Jochen Wirtz

Jochen Wirtz
National University of Singapore | NUS · NUS Business School

Ph.D. (London Business School)
I am passionate about Services Marketing & Management, Service Robots, AI & Platform Business Models

About

305
Publications
1,791,348
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Introduction
Jochen Wirtz is Vice Dean and Professor of Marketing at the National University of Singapore. His books include Services Marketing: People, Technology, Strategy (World Scientific, 8th ed., 2016, co-authored with Lovelock), Essentials of Services Marketing (Prentice Hall, 3rd ed., 2017), and Winning in Service Markets (World Scientific, 2017). Contact details: > sg.linkedin.com/in/jochenwirtz > www.JochenWirtz.com > https://scholar.google.com.sg/citations?hl=en&user=-_9L9P0AAAAJ >> See Jochen's YouTube Channel at https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCxJ-MLzqTSBNygPZPp5a9qw
Additional affiliations
January 1992 - present
National University of Singapore
Position
  • Professor
Education
August 1987 - August 1991
London Business School
Field of study
  • Services Marketing

Publications

Publications (305)
Article
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This article integrates relevant literature to develop a conceptual model on the potential avenues to achieve service excellence at low unit costs, which we term cost-effective service excellence (CESE). To gain a deeper understanding of these strategies, their applicability and interrelatedness, we analyze how 10 organizations have achieved CESE....
Article
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>>> Purpose – The service sector is at an inflection point with regard to productivity gains and service industrialization similar to the industrial revolution in manufacturing that started in the 18th century. Robotics in combination with rapidly improving technologies like artificial intelligence (AI), mobile, cloud, big data and biometrics will...
Article
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine peer-to-peer sharing platform business models, their sources of competitive advantage, and the roles, motivations and behaviors of key actors in their ecosystems. Design/methodology/approach This paper uses a conceptual approach that is rooted in the service, tourism and hospitality, and strategy lit...
Book
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This is the first book on Intelligent Automation (IA). Also called Hyperautomation, it is one of the most recent trends in the broad field of artificial intelligence. IA is a cutting-edge combination of methods and technologies, involving people, organizations, machine learning, low-code platforms, robotic process automation (RPA), and more. ------...
Book
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Services Marketing: People, Technology, Strategy is the ninth edition of the globally leading textbook for Services Marketing by Jochen Wirtz and Christopher Lovelock, extensively updated to feature the latest academic research, industry trends, and technology, social media and case examples. This book takes on a strong managerial approach presen...
Article
Purpose: The B2B marketing literature is heavily focused on the manufacturing sector. However, it is the B2B service sector that shows the highest growth in GDP. Beyond a vibrant stream of literature on servitization, the B2B literature has neglected drawing on the wider service literature. This article examines recent streams of service research t...
Book
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This new edition has been revised significantly since the third edition to capture the reality of today’s world, incorporating the latest academic and managerial thinking on intelligent automation (IA), service robots, AI, platform business models, peer-to-peer sharing economy, and cost-effective service excellence while illustrating cutting-edge s...
Article
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The industrial revolutions started in the late 18th century and automated blue-collar jobs in manufacturing. It dramatically increased our standard of living by bringing high quality, low cost manufactured goods to the masses. Today, our economies are at turning point similar to the industrial revolution, but this time in the service sector. Techno...
Article
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Plain English Summary The ecosystems in Silicon Valley, Munich, and Singapore spark different narratives about entrepreneurship, which indicate what is common, appropriate, and successful in the ecosystem and in turn encourage different kinds of entrepreneurial approaches. We conducted 43 interviews with successful players in Silicon Valley, Munich...
Chapter
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Nonownership value, delivering benefits without transferring the burdens of ownership, is a key pillar of service value propositions. To date, service research and management have put their attention primarily on the value that emerges when clients substitute ownership of assets, like vehicles, facilities or factories, with nonownership services, l...
Article
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This study is the first to provide an integrated view on the body of knowledge on artificial intelligence (AI) published in the marketing, consumer research, and psychology literature. By leveraging a systematic literature review (SLR) using a data-driven approach and quantitative methodology (including bibliographic coupling), this study provides...
