Jochen P Zubrod

Jochen P Zubrod
Zubrod Environmental Data Science

PhD

About

84
Publications
16,762
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Introduction
With more than 10 years of experience in environmental sciences and data science, I am your top contact for all questions regarding environmental data. I am happy to support you with: - presenting your data live to your customers or the public in an appealing and understandable way - uncovering the almost unlimited possibilities of Machine Learning - training courses that are specifically tailored to the background and needs of environmental scientists - and much more!

Publications

Publications (84)
Article
Mercury has become a ubiquitous hazardous element even ending up in pristine areas such as the Arctic, where it biomagnifies and leaves especially top predators vulnerable to potential health effects. Here we investigate total mercury (THg) concentrations and dietary proxies for trophic position and habitat foraging (δ¹⁵N and δ¹³C, respectively) in...
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Ecosystems are complex structures with interacting abiotic and biotic processes evolving with ongoing succession. However, limited knowledge exists on the very initial phase of ecosystem development and colonization. Here, we report results of a comprehensive ecosystem development monitoring for twelve floodplain pond mesocosms (FPM; 23.5 m × 7.5 m...
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Methane (CH4) is the second most important greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide (CO2) and is inter alia produced in natural freshwater ecosystems. Given the rise in CH4 emissions from natural sources, researchers are investigating environmental factors and climate change feedbacks to explain this increment. Despite being omnipresent in freshwaters,...
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The occurrence of organohalogenated compounds (OHCs) in wildlife has received considerable attention over the last decades. Among the matrices used for OHC biomonitoring, feathers are particularly useful as they can be collected in a minimally or non-invasive manner. In this study, concentrations of various legacy OHCs –polychlorinated biphenyls (P...
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Microbial organic matter decomposition is a critical ecosystem function, which can be negatively affected by chemicals. Although the majority of organic matter is stored in sediments, the impact of chemicals has exclusively been studied in benthic systems. To address this knowledge gap, we assessed the impact of a fungicide mixture at three concent...
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Nanoparticulate titanium dioxide (nTiO2) is frequently applied, raising concerns about potential side effects on the environment. While various studies have assessed structural effects in aquatic model ecosystems, its impact on ecosystem functions provided by microbial communities (biofilms) is not well understood. This is all the more the case whe...
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Aquatic hyphomycetes (AHs), a group of saprotrophic fungi adapted to submerged leaf litter, play key functional roles in stream ecosystems as decomposers and food source for higher trophic levels. Fungicides, controlling fungal pathogens, target evolutionary conserved molecular processes in fungi and contaminate streams via their use in agricultura...
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Human-induced mercury (Hg) contamination is of global concern and its effects on wildlife remain of high concern, especially in environmental hotspots such as inland aquatic ecosystems. Mercury (Hg) biomagnifies through the food web resulting in high exposure in apex predators, such as the white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla), making them exce...
Chapter
The ecosystem process of organic matter decomposition (OMD) in fresh waters is realised by a complex interaction among different groups of microorganisms (including bacteria and fungi) and detritivorous animals. As a consequence of this multi-level interaction, biotic (e.g., competition, predation) and abiotic (e.g., flow, temperature, toxicants) f...
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Fungi produce a variety of extracellular enzymes making recalcitrant substrates bioavailable. Thus, fungi are central for decomposition of dead organic matter such as leaf litter. Despite their ecological importance, our understanding of relationships between fungal species diversity and ecosystem functioning is limited, especially with regard to a...
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Biodiversity is under pressure worldwide, with amphibians being particularly threatened. Stressors related to human activity, such as chemicals, are contributing to this decline. It remains, however, unclear whether chemicals exhibiting a fungicidal activity could indirectly affect tadpoles that depend on microbially conditioned leaf litter as food...
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Fungicides pose a risk for crustacean leaf shredders serving as key-stone species for leaf litter breakdown in detritus-based stream ecosystems. However, little is known about the impact of strobilurin fungicides on shredders, even though they are presumed to be the most hazardous fungicide class for aquafauna. Therefore, we assessed the impact of...
