariates may increase bias, and the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon have not been fully explored. We add to the l...
Article
This paper examines the relationship between an early Islamic education and academic achievement in Afghanistan. Fears of political indoctrination have dominated discussions of Islamic schooling among many Westerners, making some policy-makers hesitant to support the kind of education to which most children in Afghanistan have access. In addition,...
Article
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This study reevaluates the classic “media priming” hypothesis, which argues that, when news coverage raises an issue’s salience, voters align their overall evaluation of the president with their assessment of him on that issue. Conventional studies typically show greater correspondence between issue approval and overall approval among individuals e...
Article
We derive a class of design-based estimators for the average treatment effect that are unbiased whenever the treatment assignment process is known. We generalize these estimators to include unbiased covariate adjustment using any model for outcomes that the analyst chooses. We then provide expressions and conservative estimators for the variance of...
Article
Ballot initiatives are consequential and common, with total spending on initiative campaigns in the US rivaling that of Presidential campaigns. Observational studies using regression approaches on observational data have alternately found that initiative campaign spending cannot affect initiative outcomes, can increase the number of votes rejecting...
Article
Full-text available
Many estimators of the average treatment effect, including difference-in-means, may be biased when clusters of units are allocated to treatment. This bias may remain even when the number of units grows asymptotically large. In this paper, we propose simple, unbiased and scale-invariant design-based estimators of the average treatment effect, along...
Article
Full-text available
One of the hallmarks of the 2004 presidential election was the unusual emphasis on face-to-face voter mobilization, particularly face-to-face mobilization conducted within neighborhoods or social networks. Unlike previous studies of face-to-face voter mobilization, which have focused largely on nonpartisan campaigns conducted during midterm or loca...
Article
This paper shows that regression may be biased for cluster randomized experiments. For one application bias tends to zero when the number of clusters is large but for another, regression is not consistent. Results underscore Freedman's [Freedman D.A., 2008. On regression adjustments to experimental data. Advances in Applied Mathematics 40, 180-193]...
Article
We analyze adaptation processes responsible for eliciting and alleviating flicker response suppression, which is a class of phenomena characterized by the selective reduction of visual response to the ac component of a flickering light. Stimulus conditions were chosen that would allow characteristic features of flicker response suppression to be de...
Article
Correspondence between economic conditions and incumbent electoral success is observed with such regularity that the theory of economic voting has achieved near axiomatic status. Yet the microfoundations of economic voting are not entirely clear. Quattrone and Tversky (1988) posit that prospect theory can explain economic-political correspondences...