Article
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Despite service robots’ importance in the tourism industry, few studies have investigated human–robot interaction from a reciprocal exchange perspective. This paper applies social exchange theory to the context of human–robot interaction along with relational and psychological states based on two empirical studies with two service robots (i.e., Pep...
Chapter
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The digital service revolution will significantly change the way we do business. A big part of this revolution are service robots in various forms and shapes. In this article, we illustrate the implication of service robots for the service industry. We compare service robots with traditional self-service technologies as well as human service person...
Chapter
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Due to the infusion of artificial intelligence, service robots are on the rise. In this chapter the authors provide examples of how the service industry can benefit from the implementation of robots at the organizational frontline. Thereby, they distinguish service robots from well-established self-service technologies and compare human service rep...
Chapter
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This chapter extends the emerging literature on luxury services (Holmqvist et al. 2020; Wirtz et al. 2020) by developing the key concepts of hedonic escapism as well as multifaceted exclusivity. We first developed the role of hedonic escapism in rendering luxury services enjoyable and extraordinary. This represents a key implication for managers of...
Article
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Purpose This study aims to show how major service developments in China, India and Singapore offer different perspectives on how cost-effective service excellence (CESE) can be achieved in health care. Resulting research opportunities are highlighted. Design/methodology/approach The study is based on the authors’ in-depth experience in these three...
Chapter
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A professional firm specializing in pension fund audits seeks to extend the firm’s relationships with existing clients in the Philippines by offering consulting services. But the first attempt at cross-selling is a flop. What has gone wrong and why?
Chapter
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Chapter 12 focuses on achieving profitability through creating relationships with customers from the right segments, and then finding ways to build and reinforce their loyalty using the Wheel of Loyalty as an organizing framework. This chapter closes with a discussion of customer relationship management (CRM) systems.
Chapter
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On August 13, 2020, Uber CEO Dara Khosrowshahi explained that Uber is backing Proposition 22 that would exempt it from Assembly Bill 5 (AB5), a California law that would require Uber to treat its drivers as employees with benefits effectively on January 1, 2020. To win over California voters, Uber and Lyft were considering to shut down their servic...
Chapter
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The top management at Aarion Bank was pushing for a rapid digital transformation. That included customer service with the aim of moving almost all routine transactions, services, and enquiries to cost-effective but high quality, cutting-edge digital delivery channels. These included smart AI-powered self-service technologies and service robots. Nik...
Chapter
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The general view is that platforms are somehow in the-winner-takes-it-all markets and therefore justify enormous valuations, especially when compared with their pipeline counterparts. However, to continue its fast growth, Airbnb diverted from its pure peer-to-peer (P2P) strategy and has been adding owned room capacity. At the same time, Marriott ad...
Chapter
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The world of luxury is undergoing rapid changes as many classic luxury brands embark on markedly different strategies to deal with an increasingly digital economy. Some luxury brands such as Chanel and Bottega Veneta have deliberately chosen to minimize the impact of digitization and instead focus even more heavily on the traditional service encoun...
Chapter
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The National Library Board (NLB) Singapore is a statutory board that managed to become a serial innovator. Its globally leading innovations in the library context include shelf-reading robots, and even entirely self-service libraries. NLB's consistent focus on excellent service delivery reinforced its commitment to innovation. Key levers were effec...
Chapter
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Teaching Case: In the course of a single day, a busy young woman makes use of a wide array of services.
Chapter
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The Royal Dining membership program is highly popular with diners and generates significant revenues. However, it might be displacing regular, full-price paying customers and could have a negative effect on the painstakingly built and maintained high-end luxury image of the Hong Kong Grand Hotel. In addition, quite a few managers and servers expres...
Chapter
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Problems arise when a large bank, attempting to develop a stronger customer service orientation, enlarges the customer service representatives’ responsibilities to include selling activities.
Chapter
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LUX* was a successful hospitality group operating in the Indian Ocean as well as other locations. In its previous incarnation, the company suffered from poor financial performance, poor service quality, and a weak brand. A change in the leadership of the company led the group through a transformation, which showed positive results within 12 months....
Chapter
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A Philippine fast food company has achieved market dominance in three segments in its home country — burgers and chicken, pizzas, and Chinese food — beating out well-known international competitors such as McDonald’s and Pizza Hut. What is the secret to its domestic success and what are the lessons for its international ventures?
