Joel W Grube

Joel W Grube
Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation | PIRE · Prevention Research Center PRC

Ph.D.

About

227
Publications
63,093
Reads
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11,576
Citations
Introduction
Joel W Grube currently works at the Prevention Research Center PRC, Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation. Joel does research on environmental and social-psychological factors influencing alcohol, tobacco, and other substance use among adolescents and young adults. His most recent research focuses on situational and contextual factors that contribute to substance use and substance use problems.
Additional affiliations
June 2009 - present
University of California, Berkeley
Position
  • Adjunct Professor (Full)
January 1986 - May 2016
Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation
Position
  • Senior Researcher

Publications

Publications (227)
Article
Full-text available
Background Little research has examined how pandemics affect residents in under-resourced communities. This study investigated how COVID-19 and lockdown policies affected residents of Alexandra, one of Johannesburg, South Africa’s lowest-income townships. Methods We conducted a telephone survey May 11–22, 2020, while the lockdown and alcohol ban w...
Article
Background The onset of alcohol use during adolescence is associated with concurrent and subsequent related problems. Research on drinking contexts that underly these key first-time experiences and how they differ by initiation type is needed. The current study examined the physical, social, and situational characteristics of three types of initiat...
Article
Introduction In 2016, California enacted a law (T21) prohibiting tobacco product sales to individuals under 21 years of age. Given tobacco use disparities among sexual minority (SM) youth, this study investigated whether California's T21 law was differentially associated with changes in tobacco use for SM and non-SM adolescents. Methods Secondary...
Article
Objective: Adolescents are more likely than young adults to use electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), yet most of what is known is concluded from young adult ENDS use as young adults are easier to survey. Additionally, while evidence about the prevalence and trends of adolescent ENDS use comes from cross-sectional studies, ecological moment...
Conference Paper
Introduction. Liberalization of marijuana laws raises concerns regarding greater availability, more favorable norms, and increased use by adolescents. Previous studies have examined associations of marijuana laws with marijuana use by youth with mixed results, but few studies have investigated the effects of marijuana and alcohol laws on marijuana...
Article
Background Research on the effects of restricting bar opening hours and alcohol sales in middle-income countries is very limited. We assessed compliance with and possible effects of a law enacted in Zacatecas, Mexico on December 30, 2017 and implemented in 2018 and 2019 that established a 2 AM bar closing time and 10 PM cut-off for alcohol sales by...
Article
Background: This study examined the relative contribution of alcoholic beverage types to overall alcohol consumption and associations with heavy alcohol use and alcohol-related harms among adults. Methods: Cross-sectional survey data were collected from adult samples in two cities involved in the Global Smart Drinking Goals (GSDG) initiative in...
Article
Introduction Little is known about the possible impacts of recreational marijuana legalization on alcohol and marijuana co-use among underage youth. This study examines the association between recreational marijuana legalization in California in 2016 and alcohol and marijuana co-use among adolescents. Additional analyses investigate the association...
Article
Objective A California, USA, law raised the minimum tobacco sales age to 21 (T21) on 9 June 2016. We investigated whether T21 was associated with reductions adolescents’ use of tobacco cigarettes, smokeless tobacco and electronic cigarettes and whether these associations differed across racial and ethnic groups. Methods Secondary analyses of data...
Article
Background: College student drinking in on-premises establishments has been associated with heavy alcohol consumption and a range of problems including assault, fighting, risky sex, and drinking and driving. Although more strictly enforcing overservice laws might reduce heavy drinking in on-premises establishments, law enforcement agencies have fe...
Article
Background: Little is known about adults in China who drink homemade alcohol, and whether they are at elevated risk of harms relative to those who drink alcohol from commercial sources. Purpose: We describe and contrast adults in China who regularly consume either homemade or commercially available alcohol, or both. Methods: Household-based in-per...
Article
Objective: We investigated whether recreational marijuana legalization (RML) in Oregon in 2015 and recreational marijuana and alcohol retail outlet density levels in Oregon counties were associated with increased alcohol and marijuana co-use and beliefs supportive of alcohol and marijuana use among adolescents. Method: We conducted secondary analys...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: The legalization of recreational marijuana use and retail sales raises concerns about possible effects on marijuana use among adolescents. We evaluated the effects of recreational marijuana legalization (RML) in California in November 2016 on use among adolescents and investigated subgroup differences in these effects. Method: We anal...
