Joel Klenck

Joel Klenck
The National University of Samoa · Department of Archaeology and Cultural Heritage, Centre of Samoan Studies

Senior Lecturer of Archaeology and Cultural Heritage

About

79
Publications
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Introduction
Senior Lecturer and President/Principal Investigator, Joel D. Klenck, has a Bachelor of Arts in Anthropology / Archaeology from Northwestern University, Masters of Arts in Anthropology / Archaeology from Harvard University, Doctorate (PhD) in Anthropology / Archaeology from Harvard University, and a Juris Doctor Degree from University of Miami School of Law, with a focus on historic preservation, antiquities, and art law. Joel has completed archaeology projects throughout the globe, from an array of time periods, in North America, Europe, the Near East, and Oceania. Joel is the Senior Lecturer of Archaeology and Cultural Heritage, for the Centre of Samoan Studies, at the National University of Samoa, and the President / Principal Investigator of PRC, Inc., an applied archaeology firm.
Additional affiliations
June 2019 - present
The National University of Samoa
Position
  • Lecturer
November 2007 - present
PRC, Inc.
Position
  • CEO
Education
August 2012 - December 2014
University of Miami School of Law
Field of study
  • Law: Historic Preservation, Antiquities & Art Law
September 1992 - June 1996
Harvard University
Field of study
  • Anthropology / Archaeology
September 1989 - June 1992
Harvard University
Field of study
  • Anthropology / Archaeology

Publications

Publications (79)
Book
Full-text available
Archaeologist Joel Klenck describes the archaeological evidence, especially faunal remains, from the temple complex, equid burial and well at Tel Haror. Here, Klenck exhibits Canaanite husbandry practices, diet, butchery methods and ritual sacrifices of puppies, crows, ravens, donkeys, sheep, goat, and cattle. Dating to 1800 to 1550 BC, the materia...
Article
Full-text available
Following U.S. Federal and local statutes, archaeologists from the American Samoa Historic Preservation Office and American Samoa Power Authority excavated three sites on Tutuila Island in American Samoa. At these locales: Maloata, Fagamalo, and Leone, archaeologists retrieved Polynesian Plainware ceramic sherds, adzes, adze pre-forms, volcanic gla...
Article
Full-text available
Trampling has long been recognized as a potential obstacle to lithic microwear analysis, but the magnitude of its effects have not yet been objectively evaluated. A blind test was conducted in which the effects of trampling on the preservation of use-wear traces were measured. The results of this test suggest that even moderate amounts of human tra...
Preprint
Full-text available
Archaeologist Joel Klenck and co-authors note oval and circular features of boulders and pebbles are traits characteristic of burials and non-burial features such as ufi (yam) and esi (papaya) cultivation pods. As construction projects proliferate on the Sāmoan Archipelago and the Centre's applied archaeology efforts expand, it is necessary to deve...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Joel Klenck, the Petitioner, a professional archaeologist, with MA and PhD degrees from Harvard University in anthropological archaeology, confirmed the antiquity and authenticity of Noah’s Ark, an ancient, maritime barge, constructed of wood, in the southern gorge of greater Mount Ararat, in eastern Turkey. The Ark is more than 150 meters in lengt...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Archaeologist Joel Klenck describes how the rediscovered Noah’s Ark will provide $38 billion dollars per year of new revenue for the Republic of Türkiye because Noah’s Ark is a fact, a foundational account for three world religions, and solely Turkish. If unguarded, the PKK terrorist group will loot the Ark and spread Stone Age viruses and bacteria...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Archaeologist Joel Klenck details how the rediscovered Noah’s Ark will provide $38 billion dollars per year of incremental revenue for the Republic of Turkey because Noah’s Ark is a fact, a foundational account to three world religions, and exclusively Turkish. If not protected, the Marxist PKK terrorist group will find and loot the Ark to support...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Although there are numerous books on the market today which deal with a particular composer, their style and compositions, there appear to be few reference or guide books covering the entire development of piano literature. As such, Gerald Klenck wished for such a volume since his student days and then authored this manuscript. Although not an exha...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
An archaeological survey covering 50 acres was conducted in and around Luatele or Judds Crater, an extinct volcano, on Ta’u Island, Manu'a District, American Samoa. The project identified twenty-four precontact sites comprising 101 archaeological features and a 142 m cave associated with the Samoan legend of Vaatausili. These features include star...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Archaeologist Joel Klenck reports Hurrian cuneiform tablets, from the Hittite capital Hattusas in archaeological contexts from the 13th century BC, mention an ancient global flood, Noah, Mount Ararat, and supreme deity, similar to accounts in the Bible and Quran.