Article
Antimicrobials, such as fungicides and antibiotics, pose a risk for microbial decomposers (i.e., bacteria and aquatic fungi) and invertebrate detritivores (i.e., shredders) that play a pivotal role in the ecosystem function of leaf litter breakdown. Although waterborne toxicity and diet-related effects (i.e., dietary exposure and microorganism-medi...
Chapter
Research on the subsidy of terrestrial ecosystems by resources of aquatic origin has increased over the last few decades. Only a few studies, however, assess this cross-boundary linkage with specific consideration of contaminant-induced effects. This data gap might be attributed to the complexity required for experimental designs to adequately asse...
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Due to their ecological importance, fungi are suitable indicator organisms for anthropogenic stress. To estimate fungal biomass, the fungal membrane molecule ergosterol is often quantified as a proxy. Estimates based on ergosterol may, however, be distorted by exposure to demethylase inhibiting (DMI) fungicides, interfering with sterol synthesis. T...
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Whether and to which extent the effects of chemicals in the environment interact with other factors remains a scientific challenge. Here we assess the combined effects of temperature (16 vs. 20°C), light conditions (darkness vs. 400 lx), dissolved organic matter (DOM; 0 vs. 6 mg/L) and the model insecticide thiacloprid (0 vs. 3 µg/L) in a full-fact...
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Invasion of non‐native species in freshwater ecosystems often alters the indigenous macroinvertebrate community and food web structure by changing the resource availability. One of these species is the invasive amphipod Dikerogammarus villosus, whose impact by predation, especially on coexisting amphipods, is still under debate. In this study, we a...
Article
Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a class of organohalogenated compounds of environmental concern due to similar characteristics as the well-studied legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) that typically show environmental persistence, biomagnification and toxicity. Nevertheless, PFAS are still poorly regulated internationally and in many a...
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Infochemicals act as inter‐ or intraspecific messengers. Literature suggests complex interactions between infochemicals (mainly predator cues) and chemical (e.g., pesticide) effects, with their direction and magnitude depending on the cues’ origin, pesticide identity and test species. With the present study we assessed the impact of alarm cues alon...
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Understanding the spatiotemporal patterns of legacy organochlorines (OCs) is often difficult because monitoring practices differ among studies, fragmented study periods, and unaccounted confounding by ecological variables. We therefore reconstructed long-term (1939–2015) and large-scale (West Greenland, Norway, and central Sweden) trends of major l...
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Freshwater gammarids are known to colonise occasionally sinking-cave streams, providing contrasting morphological, life-history and ecophysiological adaptations compared to their surface conspecifics. In this study, a subterranean and a surface population of the species Gammarus balcanicus was surveyed for one year in a sinking-cave stream from the...
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Biological invasions represent a complex phenomenon driven by multiple factors. In this study, a real-time invasion process between a native (Pon-tastacus leptodactylus) and an invasive (Faxonius limosus) crayfish species was investigated in the Lower Danube (South-East Europe) through an inter-disciplinary approach, by measuring various ecological...
Article
Antibiotics may constitute a risk for aquatic detritivorous macroinvertebrates (i.e., shredders) via waterborne and dietary antibiotic exposure. In addition, antibiotics can alter the food quality for shredders mediated by shifts in leaf-associated decomposer (i.e., aquatic fungi and bacteria) communities. However, little is known about the relativ...
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Naturally occurring radionuclides, in particular, polonium-210 (210Po), have a greater contribution than anthropogenic radionuclides to the annual effective dose received by the general public due to consumption of seafood. Knowledge of potential trophic sources and transfer of 210Po to seabird species and subsequently to the Greenlandic people is,...
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Background Examining the effects of pesticides is difficult in regions such as Western Europe because of the relatively ubiquitous use of agrochemicals and the lack of unaffected areas. To study a wide gradient of agrochemical stress, we conducted a study in Central Romania, where traditional agriculture, which is assumed to use less agrochemicals,...
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This editorial presents the objectives and achievements of the German Language Branch of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry Europe (SETAC GLB), a regional branch of SETAC Europe, of the last 20 years. SETAC GLB serves Germany, Austria, and Switzerland, by providing an open forum for research related to ecotoxicology and environme...
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Aquatic hyphomycetes (AH) are ubiquitous fungi playing a key role in the decomposition of leaf litter in streams. Though their functional performance is modulated by their community composition, this ecological relationship remains poorly investigated due to a lack of suitable methods to identify the biomass-contribution of individual species to AH...
