Jodi M Gilman

Jodi M Gilman
Massachusetts General Hospital/ Harvard Medical School · Psychiatry

PhD

About

59
Publications
16,823
Reads
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1,965
Citations
Citations since 2017
23 Research Items
1092 Citations
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2017201820192020202120222023050100150
2017201820192020202120222023050100150
Introduction
Skills and Expertise
Additional affiliations
January 2011 - October 2014
Partners HealthCare
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)

Publications

Publications (59)
Article
Background: Real world patterns of cannabis use for health concerns are highly variable and rarely overseen by a physician. Pragmatic effectiveness studies with electronic daily diaries that capture person-specific patterns of cannabis use and health symptoms may help clarify risks and benefits. Methods: As part of a larger, randomized trial (NC...
Article
Introduction: As more states pass recreational cannabis laws (RCLs) for adults, there is concern that increasing (and state-sanctioned) cannabis acceptance will result in a reduced perception of risk of harm from cannabis among children. We aimed to discover whether children in states with RCLs had decreased perception of risk from cannabis compare...
Preprint
AimAdolescence is assumed to be the period of the lifespan with the highest risk-taking and sensation-seeking behaviors. A normative peak in risk-taking during adolescence is thought to underlie both adaptive (e.g., independence from caregivers) and potentially harmful (e.g., substance use) outcomes. There are however, many population-level sociode...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Chronic pain is a debilitating medical problem that is difficult to treat. Neuroinflammatory pathways have emerged as a potential therapeutic target, as preclinical studies have demonstrated that glial cells and neuroglial interactions play a role in the establishment and maintenance of pain. Recently, we used positron emission tomog...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Chronic, non-cancer pain impacts approximately 50 million adults in the USA (20%), approximately 25% of whom receive chronic prescription opioids for pain despite limited empirical efficacy data and strong dose-related risk for opioid use disorder and opioid overdose. Also despite lack of efficacy data, there are many reports of people...
Article
Importance: Despite the legalization and widespread use of cannabis products for a variety of medical concerns in the US, there is not yet a strong clinical literature to support such use. The risks and benefits of obtaining a medical marijuana card for common clinical outcomes are largely unknown. Objective: To evaluate the effect of obtaining...
Preprint
Background Legalization of cannabis for medical uses has proceeded without well-controlled studies. Real world patterns of medical cannabis use are highly variable and rarely overseen by a physician. Smartphone assessments that capture ecologically valid patterns of medical cannabis use and health symptoms may help clarify risks and benefits. Meth...
Article
Full-text available
The primary cannabinoid in cannabis, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), causes intoxication and impaired function, with implications for traffic, workplace, and other situational safety risks. There are currently no evidence-based methods to detect cannabis-impaired driving, and current field sobriety tests with gold-standard, drug recognition evaluati...
Article
Background and aims: Electronic cigarette use has escalated rapidly in recent years, particularly among youth. Little is known about the genetic influences on e-cigarette use. This study aimed to determine whether genetic risk for regular use of combustible cigarettes or for number of cigarettes smoked per day confers risk for ever e-cigarette use...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Cannabis use is prevalent among adolescents, and many report using in attempts to alleviate negative mood and anxiety. Abstinence from substances such as alcohol and tobacco has been reported to improve symptoms of anxiety and depression. Few studies have examined the effect of cannabis abstinence on symptoms of anxiety and depression....
Article
Objective Cannabis and alcohol use are correlated behaviors among youth. It is not known whether discontinuation of cannabis use is associated with changes in alcohol use. This study assessed alcohol use in youth before, during, and after four weeks of paid cannabis abstinence. Methods Healthy, non-treatment seeking, cannabis users (n = 160), aged...
Article
Marijuana (MJ) use and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have both been associated with abnormalities in brain white matter tracts, including the cingulum and the anterior thalamic radiations (ATR), which project from subcortical regions to frontal cortex. Studies have not assessed the integrity of these tracts in patients with comorbid PTSD an...
Article
Background: Correlates of cannabis use and dependence among young adults have been widely studied. However, it is not known which factors are most strongly associated with severity of cannabis use dependence (CUD) severity. Identification of the salient correlates of CUD severity will be of increasing clinical significance as use becomes more soci...
Article
Objective: Associations between adolescent cannabis use and poor neurocognitive functioning have been reported from cross-sectional studies that cannot determine causality. Prospective designs can assess whether extended cannabis abstinence has a beneficial effect on cognition. Methods: Eighty-eight adolescents and young adults (aged 16-25 years...
Chapter
The nature, severity, and persistence of effects of cannabis use on the structure and function of the developing adolescent brain is an active area of research. This chapter will review what is known about these relationships during adolescence (i.e., the time between initiation of sexual maturation and completion of higher-order cognitive developm...