Technical Report
Full-text available
Archaeologist Joel Klenck exhibits Mesopotamian cylinder seals from the third millennium BC showing the location of Noah’s Ark, on a plateau beneath the summit, on the south side of greater Mount Ararat.
Technical Report
Full-text available
Archaeologist Joel Klenck states the father of Tom Brady, of the Tampa Bay Buccaneers, gave him the impetus that led to the rediscovery of Noah’s Ark in the southern gorge of greater Mount Ararat.
Technical Report
Full-text available
Archaeologist Joel Klenck describes the wide ranging emotions of Armenians, Kurds, and Iranians to the pending public exposure of Noah’s Ark, in the southern gorge of greater Mount Ararat in eastern Turkey. Here, attitudes vary from apocalyptic fear to ecstatic joy.
Technical Report
Full-text available
Archaeologist Joel Klenck reports how Noah’s Ark impacted modern Anatolian history, at the turn of the twentieth century, and was a revenue source for some of the Armenian diaspora including an ancestor of the Kardashian family.
Technical Report
Full-text available
Archaeologist Joel Klenck reports how in the final year of his life, the Armenian Catholicos, Mkrtich Khrimian (1820-1907), issued four orders regarding Noah’s Ark that continued to conceal the vessel in the southern gorge of greater Mount Ararat.
Technical Report
Full-text available
Archaeologist Joel Klenck details how the Armenian Apostolic Church and Catholicos Mkrtich Khrimian (1820-1907) used Noah’s Ark to support Armenian independence initiatives against the Ottoman Empire at the turn of the nineteenth century.
Technical Report
Full-text available
Archaeologist Joel Klenck reports on Armenian motives and methods, from the nineteenth century until today, to conceal the Ark of Noah, in the southern gorge of greater Mount Ararat. Armenians desired that Noah’s Ark remain a secret, despite the vessel’s accessibility, due to the Ark’s cultural and religious importance for Armenians.
Technical Report
Full-text available
Archaeologist Joel Klenck reports Armenian concealment of Noah's Ark began in 247 BC with a ruse on Mount Qardu or 'Judi', near the southern border of Armenia, to prevent incursions by the Parthian Empire and later cultures searching for Noah’s Ark, in the southern gorge of greater Mount Ararat in Armenia’s interior.
Technical Report
Full-text available
Archaeologist Joel Klenck reports Stalinist purges in Armenia during the 1930s prevented the rediscovery of Noah’s Ark in the southern gorge of greater Mount Ararat.
Technical Report
Full-text available
Archaeologist Joel Klenck confirms Noah’s Ark is factual and that its location and features, in the southern gorge of greater Mount Ararat match ancient descriptions by Berossus, Josephus, and accounts of Alexander the Great.
Conference Paper
Review of manuals, orders, and preparations by Japanese and Western militaries are described in the defense of the Samoan Archipelago during World War II. In addition, unrecorded deployments of military units and war activities in Upolu, Savaii, and Manu’a are assessed from Samoan cultural histories including turning off or covering all lights, eve...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Archaeologist and Juris Doctor, Joel Klenck, completed an analysis requested by the Centre for Samoan Studies, at the National University of Samoa, regarding historic preservation statutes in Samoa. The objective was to determine why so little cultural heritage preservation occurred in lieu of frequent public building projects. A draft ordinance is...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Archaeologist Joel Klenck describes the extent rising sea levels threaten recent discoveries of ancient complex societies along the shorelines of the independent state of Samoa. These archaeological sites feature monumental earth platforms, enigmatic star mounds, stone pathways and walls extending hundreds of kilometres, enormous ovens, and intrica...