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Nanoparticle contaminants enter aquatic ecosystems and are transported along the stream network. Here, we demonstrate a novel pathway for the return of nanoparticles from aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems via cross-boundary subsidies. During their emergence, trichopteran caddisflies carried titanium dioxide and gold nanoparticles into their terrest...
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We reconstructed the first long-term (1968–2015) spatiotemporal trends of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) using archived body feathers of white-tailed eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) from the West Greenland (n = 31), Norwegian (n = 66), and Central Swedish Baltic coasts (n = 50). We observed significant temporal trends of perfluorooctane sulfonamide...
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Phenolic compounds occur in a variety of plants and can be used as model compounds for investigating the fate of organic wastewater, lignin, or soil organic matter in the environment. The aim of this study was to better understand and differentiate mechanisms associated with photo- and biodegradation of tyrosol, vanillin, vanillic acid, and coumari...
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Two complementary approaches are commonly used for analysing trophic interactions that allow inferences about consumed and assimilated resources: gut content (GCA) and stable isotope (SIA) analyses. We used these methods to assess the trophic ecology of a native (Pontastacus leptodactylus) and an invasive species (Faxonius limosus) of crayfish in t...
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The spatiotemporal trends of mercury (Hg) are crucial for the understanding of this ubiquitous and toxic contaminant. However, uncertainties often arise from comparison among studies using different species, analytical and statistical methods. The long-term temporal trends of Hg exposure were reconstructed for a key sentinel species, the white-tail...
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Fungicides are indispensable to global food security and their use is forecasted to intensify. Fungicides can reach aquatic ecosystems and occur in surface water bodies in agricultural catchments throughout the whole growing season due to their frequent, prophylactic application. However, in comparison to herbicides and insecticides, the exposure t...
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The leaf-shredding crustacean Hyalella azteca, which is indigenous to Northern and Central America, is used to assess environmental risks associated with (metal-)contaminated sediments and to propose sediment quality standards also in Europe. Yet, it is unknown if H. azteca is protective for European crustacean shredders. We thus compared the sensi...
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Determining whether the structural and functional stress responses of communities are similar across space and time is paramount for forecasting and extrapolating the consequences of anthropogenic pressures on ecosystems and their services. Stream ecosystems are under high anthropogenic pressure; however, studies have only examined the response of...
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It is well-documented that fungicides can affect crustacean leaf shredders via two effect pathways, namely waterborne exposure and their diet (i.e., via dietary uptake of fungicides adsorbed to leaf material and an altered microorganism-mediated food quality). As a consequence of different life history strategies, the relevance of these effect path...
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The environmental risk assessment of pesticides is mainly performed on individual active ingredients. In surface waters within the agricultural landscape, however, contamination is usually characterized by complex pesticide mixtures. To estimate the joint effects caused by these complex mixtures, mathematical models have been proposed. Among these,...
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Waterborne exposure towards fungicides is known to trigger negative effects in aquatic leaf-associated microbial decomposers and leaf-shredding macroinvertebrates. We expected similar effects when these organisms use leaf material from terrestrial plants that were treated with systemic fungicides as a food source since the fungicides may remain wit...
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Bayesian methods and frequentist confidence intervals are proposed as an alternative approach in ecotoxicology emphasizing effect sizes and associated (un)certainties to judge the biological relevance of effects instead of basing decisions on p-values. These approaches show advantages over null hypothesis significance testing. In particular, Bayesi...
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Systemic neonicotinoid insecticides such as imidacloprid are increasingly applied against insect pest infestations on forest trees. However, leaves falling from treated trees may reach nearby surface waters and potentially represent a neonicotinoid exposure source for aquatic invertebrates. Given imidacloprid's susceptibility towards photolysis and...
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Systemic neonicotinoids are commonly used in forest pest management programs. Senescent leaves containing neonicotinoids may, however, fall from treated trees into nearby streams. There, leaf-shredding invertebrates are particularly exposed due to their diet (feeding on neonicotinoid-contaminated leaves) or collaterally via the water phase (leachin...