Chapter
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Chapter 1 highlights the importance of services in our economies. We also define the nature of services and how they create value for customers without transfer of ownership. The chapter highlights some distinctive challenges involved in marketing services and introduces the 7 Ps of services marketing. The framework shown in Figure I on the facin...
Chapter
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Chapter 2 provides a foundation for understanding consumer needs and behaviors related to services. The chapter is organized around the three-stage model of service consumption. This model explores how customers search for and evaluate alternative services, make purchase decisions, experience and respond to service encounters, evaluate service perf...
Chapter
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Chapter 3 discusses how to develop a customer-driven services marketing strategy and how a value proposition should be positioned in a way that creates competitive advantage for the firm. This chapter first links the customer, competitor, and company (commonly referred to as “3 Cs”) analysis to a firm’s positioning strategy. The core of the chapter...
Chapter
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Chapter 4 discusses what exactly is a service product, its benefits, components, and the Flower of Service model. A service concept includes both the core and supplementary elements. The supplementary elements both facilitate and enhance the core service offering. This chapter also covers branding, tiered service products, and explains how service...
Chapter
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Chapter 5 examines the time and place elements. Manufacturers usually require physical distribution channels to move their products. However, some service businesses are able to use electronic channels to deliver all (or at least some) of their service elements. For the services delivered in real time with customers physically present, speed and co...
Chapter
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Chapter 6 provides an understanding of pricing from both the firm and customer’s points of view. For firms, the pricing strategy determines income generation. Service firms need to implement revenue management to maximize the revenue generated from available capacity at any given time. From the customer’s perspective, price is a key part of the cos...
Chapter
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Chapter 7 deals with how firms should communicate with their customers about their services through the use of promotion and education. As customers are co-producers and can affect how others experience a service performance, much communication in services marketing is educational in nature so as to teach customers how to effectively move through s...
Chapter
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Chapter 8 begins with the design of an effective service delivery process, specifying how operating and delivery systems link together to create the promised value proposition. Very often, customers are actively involved in service creation, especially if acting as co-producers, and the process becomes their experience. Furthermore, the increasingl...
Chapter
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Chapter 13 examines how effective complaint handling and professional service recovery can be implemented. It starts with a review of consumer complaining behavior and the principles of effective service recovery. Service guarantees are discussed as a powerful way of institutionalizing effective service recovery and an effective marketing tool that...
Chapter
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Both productivity and quality are necessary and related to financial success in services. Chapter 14 discusses how to diagnose quality shortfalls using the Gaps Model and reviews strategies to close quality gaps. Customer feedback systems are introduced as an effective tool for systematically listening to and learning from customers. Productivity i...
Chapter
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Chapter 10 focuses on the physical environment also known as the servicescape. It needs to be engineered to create the desired service experience and facilitate the effective delivery of service processes. The servicescape needs to be managed carefully as it can have a profound impact on customers’ impressions, guide their behavior throughout the s...
Chapter
Full-text available
LUX* was a successful hospitality group operating in the Indian Ocean as well as other locations. In its previous incarnation, the company suffered from poor financial performance, poor service quality, and a weak brand. A change in the leadership of the company led the group through a transformation, which showed positive results within 12 months....
Chapter
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Chapter 11 introduces people as a defining element of many services. Many services require direct interaction between customers and service employees. The nature of these interactions strongly influences how customers perceive service quality. Hence, service firms devote a significant amount of effort to recruiting, training, and motivating their e...
Chapter
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On August 13, 2020, Uber chief executive officer (CEO) Dara Khosrowshahi explained that Uber is backing Proposition 22 that would exempt it from Assembly Bill 5 (AB5), a California law that would require Uber to treat its drivers as employees with benefits effective January 1, 2020.1 To win over California voters, Uber and Lyft were considering to...
Chapter
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Cherita Howard, sales manager for the Accra Beach Hotel, a 175-room hotel on the Caribbean island of Barbados, was debating what to do about a request from the West Indies Cricket Board. The Board wanted to book a large block of rooms more than 6 months ahead during several of the hotel’s busiest times and was asking for a discount. In return, it p...