Method
Full-text available
Draft proposal for the graduate program in Archaeology and Cultural Heritage, at the Centre for Samoan Studies, at the National University of Samoa. The program will be geared toward building an excellent foundation in archaeological method and theory and preparing students to work within or outside of Samoa. Special emphasis will be made on traini...
Technical Report
Full-text available
During archaeological surveys in 2018, on the islands of Tutuila and Ofu, archaeologist Joel Klenck conducted 219 scans, using a GSSI UtilityScan, a ground penetrating radar ("GPR") with a 350-megahertz, multi-stack­ing antenna. Several hypothesis were tested including whether terraces on slopes provided platforms for fale (habitation) foundations...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Archaeologist Joel Klenck authors a hypothesis testing project conducted on Feature 008 at Site AS-25-89A, from the Fagatogo / Utulei Ridge Survey Project, first documented by Kennedy (et al. 2010). The area comprises 2 acres (0.8093 hectares). The concrete structure of several square meters comprised a series of tubular, metal containers that were...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Archaeologist Joel Klenck authors an archaeological survey for prehistoric and historic properties covering approximately 60.12 acres (24.32 hectares) was conducted above the current village of Ofu, on the western coast of Ofu Island, Manu’a Archipelago, for the American Samoa Historic Preservation Office, in compliance with the National Historic P...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Archaeologist Joel Klenck authors an archaeological survey for prehistoric and historic properties covering approximately 56.19 acres conducted on Nu’utele Islet, off the western coast of Ofu Island, Manu’a Archipelago. This survey was completed for the American Samoa Historic Preservation Office, in compliance with the National Historic Preservati...
Preprint
Full-text available
Archaeologist Joel Klenck authored an NRHP Nomination of the Sogelau Hill Flag Pole Site, a flat terrace on the side of a hill, measuring approximately 10.2 m. in length, 6.7 m. in width, oriented along an axis of 248 degrees magnetic. The property is located on a hill in Fagatogo, in Mauputasi County, Tutuila Island, American Samoa. The area is fi...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Archaeologist Joel Klenck authors an archaeological survey for prehistoric and historic properties covering approximately 50 acres conducted in and around Luatele or Judds Crater, on Ta’u Island, for the American Samoa Historic Preservation Office, in compliance with the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 (“NHPA”), as amended. The project r...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Archaeologist Joel Klenck completed an NRHP Nomination of the Malaeloa Olo Site, located 1.5 miles north of junction of Malaeloa Road and Route 001. The Site is owned by tribal members from the village of Malaeloa Itu’au but located within the administrative boundaries of the village of Malaeloa Aitulagi, in Leasina County, in western Tutuila, the...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Archaeologist Joel Klenck authors an archaeological survey, for prehistoric and historic properties covering approximately 353 acres, conducted in Malaeloa, Tutuila Island, American Samoa, for the American Samoa Historic Preservation Office, in compliance with the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 (“NHPA”), as amended. The project resulted...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Archaeologist Joel Klenck authored an NRHP Nomination for Breakers Point, located above the coast and the village of Tafananai, in eastern Tutuila, the largest island in American Samoa. The 1999 National Register Nomination of Breakers Point by John Enright, Stan Sorensen, and Julie Taomia featured the two six-inch guns. This nomination comprises 6...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Archaeologist Joel Klenck authors an archaeological identification project for prehistoric and historic properties covering approximately 70 acres was conducted on Breakers Point for the American Samoa Historic Preservation Office, in compliance with the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 (“NHPA”), as amended. The project resulted in the id...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Archaeologist Joel Klenck and co-author provide the archaeological analysis of the Leone archaeological site conducted to keep a road revetment project, for the Federal Highway Administration (“FHA”), in compliance with the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 (“NHPA”), as amended. The Act requires all federally funded projects to record and...