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Invertebrate-mediated leaf litter decomposition is frequently used to assess stress-related implications in stream ecosystem integrity. In situ measures such as the mass loss from leaf bags or the feeding of caged invertebrates deployed for days or weeks may, however, fail to detect transient effects due to recovery or compensatory mechanisms. We a...
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Ecosystem functions in streams (e.g., microbially mediated leaf litter breakdown) are threatened globally by the predicted agricultural intensification and its expansion into pristine areas, which is associated with increasing use of fertilizers and pesticides. However, the ecological consequences may depend on the disturbance history of microbial...
Article
Disturbance regimes determine communities’ structure and functioning. Nonetheless, little effort has been undertaken to understand interactions of press and pulse disturbances. In this context, leaf-shredding macroinvertebrates can be chronically exposed to wastewater treatment plant effluents (i.e., press disturbance) before experiencing pesticide...
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Neonicotinoids are increasingly applied on trees as protection measure against insect pests. Consequently, neonicotinoids are inevitably transferred into aquatic environments either via spray drift, surface runoff or - due to neonicotinoids' systemic nature - via senescent leaves. There particularly leaf-shredding invertebrates may be exposed to ne...
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Leaf litter is a major source of carbon and energy for stream food webs, while both leaf-decomposing microorganisms as well as macroinvertebrate leaf-shredders can be affected by fungicides. Despite the potential for season-long fungicide exposure for these organisms, such chronic exposures have, however, not yet been considered. Using an artificia...
Article
Systemic neonicotinoid insecticides are increasingly used as a crop protection measure to suppress insect pests on trees. However, senescent foliage falling from treated trees represents a rarely studied pathway through which neonicotinoids may enter non-target environments, e.g., surface waters. To estimate risk posed by this pathway, neonicotinoi...
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Leaf-shredding amphipods play a critical role in the ecosystem function of leaf litter breakdown, a key process in many low order streams. Fungicides, however, may adversely influence shredders' behavior and the functions they provide, while there is only limited knowledge concerning effects on their reproductive performance. To assess the latter,...
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Shredders play a central role in the breakdown of leaf material in aquatic systems. These organisms and the ecological function they provide may, however, be affected by chemical stressors either as a consequence of direct waterborne exposure or through alterations in food-quality (indirect pathway). To unravel the biological relevance of these eff...
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Salinization of freshwater ecosystems as a result of human activities represents a global threat for ecosystems’ integrity. Whether different sources of salinity with their differing ionic compositions lead to variable effects in ecosystem functioning is unknown. Therefore, the present study assessed the impact of dryland- (50 μS/cm to 11,000 μS/cm...
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Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nTiO2 ) adsorb co-occurring heavy metals in surface waters modulating their toxicity for freshwater invertebrates. The processes triggering this interaction may, however, be influenced by several environmental parameters, while their relative importance remains, unclear. Therefore, the present study assessed the impl...
Article
Animals involved in leaf litter breakdown (i.e., shredders) play a central role in detritus-based stream food webs, while their fitness and functioning can be impaired by anthropogenic stressors. Particularly fungicides can affect shredders via both waterborne exposure and their diet, namely due to co-ingestion of adsorbed fungicides and shifts in...
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Purpose Mercury (Hg) released into the environment often accumulates to high concentrations in sediments, creating a potential risk to aquatic wildlife. The in situ application of sorbents such as activated carbon is one promising option for reducing the bioavailability of sediment-bound Hg. Materials and methods The present study evaluates the inf...
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1.The application of fungicides is considered an indispensable measure to secure crop production. These substances, however, may unintentionally enter surface waters via runoff, potentially affecting the microbial community. To assess such risks adequately, authorities recently called for suitable test designs involving relevant aquatic microorgani...
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The level of protection provided by the present environmental risk assessment (ERA) of fungicides in the European Union for fungi is unknown. Therefore, we assessed the structural and functional implications of five fungicides with different modes of action (azoxystrobin, carbendazim, cyprodinil, quinoxyfen, and tebuconazole) individually and in mi...
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1.Molecular genetic methods continuously uncover cryptic lineages harboured by various species. However, from an applied perspective it remains unclear whether and to which extent such a genetic diversity affects biological traits (e.g. ecological, behavioural and physiological characteristics) and environmental management. 2.We assessed potential...