Article
We report the results of a quasi-experimental evaluation of a mystery shopper intervention in Zacatecas and Guadalupe, Mexico. Underage youth attempted to purchase beer at 50 Modelorama stores and 32 Oxxo stores (intervention groups), and at 19 comparison convenience stores in March, July, and August 2018. After each attempt, intervention store ope...
Article
Background The FDA’s policies restricting sale of sweet flavored cartridge-based and disposable electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) comprise important steps toward curbing adolescent ENDS use. However, additional evidence is needed about the contribution of specific flavors to adolescents’ ENDS use. This study investigated the effects of fl...
Article
Alcohol remains readily available to youth in most countries. We examined the associations between both the on- and off-premises commercial availability of alcohol to youth and their alcohol use, heavy episodic drinking, and alcohol-related harms. We conducted the study using data from a survey of a sample of 594 students in central Mexico between...
Preprint
BACKGROUND There is a need for interventions that promote healthy decision-making for teens that leverages the on-going impact of parental relationships through older adolescence and young adulthood. These interventions should maximize teen engagement as well as be easily accessible for families in terms of cost, duration, and logistics related to...
Article
Background There is a need for interventions that promote healthy decision making among adolescents and leverage the ongoing impact of parental relationships through older adolescence and young adulthood. These interventions should maximize adolescent engagement and be easily accessible to families in terms of cost, duration, and logistics related...
Poster
Full-text available
Abstract: To help inform policy and prevention, we used ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to examine daily context, characteristics, motivations, and patterns of e-cig use among 50 adolescent vapers, ages 14 to 17, in Kentucky. An initial survey assessed demographics and e-cig use and perceptions while daily surveys over two weeks (700 observat...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: This study investigated whether legalization of recreational marijuana sales and retail availability of marijuana in Oregon counties were associated with higher levels of marijuana use and related beliefs among adolescents. Methods: Biennial data for 6th, 8th, and 11th graders from the 2010-2018 Student Wellness Survey in 35 Oregon...
Article
Aims: To examine whether daily exposure to tobacco outlets within activity spaces is associated with cigarette smoking and with the number of cigarettes smoked by youth that day. Design: The study used Geographic Ecological Momentary Assessment (GEMA) data that combined daily surveys with ecological momentary assessment of global positioning sys...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: This article provides a systematic review of cross-sectional research examining associations between exposure to alcohol marketing and alcohol use behaviors among adolescents and young adults. Method: Literature searches of eight electronic databases were carried out in February 2017. Searches were not limited by date, language, count...
Article
Objective: Evaluations of drink-driving crash interventions and crash burden in middle-income countries often rely on assumptions supported by data from the United States. We described crashes using pooled survey data across 2 Chinese agricultural cities in the 600,000 population range and then assessed comparability of selected crash characteristi...
Article
Full-text available
We describe the rationale for and design of an independent evaluation of the Global Smart Drinking Goals (GSDG) program. The primary purpose of this program, supported by the AB InBev Foundation, is to reduce harms associated with alcohol use by 10%. Our evaluation focuses on the effects of prevention strategies sponsored by the Foundation that are...
Article
Full-text available
Youth drinking is a major public health problem. Entertainment content that positively depicts alcohol consumption is often implicated as a factor shaping youths’ attitudes and beliefs about drinking alcohol. This research examines whether and under which conditions corrective epilogues can counteract the influence of a television episode featuring...
Article
Full-text available
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Mechanisms underlying associations between early drinking and problems are largely unknown. OBJECTIVES: We investigated (a) associations between early age of first intoxication (≤ 15 years) and past year drinking in different contexts and (b) whether early age of first intoxication is differentially associated with problems in...
Article
Full-text available
This study examines effects of a randomized controlled trial for an online, family-based prevention program for older teens, Smart Choices 4 Teens, on alcohol use and related outcomes. Families (N = 411; teen age M = 16.4, SD = 0.5) were randomly assigned to the intervention or control condition in 2014–2015. Both intent to treat (ITT) and dosage m...
Article
Full-text available
Despite high rates of youth drinking in Mexico, little is known about the availability and consumption of specific types of alcoholic beverages within this population or the contexts in which alcohol is consumed. Objectives: This descriptive study examined alcohol consumption, perceived availability, and purchase of different types of alcoholic bev...