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Following Federal and local statutes, archaeologists from the American Samoa Historic Preservation Office and American Samoa Power Authority excavated three sites on Tutuila Island in American Samoa. At these locales: Maloata, Fagamalo, and Leone, archaeologists retrieved Polynesian Plainware ceramic sherds, adzes, adze pre-forms, volcanic glass, l...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Archaeologist Joel Klenck describes vessels made of organic materials: wood, animal skins, and other vegetal material, which were preserved in archaeological contexts at high altitudes in eastern Anatolia. These containers are compared to recent archaeological discoveries and anthropological research from western Tutuila Island in American Samoa. E...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Archaeologist Joel Klenck describes a monumental wood structure, smaller wood edifices, and a cave site located at elevations between 3,900 and 4,600 meters above sea level on Mount Ararat in eastern Turkey. These archaeological sites exhibit excellent preservation, evidence an origin during the Late Epipaleolithic Period (13,100-9,600 B.C.), and a...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The archaeological assessment of the Maloata site was conducted to keep the Fagali’i-Maloata-Fagamalo (“FMF”) Waterline Projects, for the American Samoa Power Authority (“ASPA”), in compliance with the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 (“NHPA”), as amended. The Act requires all federally funded projects to record and mitigate damage to his...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The archaeological analysis of the Fagamalo site was conducted to keep the Fagali’i-Maloata-Fagamalo (“FMF”) Waterline Projects, for the American Samoa Power Authority (“ASPA”), in compliance with the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 (“NHPA”), as amended. The Act requires all federally funded projects to record and mitigate damage to hist...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Archaeologist Joel Klenck describes archaeological remains, from a monumental wood structure on Mount Ararat, indicating that later cultures venerated the locale by placing artifacts at an entrance to the prehistoric site.
Technical Report
Full-text available
Archaeologist Joel Klenck reports prehistoric site on Mount Ararat in Turkey exhibits two carvings made of volcanic stone.
Technical Report
Full-text available
Archaeologist Joel Klenck reports prehistoric sites on Mount Ararat in Turkey exhibit assemblage of Epipaleolithic and Pre-Pottery Neolithic botanical remains with several surprises.
Technical Report
Full-text available
Archaeologist Joel Klenck reports prehistoric sites on Mount Ararat in Turkey exhibit wood and bone tools from a period during the transition from the Stone Age to the advent of farming.
Technical Report
Full-text available
Archaeologist Joel Klenck reports prehistoric sites on Mount Ararat in Turkey exhibit evidence for the domestication of the chickpea or garbanzo bean.
Technical Report
Full-text available
Archaeologist Joel Klenck reports that an entrance to a monumental wood structure on Mount Ararat in Turkey exhibits ceramic artifacts evidencing deposition of votive objects for millennia.
Technical Report
Full-text available
Archaeologist Joel Klenck reports prehistoric monumental wood structure and smaller installations on Mount Ararat in Turkey evidence a range of complex joinery methods.
Technical Report
Full-text available
Archaeologist Joel Klenck reports prehistoric sites on Mount Ararat in Turkey show few faunal remains but large amounts of animal coprolites in the interior rooms of a monumental wood structure.
Technical Report
Full-text available
Archaeologist Joel Klenck reports prehistoric sites on Mount Ararat in Turkey exhibit range of lithic tools from a period that represents the transition from the Stone Age to the advent of farming.
Technical Report
Full-text available
Archaeologist Joel Klenck reports prehistoric sites on Mount Ararat in Turkey exhibit containers made from organic material—precursors to the invention of pottery.
Technical Report
Full-text available
Archaeologist Joel Klenck reports prehistoric sites on Mount Ararat in Turkey exhibit use of a tar-like substance on the exterior and interior of wood structures.
Technical Report
Full-text available
Archaeologist Joel Klenck reports prehistoric site on Mount Ararat in Turkey exhibits no direct evidence for metal artifacts although a context on a decomposing wood wall might indicate residue from a copper or bronze artifact.