Chapter
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Chapter 15 starts with a discussion on the impact of customer satisfaction on a firm’s financial performance and shareholder value. It covers next the characteristics of world-class service organizations and introduces four levels of service performance — service loser, nonentity, professional, and service leader. An audit tool that helps to assess...
Chapter
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The general view is that platforms are somehow in a winner-takes-it-all market and therefore justify enormous valuations, especially when compared with their pipeline counterparts. However, to continue its fast growth, Airbnb diverted from its pure peer-to-peer (P2P) strategy and has been adding owned room capacity. At the same time, Marriott added...
Chapter
Full-text available
Chapter 9 relates to process management with a focus on widely fluctuating demand and how to balance the level and timing of customer demand against available productive capacity. Well-managed demand and capacity lead to smooth processes with less waiting time for customers. Marketing strategies for managing demand involve smoothing demand fluctuat...
Presentation
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NUS Executive Education Program: TRANSFORMING CUSTOMER EXPERIENCE: STRATEGIES FOR SERVICE INDUSTRY I am delighted that the 3rd run of my online course will start in September. Many former students asked if my course is available for their teams; now we offer the key takeaways from my EMBA course in a succinct format. For topics covered and further...
Article
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Purpose – Extant research mainly focused on potentially negative customer responses to service robots. In contrast, our study is one of the first to explore a service context where service robots are likely to be the preferred service delivery mechanism over human frontline employees. Specifically, we examine how customers respond to service robots...
Article
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===> Purpose: This article emphasizes a research priority on our understanding of service products and how services can be productized. Furthermore, it provides perspectives on the contribution of service research to management practice and who should be the main target audience of service research. ===> Design/methodology/approach: The article is...
Article
Many services are difficult to understand and communicate, and as a result, difficult to position, differentiate, and sell. While important, understanding services as well-defined products has hardly received research attention although doing so offers a host of potential benefits. This conceptual article makes the following contributions. First, i...
Research
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Services are often difficult to understand and communicate, and as a result, difficult to position, differentiate, and sell. While important, understanding services as well-defined products has hardly received research attention although doing so offers a host of potential benefits. This conceptual article makes the following contributions. First,...
Cover Page
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The 9th edition of the best-selling text Services Marketing: People, Technology, Strategy will be available in Aug 2021. The attached file gives a sneak preview of the pictorial summaries of its 15 chapters and the new research that has been integrated since the last edition. ===> New topics that were included are service robots, AI, intelligent au...
Research
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Purpose – Extant research focused mostly on potentially negative customer responses to service robots. In contrast, our study is the first to explore a service context where service robots are the preferred service delivery mechanism over human frontline employees. Specifically, we examine how customers respond to service robots in the context of p...
Article
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This research examines the extent to which proactivity in handling flight overbooking reduces negative electronic word-of-mouth (NeWOM) and the required costs of compensation, thus increasing firm profitability. It answers recent calls to use a multimethod approach (i.e., we include archival data, qualitative interviews, seven experiments, and a Mo...
Article
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Digitization, artificial intelligence (AI), and service robots will revolutionize virtually all service industries and have the potential to bring unprecedented improvements in customer experience, service quality, and productivity. However, these technological advances also carry serious ethical, fairness, and privacy risks. To explore these risks...
Article
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The rapid advancement of artificial intelligence (AI) offers exciting opportunities for marketing practice and academic research. In this study, through the application of natural language processing, machine learning, and statistical algorithms, we examine the dominant topics, diversity, time slicing, and dynamics of the extant literature and map...
Article
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The sharing economy is an omnipresent topic, not just in academia but throughout public discourses. Key questions thus have been approached from various research perspectives. To gain a comprehensive view of these perspectives, this commentary features contributions from a group of respected scholars, sharing their research findings, personal obser...
Article
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We propose that digital technologies and related data become increasingly prevalent and that, consequently, ethical concerns arise. Looking at four principal stakeholders, we propose corporate digital responsibility (CDR) as a novel concept. Specifically, we define CDR as the set of shared values and norms guiding an organization's operations with...
Article
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Accepted for publication in The European Business Review in a Special Issue organized by the Centre on AI Technology for Humankind, National University of Singapore. Suggested citation: Jochen Wirtz, Werner Kunz and Stefanie Paluch (2021), “The Service Revolution, Intelligent Automation and Service Robots,” The European Business Review, forthcomin...