Article
Objectives This exploratory study examined pain management practices among American Indians and Alaska Natives in the service area of a rural tribal clinic in Southern California. Methods Researchers invited 325 individuals to complete an anonymous survey in clinic waiting rooms and tribal gatherings. Analyses of the 295 eligible responses include...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction and Aims Clerks and servers at alcohol establishments often fail to verify age. Using mystery shoppers to provide performance feedback is one approach to improving age verification. Few controlled studies have evaluated mystery shop interventions. This paper reports on a cluster randomised cross‐over trial of a mystery shop interventio...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: To evaluate combined individual- and community-level interventions to reduce underage drinking by American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) youths on rural California Indian reservations. Methods: Individual-level interventions included brief motivational interviewing and psychoeducation for Tribal youths. Community-level interventions i...
Article
Objective: We investigated how associations between social and situational characteristics (number of people, adult supervision, group gender composition, group age composition, ease of alcohol access, and weekend) and underage drinking are moderated by the specific locations in which drinking occurs. Method: Using a case-crossover design and re...
Article
Youth drinking is a major public health problem. Entertainment content that positively depicts alcohol consumption is often implicated as a factor shaping youths’ attitudes and beliefs about drinking alcohol. This research examines whether and under which conditions corrective epilogues can counteract the influence of a television episode featuring...
Article
Objective We conducted meta-analyses of studies that investigated the associations between tobacco outlet density around homes and schools and adolescents’ past-month cigarette smoking. Data sources Systematic literature searches of eight databases were carried out in February 2017. Searches were not limited by date, language, country or peer-revi...
Article
We investigated social and situational characteristics associated with adolescents' drinking at party and non-party events and whether these associations vary by party location (homes versus other locations). Ecological momentary assessment data were obtained over two weekends from 149 adolescents in California (46% female, M age=16.4years), using...
Article
This experimental study assessed whether alcohol television storylines impact youth drinking attitudes and intentions and whether corrective epilogues can potentially moderate this impact. Television episodes were professionally produced to depict heavy drinking leading to either positive or negative consequences. The pro- and anti-alcohol episodes...
Article
Full-text available
We investigated contexts of simultaneous use of alcohol and marijuana and the impact of simultaneous use on problems among adolescents. Ecological momentary assessment data were obtained over two weekends from 150 adolescents in California (47% female, M age = 16.36 years), using smartphone surveys administered early and late in the evening and aga...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose of review: This review investigates effects of alcohol advertising on adolescent drinking. Prior reviews focused on behavioral outcomes and long-term effects. In contrast, the present review focuses on subgroups with greater exposure to alcohol advertising, research methods to study alcohol advertising, potential mechanisms underlying rela...
Article
Full-text available
While the legalization of marijuana for medical and recreational use has raised concerns about potential influences on marijuana use and beliefs among youth, few empirical studies have addressed this issue. We examined the association between medical marijuana patients and licensed growers per 1000 population in 32 Oregon counties from 2006 to 2015...
Article
Full-text available
Previous research suggests that the context in which drinking occurs contribute to specific alcohol-related problems. In the current study we assessed how often adolescents attended different contexts in which they could drink, how often they drank in those contexts, and whether drinking patterns and parental monitoring were related to alcohol use...
Article
Background: Estimates of economic and social costs related to alcohol and other drug (AOD) use and abuse are usually made at state and national levels. Ecological analyses demonstrate, however, that substantial variations exist in the incidence and prevalence of AOD use and problems including impaired driving, violence, and chronic disease between...
Article
Objective: The present study aims to better understand the situational, contextual, and social event-level characteristics that contribute to youth drinking behavior in the home. Method: We used survey data from 1,217 adolescents (15-18 years, 47.7% female) living in 24 midsized, noncontiguous California cities. The study focused on those who re...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter reviews the research relating to substance use portrayals and marketing in media. Research suggests that alcohol and tobacco marketing through traditional advertising, but also through product placements in film and television and other new forms of promotion, are prevalent. Youth may be especially exposed to these marketing efforts. N...
Article
AimsTo estimate relationships of tobacco outlet density, cigarette sales without ID checks, and local enforcement of underage tobacco laws with youth's lifetime cigarette smoking, perceived availability of tobacco and perceived enforcement of underage tobacco laws and changes over time.DesignThe study involved: (a) three annual telephone surveys, (...