Article
Introduction: The ability to direct smoking cessation treatment based on neuroscientific findings holds incredible promise. However, there is a strong need for consistency across studies to confirm neurobiological targets. While our prior work implicated enhanced insula reactivity to smoking cues in tobacco smoking relapse vulnerability, this find...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose of review: Although peer influence is an important factor in the initiation and maintenance of cannabis use, few studies have investigated the neural correlates of peer influence among cannabis users. The current review summarizes research on the neuroscience of social influence in cannabis users, with the goal of highlighting gaps in the...
Article
Background: Rates of young adult cannabis use are rising, perceived harm is at its historical nadir, and most users do not want to quit. Most studies evaluating effects of cannabis use in young adults are cross-sectional, limiting causal inference. A method to reliably induce abstinence periods in cannabis users would allow assessment of the effec...
Article
Though social influence is a critical factor in the initiation and maintenance of marijuana use, the neural correlates of influence in those who use marijuana are unknown. In this study, marijuana-using young adults (MJ; n = 20) and controls (CON; n = 23) performed a decision-making task in which they made a perceptual choice after viewing the choi...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Verbal memory difficulties are the most widely reported and persistent cognitive deficit associated with early onset marijuana use. Yet, it is not known what memory stages are most impaired in those with early marijuana use. Method: Forty-eight young adults, aged 18-25, who used marijuana at least once per week and 48 matched nonusing...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Decades of research have demonstrated the importance of social influence in initiation and maintenance of drug use, but little is known about neural mechanisms underlying social influence in young adults who use recreational drugs. Methods To better understand whether the neural and/or behavioral response to social influence differs i...
Article
Previous studies have reported that peer groups are one of the most important predictors of adolescent and young adult marijuana use, and yet the neural correlates of social processing in marijuana users have not yet been studied. In the current study, marijuana-using young adults (n = 20) and non-using controls (n = 22) participated in a neuroimag...
Article
Full-text available
Individuals tend to give losses approximately 2-fold the weight that they give gains. Such approximations of loss aversion (LA) are almost always measured in the stimulus domain of money, rather than objects or pictures. Recent work on preference-based decision-making with a schedule-less keypress task (relative preference theory, RPT) has provided...
Article
Full-text available
This is a commentary on the often-observed phenomenon of observing task-based brain signaling differences between clinical populations and healthy control participants in the absence of any behavioral decrements in the clinical group. We offer several explanations for why brain-based differences amid normative performance may be of interest to rese...
Article
Full-text available
Though decades of research have shown that people are highly influenced by peers, few studies have directly assessed how the value of social conformity is weighed against other types of costs and benefits. Using an effort-based decision-making paradigm with a novel social influence manipulation, we measured how social influence affected individuals...
Article
Full-text available
Loss aversion (LA), the idea that negative valuations have a higher psychological impact than positive ones, is considered an important variable in consumer research. The literature on aging and behavior suggests older individuals may show more LA, although it is not clear if this is an effect of aging in general (as in the continuum from age 20 an...
Article
Cannabis use has been associated with episodic memory (EM) impairments and abnormal hippocampus morphology among both healthy individuals and schizophrenia subjects. Considering the hippocampus' role in EM, research is needed to evaluate the relationship between cannabis-related hippocampal morphology and EM among healthy and clinical groups. We ex...
Article
Full-text available
Smoking cue exposure reactivates salient smoking-related memories, triggering craving to smoke, a phenomenon associated with maintenance of smoking behavior and relapse after periods of abstinence. Acute β-adrenergic blockade with propranolol reduces physiologic reactivity during subsequent recollection of traumatic events by inhibiting reconsolida...
Article
Over the last quarter century, researchers have peered into the living human brain to develop and refine mechanistic accounts of alcohol-induced behavior, as well as neurobiological mechanisms for development and maintenance of addiction. These in vivo neuroimaging studies generally show that acute alcohol administration affects brain structures im...
Article
Full-text available
While reducing the burden of brain disorders remains a top priority of organizations like the World Health Organization and National Institutes of Health, the development of novel, safe and effective treatments for brain disorders has been slow. In this paper, we describe the state of the science for an emerging technology, real time functional mag...
Article
Full-text available
Adolescents and young adults who affiliate with friends who engage in impulsive behavior are more likely to engage in impulsive behaviors themselves, and those who associate with prosocial (i.e. more prudent, future oriented) peers are more likely to engage in prosocial behavior. However, it is difficult to disentangle the contribution of peer infl...