Technical Report
Full-text available
Archaeologist Joel Klenck elucidates why the discovery of prehistoric sites associated with Noah’s Ark occurred in the last decade.
Technical Report
Full-text available
Archaeologist Joel Klenck defends veracity of prehistoric sites on Mount Ararat and conservation of these archaeological features.
Technical Report
Full-text available
Archaeologist Joel Klenck discusses the association between recently discovered prehistoric sites on Mount Ararat and the account of Noah’s Ark in the Torah (Old Testament) and Quran.
Technical Report
Full-text available
Archaeologist Joel Klenck reports prehistoric sites on Mount Ararat in Turkey exhibit artifacts of flax and wool.
Technical Report
Full-text available
Archaeologist Joel Klenck notes the Masefau Site is located along the coast at the village of Masefau in eastern Tutuila, the largest island of American Samoa, in Western Polynesia. The site is associated with two features comprising octagonal, domed-top pill boxes with gun-slits similar to two-tiered pill boxes found throughout Tutuila. The fortif...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Archaeologist Joel Klenck notes the Afao Site is located along the coast at the village of Afao in western Tutuila, the largest island in American Samoa. The site is associated with multiple features comprising a range of prehistoric grinding stones including a unique tripartite specimen. World War II features at Afao include two pillboxes and the...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Archaeologist Joel Klenck completed an NRHP Nomination of the Poloa Site, located along the coast at the village of Poloa, in western Tutuila, the largest island in American Samoa. The site is associated with three features comprising multisided, flat-topped, pillbox observation posts. These fortifications were built during the World War II era and...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Archaeologist and law student, Joel Klenck, authored this draft legislation, as requested by the Honorable Togiola Talalelei A. Tulafono, former Governor of American Samoa, in 2012, via the American Samoa Historic Preservation Office. This draft legislation of the American Samoa Historic Preservation Statute was designed to strengthen the protectio...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Archaeologist Joel Klenck describes a monumental wood structure, located in two parts, at elevations between 3,900 and 4,600 meters above sea level, in the southern gorge, on greater Mount Ararat in eastern Turkey. This archaeological site exhibits excellent preservation, an origin during the Late Epipaleolithic Period (13,100-9,600 B.C.), and vene...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Archaeologist Joel Klenck reports discovery of large wood structure on Mount Ararat in Turkey is a prehistoric archaeological site and counters critics.
Technical Report
Full-text available
Archaeologist Joel Klenck reports ancient sites on Mount Ararat in Turkey are being defamed and archaeologists harassed because of an alleged association with Noah’s ark.
Technical Report
Full-text available
Archaeologist Joel Klenck states there is scientific merit to recent discovery of site associated with the ancient account of Noah's Ark.
Technical Report
Full-text available
Genesis provides a fitting context for australopithecines. God created australopithecines as a potential helper [עזר] for Adam (Genesis 2:18). However, Adam did not consider these potential attendants as suitable (Genesis 2:20). These helpers were created before the formation of Eve or increase and variation of human populations. This Biblical cont...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Archaeologist Joel Klenck notes the Exodus from Egypt has been as source of controversy for millennia as different groups of scholars have debated both the historicity and the date of the event. Due to a lack of Egyptian inscriptions that mention the Exodus, during the 15th Century B.C., most scholars have abandoned the Biblical timeline, shifted t...
Book
Full-text available
Archaeologist Joel Klenck notes the Exodus from Egypt has been as source of controversy for millennia as different groups of scholars have debated both the historicity and the date of the event. Due to a lack of Egyptian inscriptions that mention the Exodus, during the 15th Century B.C., most scholars have abandoned the Biblical timeline, shifted t...
Technical Report
Full-text available
A model is presented based on a comprehensive analysis of Biblical references for the origin, variation, and continuation of human populations. This paradigm is compared to a breadth of paleontological, bioanthropological, and archaeological evidence regarding human origins. The model provides a more comprehensive explanation for the array of human...