Article
Full-text available
We explored whether exposure to tobacco outlets in youths׳ broader activity spaces differs from that obtained using traditional geographic measures of exposure to tobacco outlet within buffers around homes and schools. Youths completed an initial survey, daily text-prompted surveys, and carried GPS-enabled phones for one week. GPS locations were ge...
Article
Full-text available
To identify drinking contexts toward which prevention efforts should be directed, associations of context-specific alcohol use (past-year frequency of drinking and heavier drinking in the context) with a range of alcohol-related problems were examined in a population sample of adolescents. A sample of youths (ages 15 to 18) residing in 50 medium-to...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined whether differences in the perceived neighborhood and school environments account for differences in drinking behavior among Native American and White youths. Findings indicate that being Native American was indirectly related to drinking through perceived school and community variables. Higher drinking rates among Native Americ...
Article
Different drinkers may experience specific risks depending on where they consume alcohol. This longitudinal study examined drinking patterns, and demographic and psychosocial characteristics associated with youth drinking in different contexts. We used survey data from 665 past-year alcohol-using youths (ages 13 to 16 at Wave 1) in 50 midsized Cali...
Article
Objective: Many states and local communities have enacted social host (SH) laws to reduce underage drinking in private settings. However, little is known about whether such laws are effective. This study examined relationships between city SH laws and underage drinking in general and at parties in private settings. Method: SH policy data were co...
Article
Full-text available
This study explores which youth are more likely to have parties at home, what factors are associated with the presence of alcohol at parties, and who supplies the alcohol. We collected data in 2011 and 2012 through telephone interviews with 1,121 teens living in 50 mid-sized California cities. Overall, about a quarter of teens reported having had a...
Conference Paper
Introduction: Violence in schools is a concern for parents, educators and law enforcement. This study examines individual and school-level predictors of students bringing weapons (guns, knives) to school. Methods: Survey data collected in 2011/2012 from 357,561 students (7th, 9th, and 11th grade) in California schools were analyzed using hierarch...
Article
Full-text available
Cultivation research has shown that heavy television viewing is linked to audiences' generalized, and often skewed, views of reality. This research investigates whether television viewing is related to adolescents' views about the consequences of drinking and whether psychological trait reactance moderates this cultivation effect. Results from a su...
Article
Important questions remain regarding the effectiveness of local tobacco policies for preventing and reducing youth tobacco use and the relative importance of these policies. The aims of this paper are to: (1) compare policy effectiveness ratings provided by researchers and tobacco prevention specialists for individual local tobacco policies, and (2...
Article
Despite efforts to limit underage access to alcohol, alcohol availability remains a challenge for youth drinking prevention. This article fills a gap in our understanding of alcohol consumption among youths by systematically investigating how and under what circumstances they obtain alcohol and the context within which they consume it. Qualitative...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the associations of youth cigarette smoking with tobacco outlet densities and proximity of tobacco outlets to youth homes and schools across different buffers in 45 midsized California communities. The sample comprised 832 youths who were surveyed about their smoking behaviors. Inclusion criteria included both home and schoo...
Article
Full-text available
Few studies have investigated the complex interactions among the individual- and community-level social risk factors that underlie adolescents' smoking behaviors. This study investigated whether community-level adult daily smoking prevalence is associated with adolescents' smoking and whether it moderates the associations between perceived friends'...
Article
To examine relationships between characteristics of the local alcohol environment and adolescent alcohol use and beliefs in 50 California cities. The study used longitudinal survey data collected from adolescents; city-level measures of local alcohol policy comprehensiveness, policy enforcement, adult drinking and bar density; and multi-level model...
Article
Qualitative interviews were conducted with parents of teens to explore how parents store and monitor prescription drugs in the home. Most parents had prescription drugs in the house, but took few precautions against teens accessing these drugs. Strategies for monitoring included moving the drugs to different locations, remembering how many pills we...
Article
This study examined the usefulness of a survey on underage drinking in a rural American Indian community health clinic. One hundred ninety-seven youth (90 male, 107 female; age range 8-20 years) were recruited from clinic waiting rooms and through community outreach. The study revealed that the usefulness of the survey was twofold: Survey results c...