Book
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Un guide pragmatique et orienté vers l’action pour transformer les organisations avec l’hyper-automatisation. Une réflexion sur l’impact de l’automatisation et de l’intelligence artificielle sur le travail, la société et sur notre monde. Available on Amazon @ https://www.amazon.fr/dp/B08QRZ7N5Z
Article
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Society is on the cusp of a service revolution. Again, we have the opportunity to rapidly increase our standard of living, but this time by industrialising the service sector. --- Published in SID Directors Bulletin
Article
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Bosses in service industries must tap smart technologies to reap benefits, mitigate risks
Article
Luxury brands have been reluctant to adopt technology-enhanced multi-actor interactions at the customer interface. This article synthesizes research on luxury and multi-actor interactions in non-luxury contexts to explore how luxury brands can adopt digitally enabled multi-actor service encounters. The literature is further supplemented by intervie...
Book
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> Get the book on Amazon @ https://www.amazon.com.br/Marketing-Servi%C3%A7os-Pessoas-Tecnologia-Estrat%C3%A9gia/dp/8571441227/ >>> Líder global em marketing de serviços, este livro apresenta, de maneira sólida e fascinante, o mais completo painel dos diferentes setores de serviços e seus principais desafios. Este é um verdadeiro manual que oferece...
Chapter
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We believe that our economies are facing a turning point in history similar to the industrial revolution in manufacturing that started in the 18th century. Especially the advent of service robotics (virtual and physical service robots) in combination with these technologies will lead to rapid innovation that has the potential to dramatically improv...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose The market for luxury is growing rapidly. While there is a significant body of literature on luxury goods, academic research has largely ignored luxury services. The purpose of this article is to open luxury services as a new field of investigation by developing the theoretical and conceptual underpinnings to build the luxury services liter...
Article
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Purpose This article examines the new phenomenon of the convergence of platform and pipeline business models. It examines the potential synergies and challenges for platforms to add pipeline components and vice versa for pipeline businesses. Design/methodology/approach This paper uses a conceptual approach that synthesizes and integrates the liter...
Chapter
Full-text available
We believe that our economies are facing a turning point in history similar to the industrial revolution in manufacturing that started in the 18th century. Especially the advent of service robotics (virtual and physical service robots) in combination with these technologies will lead to rapid innovation that has the potential to dramatically improv...
Article
Service excellence and cost-effectiveness are perceived to be in conflict, yet there are organizations that achieve both. Organizations that successfully pursue a dual strategy have been shown to outperform their peers. Competitive pressures will make it critical to take the management of such contradictions and paradoxes seriously. This article sh...
Article
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Digital Business Platforms (DBPs) such as eBay, Google, and Uber have seen enormous growth in recent years. What exactly are the salient characteristics of this new way of structuring a business? What is the role of marketing in helping DBPs succeed? What are the important research topics in this domain for theory and practice? We explore these top...
Article
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Purpose Robots are predicted to have a profound impact on the service sector. The emergence of robots has attracted increasing interest from business scholars and practitioners alike. In this article, we undertake a systematic review of the business literature about the impact of service robots on customers and employees with the objective of guidi...
Chapter
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Due to rapid developments of service robots, artificial intelligence and other new technologies (including big data, analytics, speech recognition, biometrics, mobile and cloud technologies, and geo-tagging) the service sector is facing a new wave of digitalization, including at the customer interface. Service robots, defined as system-based autono...
Article
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Master Class - Service Robots & AI. The service sector is at an inflection point with regard to productivity gains and service industrialization - robotics in combination with rapidly improving technologies will bring opportunities for a wide range of innovations that have the potential to dramatically change service industries. This Master Class (...
Chapter
Full-text available
Cost-effective service excellence (CESE) is defined as achieving low unit costs (i.e., high productivity) while at the same time delivering an industry-leading level of service quality (i.e., service excellence). This chapter is based on and extends the article by Wirtz and Zeithaml (2018), and discusses how CESE can be achieved through three strat...
Article
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Can you think of 3 global service brands? And what is it Americans can do but Germans, Japanese and Koreans cannot? Tongue in cheek video but with a serious message.