Book
Full-text available
Archaeologist describes that the Linnaean classification system, familiar to modern biology, follows the earliest recorded taxonomic system, Historia Animalium, authored by Aristotle around 343 B.C. Earlier than Aristotle, a Biblical classification system of terrestrial and marine animals, stated by God, was recorded (or compiled) by Moses around 1...
Book
Full-text available
Archaeologist Joel Klenck presents a model based on a comprehensive analysis of Biblical references for the origin, variation, and continuation of human populations. This paradigm is compared to a breadth of paleontological, bioanthropological, and archaeological evidence regarding human origins. The model provides a more comprehensive explanation...
Book
Full-text available
Archaeologist Joel Klenck describes the location of the region, which once contained the Garden of Eden. Included in this manuscript are reviews of the debate, analyses of proposed locations for Eden in Turkey, Iraq and Israel, and a discussion of the claim that the region cannot be located due to the effects of the Noachian Deluge. In addition, Bi...
Book
Full-text available
Archaeologist Joel Klenck notes that many adherents of Christianity and Judaism consider the Tanakh or Old Testament to be the word of God and completely accurate. Much of the Old Testament comprises prophetic literature or passages that predict future events. In the Old Testament, the measure of a prophet was complete accuracy. If one near-term p...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The taxonomic divisions presented primarily by God in the Bible differ in part from the Linnaean classification system, which is familiar to modern biology. An evaluation was completed of the usage of the Hebrew terms for each division during the Creation week, after the Fall, during the Flood, and later in Biblical history. The analysis suggests t...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The major taxonomic classifications of terrestrial animal kinds, as defined by God, are identified during the Creation Week, the Fall, the Flood, and thereafter. The analysis suggests both similarities and notable differences between the major taxonomic groups as defined by God and those ascribed by Linnaean classifications.
Technical Report
Full-text available
Eastern Anatolia, southern Iraq, and Jerusalem have been proposed as the regions that once contained the Garden of Eden. Several creationists have argued that it is impossible to locate the region of Eden due to the dramatic changes to the surface of the earth during the Noachian Deluge. However, a close analysis of relevant Biblical passages and t...
Chapter
Full-text available
Archaeological Joel Klenck conducted a zooarchaeological analysis of animal bone remains from Roman, Nabataean, Byzantine, and Early Arab contexts. The remains exhibited the resiliency of a diet featuring pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) after Muslim occupation of the region. Also, noteworthy were the remains of deer (Cervus sp.) in Roman contexts perha...
Chapter
Full-text available
Archaeologist Joel Klenck notes that since the late 1800s, Western travelers recorded Bedouin animal sacrifice rituals. For this study, previous accounts of Bedouin sacrificial rituals were examined with contemporary details of Bedouin sacrifices to saints observed during the summer of 1991. The locations and surroundings of the saint's tombs are r...
Article
Full-text available
Analysis of neonate (baby) and child burials and faunal remains from five Early Bronze Age strata at Nizzanim. The neonate (baby) and child burials were interred within ceremonial jars. Author retained excavation notes and analysis of the human skeletons for a future publication. For the complete site report, please refer to the following citation:...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Completeness of Skeleton Index (CSI) developed by D.H. Thomas (1971) is used to determine culturally deposited faunal remains. The CSI may also be useful in differentiating between primary and secondary burials. The index was employed to quantify animal bones in the Middle Bronze IIB-C (1550-1650/1700 BC) strata from Area K, the temple enclosur...

Questions

Question (1)
Question
Different zooarchaeological studies have referred to canids (domestic dogs, wolves, coyotes, foxes, jackals, and dingoes) as the species having the most detrimental effects on skeletal remains. However, an article by Nicole M. Reeves in the Journal of Forensic Science on the "Taphonomic Effects of Vulture Scavenging" noted that vultures and other carrion birds also have a detrimental impact on bone material. Further, the peck marks of the carrion birds sometimes resemble the bite marks of canid canine teeth. Are there any studies comparing the taphonomic effects of these animals and how to differentiate between canids and carrion birds and their damage to faunal material?

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