Conference Paper
Introduction: To date, 16 U.S. states and the District of Columbia have legalized medical marijuana. Montana passed the Medical Marijuana Act in 2004 making it legal to possess and use marijuana for medical purposes. Studies have suggested that youth marijuana use may be higher in states that have legalized medical marijuana. A possible explanation...
Article
To expand the scant research on sexual expectancies development among non-sexually active adolescents, we examined the relationship between adolescents' exposure to four socializing agents-mother/female guardian, father/male guardian, peers, and television programs with high sexual content-and their endorsement of four sexual expectancies: social b...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the relationship of youth marijuana use and perceived ease of access with the number of medical marijuana cards at the county-level, and marijuana norms as indicated by percent of voters approving legalization of medical marijuana in 2004. Survey data from 17,482 youths (ages 13 - 19) in Montana and county-level archival data, i...
Article
Results from a qualitative study with parents about underage drinking are presented. Semi-structured interviews (n=44) were conducted with parents of teens to investigate whether and why parents permit underage drinking. Parents had three primary reasons for allowing underage drinking: deliberate, spontaneous and harm reduction. Deliberate reasons...
Article
Irish people consume less alcohol than the European average and spend no more on alcohol than people in most other countries. Yet a combination of the pattern and visibility of Irish drinking has created a national image of heavy drinking. The present paper advances the view that Irish ambivalence to alcohol is central to understanding the many dis...
Article
This paper examines the implications of social psychological influences on smoking behaviour for models of prevention. The main factors associated with initiation to and maintenance of smoking are examined with particular reference to normative influences, expectations about consequences, and personality and social variables. Each of these factors...
Article
Objectives: This study examines contextual and community-level characteristics associated with youth access to tobacco through commercial sources in 50 non-contiguous mid-sized California communities. Methods: The study is based on data from access surveys conducted by four confederate buyers (two men and two women) in 997 tobacco outlets. City...
Article
Full-text available
Underage drinking is associated with a number of social and public health consequences. Preventing access to alcohol is one approach to reducing underage drinking. This study assesses the efficacy of a culturally tailored "reward and reminder" program aimed at reducing convenience store alcohol sales to youth living on or near nine American Indian...
Article
This study investigated relationships between local alcohol policies, enforcement, alcohol outlet density, adult alcohol use, and underage drinking in 50 California cities. Eight local alcohol policies (e.g., conditional use permit, social host ordinance, window/billboard advertising) were rated for each city based on their comprehensiveness. Local...
Article
Full-text available
Background We pursue two primary goals in this article: (1) to test a methodology and develop a dataset on U.S. local-level alcohol policy ordinances, and (2) to evaluate the presence, comprehensiveness, and stringency of eight local alcohol policies in 50 diverse California cities in relationship to recommended best practices in both public health...
Article
Underage drinking continues to be an important public health problem and a challenge to the substance abuse prevention field. Community-based interventions designed to more rigorously control underage access to alcohol through retailer education and greater enforcement of underage drinking laws have been advocated as potentially effective strategie...
Article
This study investigates the associations between local tobacco policy, tobacco outlet density, and youth smoking. A primary focus is on whether local tobacco policy moderates the relation between outlet density and youth smoking. In all, 1,491 youth (51.9% male, mean age = 14.7 years, standard deviation = 1.05) in 50 midsized California cities were...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, we explored how and where parents store alcohol in the home, and how they monitor this stored alcohol. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with parents of youths, aged 15-18 years, in northern California. We found that parents typically stored alcohol in unsecured locations easily accessible to adolescents. Parental m...
Article
Full-text available
Abuse of harmful legal products that can be inhaled or ingested is a serious and growing problem in many rural Alaskan communities, and particularly so among preteens. This study analyses data collected during baseline measurements of a 5-year NIH/NIDA-funded study entitled A Community Trial to Prevent Youth's Abuse of Harmful Legal Products in Ala...
Article
Children's misuse of harmful legal products (HLPs), including inhaling or ingesting everyday household products, prescription drugs, and over-the-counter drugs, constitutes a serious health problem for American society. This article presents a community prevention model (CPM) focusing on this problem among pre and early adolescents. The model, cons...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated sources of alcohol for underage drinkers. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were individually conducted with 47 youths, ages 15-18, who reported drinking within the last 12 months, to explore alcohol access. Theft was one method that some youths reported using to obtain alcohol. In addition to 9% of respondents who report...