Preprint
Full-text available
While reducing the burden of brain disorders remains a top priority of organizations like the World Health Organization and National Institutes of Health (BRAIN, 2013), the development of novel, safe and effective treatments for brain disorders has been slow. In this paper, we describe the state of the science for an emerging technology, real time...
Article
Substance use disorder is characterized by a transition from volitional to compulsive responding for drug reward. A possible explanation for this transition may be that alcohol-dependent patients (ADP) show a general propensity for a history of rewarded instrumental responses, and these rewarded responses may boost the activation of motivational ne...
Article
Full-text available
Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug in the United States, but little is known about its effects on the human brain, particularly on reward/aversion regions implicated in addiction, such as the nucleus accumbens and amygdala. Animal studies show structural changes in brain regions such as the nucleus accumbens after exposure to Δ9-tetra...
Article
Full-text available
A linear time-invariant model based on statistical time series analysis in the Fourier domain for single subjects is further developed and applied to functional MRI (fMRI) blood-oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) multivariate data. This methodology was originally developed to analyze multiple stimulus input evoked response BOLD data. However, to analyze...
Article
Alcohol is thought to contribute to an increase in risk-taking behavior, but the neural correlates underlying this effect are not well understood. In this study, participants were given intravenous alcohol or placebo while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and playing a risk-taking game. The game allowed us to examine the neur...
Article
Full-text available
Heavy alcohol consumption during young adulthood is a risk factor for the development of serious alcohol use disorders. Research has shown that individual differences in subjective responses to alcohol may affect individuals' vulnerability to developing alcoholism. Studies comparing the subjective and objective response to alcohol between light and...
Article
Full-text available
Alcohol produces both stimulant and sedating effects in humans. These two seemingly opposite effects are central to the understanding of much of the literature on alcohol use and misuse. In this chapter we review studies that describe and attempt to measure various aspects of alcohol's subjective, autonomic, motor, cognitive and behavioral effects...
Article
We compare the evidence from human neuroimaging studies for and against two of the major hypotheses of how alterations in the brain's reward system underlie addiction. One of these, the impulsivity hypothesis, proposes that addiction is characterized by excessive sensitivity to reward combined with a failure of inhibition. The other, the reward-def...
Article
This article summarizes the proceedings of a symposium held at the conference on "Alcoholism and Stress: A Framework for Future Treatment Strategies" in Volterra, Italy, May 6-9, 2008. Chaired by Markus Heilig and Roberto Ciccocioppo, this symposium offered a forum for the presentation of recent data linking neuropetidergic neurotransmission to the...
Article
Background: Alcoholism is often associated with impaired emotional control. Alcoholics have also been found to have deficits in frontal lobe executive functions. Recent functional imaging studies have suggested that alcoholics show greater activation than nonalcoholics in circuits involving frontal lobes, as well as more posterior brain regions, w...
Article
Heavy alcohol consumption during young adulthood is a risk factor for the development of serious alcohol use disorders. Research has shown that individual differences in subjective responses to alcohol may affect individuals' vulnerability to developing alcoholism. Studies comparing the subjective and objective response to alcohol between light and...
Article
Full-text available
The general linear model (GLM) has been extensively applied to fMRI data in the time domain. However, traditionally time series data can be analyzed in the Fourier domain where the assumptions made as to the noise in the signal can be less restrictive and statistical tests are mathematically more rigorous. A complex form of the GLM in the Fourier d...
Article
Alcohol is often used to modulate mood states. Alcohol drinkers report that they use alcohol both to enhance positive affect and to reduce dysphoria, and alcohol-dependent patients specifically state reduction of negative affect as a primary reason for drinking. The current study proposes that alcohol cues may reduce negative affect in alcoholics....
Article
Full-text available
People typically drink alcohol to induce euphoria or reduce anxiety, and they frequently drink in social settings, yet the effect of alcohol on human brain circuits involved in reward and emotion has been explored only sparingly. We administered alcohol intravenously to social drinkers while brain response to visual threatening and nonthreatening f...
Article
Full-text available
Alcohol dependence is a major public health challenge in need of new treatments. As alcoholism evolves, stress systems in the brain play an increasing role in motivating continued alcohol use and relapse. We investigated the role of the neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R), a mediator of behavioral stress responses, in alcohol dependence and treatment. In...
Article
Studies have shown that alcoholics have smaller brain volumes than non-alcoholic cohorts, but an effect of family history (FH) of heavy drinking on brain volume has not been demonstrated. We examined the relationship between an FH of heavy drinking and both brain shrinkage as measured by the ratio of brain volumes to intracranial volume (ICV) as we...

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