Job Tharappel

Job Tharappel
University of Kentucky | UKY · Department of Surgery

PhD

About

37
Publications
1,792
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722
Citations
Citations since 2017
3 Research Items
200 Citations
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Publications

Publications (37)
Article
Background: Incisional hernia is one of the most common complications of abdominal surgery, and repairs are associated with significant recurrence rates. Mesh repairs are associated with the best outcomes, but failures are not uncommon. Doxycycline has been demonstrated to enhance mesh hernia repair outcomes with associated increases in collagen d...
Article
Full-text available
PURPOSE: Complex abdominal wall hernia repairs present unique challenges for patients and surgeons, often requiring mesh placement. Biologic materials may be utilized in repairs with high risk for postoperative complications. Porcine dermal meshes (PDM) are among the most commonly utilized biologic grafts. Porcine hepatic biologic mesh (PHM) was de...
Article
Full-text available
Background Doxycycline, a nonspecific metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor, has been demonstrated to impact the strength of the polypropylene (PP) mesh-repaired hernia with an increase in the deposition of collagen type 1. The impact of doxycycline with porcine acellular dermal matrices (PADM) is unknown; therefore, we evaluated the impact of doxycycl...
Article
Ventral hernia is a commonly occurring surgical problem. Our earlier studies have shown that a 30 mg/kg dose of doxycycline can significantly impact the strength of polypropylene (PP) mesh in a rat hernia repair model at 6 and 12 weeks. The objective of the present study was to investigate the dose dependence of doxycycline treatment on hernia repa...
Article
Background: Despite improvements in ventral hernia repair techniques, their recurrence rates are unacceptably high. Increased levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and reduced collagen-1 to -3 ratios are implicated in incisional hernia formation. We have recently shown doxycycline treatment for 4 wk after hernia repair reduced MMP levels, sig...
Article
Incisional hernias occur commonly in up to 20% of all abdominal operations. Incisional hernia formation has been associated with increased levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), reduced collagen 1, and increased collagen 3 expression. Doxycycline, a nonspecific inhibitor of MMPs, has been shown to beneficially reduce MMP levels in both cancer...
Article
The goal of the study was to determine if dietary selenium inhibited the induction of lung tumorigenesis by cigarette smoke in A/J mice. Purified diets containing 0.15, 0.5, or 2.0 mg/kg selenium in the form of sodium selenite were fed to female A/J mice. Half of the mice in each dietary group were exposed to cigarette smoke 6 hours/day, 5 days/wee...
Article
Phenobarbital (PB) is an efficacious and well-studied hepatic tumor promoting agent. Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) is a transcription factor activated by reactive oxygen and is involved in cell proliferation and apoptosis. We previously found that PB activates NF-κB and that dietary vitamin E is effective in decreasing PB-induced NF-κB DNA binding. We...
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Full-text available
We report the role of dietary glycine and the type of oil used as a vehicle in the hepatotoxicity of control rats and rats treated with 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB-153). In our first experiment, glycine or valine (as control) was fed in an unrefined diet at 5% for the entire study duration (5 days) to inhibit Kupffer cell activity. PCB-1...
Article
Full-text available
Cigarette smoke contains a high concentration of free radicals and induces oxidative stress in the lung and other tissues. Several transcription factors are known to be activated by oxidative stress, including nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), activator protein-1 (AP-1), and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF). Studies were therefore undertaken to exam...
Article
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Pemoline is a central nervous system stimulant that has been used to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and narcolepsy in humans; its identification in horses could be considered evidence of attempts to influence performance. Two recent pemoline 'positives' in English racehorses led us to review the chemical relationships between tetram...
Article
In this review, the role of dietary antioxidants in the prevention of hepatocarcinogenesis is examined. Both human and animal models are discussed. Vitamin C, vitamin E, and selenium are antioxidants that are essential in the human diet. A number of non-essential chemicals also contain antioxidant activity and are consumed in the human diet, mainly...
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The objective of this study was to determine if dietary selenium could inhibit pulmonary cell proliferation in control and cigarette smoke-exposed female A/J mice. Selenium in the form of sodium selenite was supplemented to purified diets similar to the AIN-93M diet to yield 0.15, 0.5, or 2.0 mg selenium/kg diet. After 3 weeks, mice in each dietary...
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Full-text available
Perfluorooctanesulfonamides, such as N-ethyl perfluorooctanesulfonamidoethanol (N-EtFOSE), are large scale industrial chemicals but their disposition and toxicity are poorly understood despite significant human exposure. The hypothesis that subacute exposure to N-EtFOSE, a weak peroxisome proliferator, causes a redox imbalance in vivo was tested us...
Article
In this review, the role of NF-κB in the induction of hepatocarcinogenesis by peroxisome proliferators is examined. The administration of peroxisome proliferators for more than a three-day period leads to the activation of NF-κB in the livers of rats and mice. On the other hand, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-α (PPARα) activ...
Article
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent and ubiquitous environmental chemicals that bioaccumulate and have hepatic tumor promoting activity in rodents. The present study examined the effect of deleting the p50 subunit of NF-kappaB on the hepatic tumor promoting activity of 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB-153) in mice. Both wild-type...
Article
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have promoting activity in the liver, which may be brought about in part by the induction of oxidative stress. In this study we examined the effects of several antioxidant phytochemicals on the tumor promoting activity of 3,3',4'4-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB-77). Female Sprague Dawley rats were first injected with diet...
Article
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants that have promoting activity in the liver. PCBs induce oxidative stress, which may influence carcinogenesis. Epidemiological studies strongly suggest an inverse relationship between dietary selenium (Se) and cancer. Despite evidence linking Se deficiency to hepatocellular carcinoma...
Article
Phenobarbital (PB) is a nongenotoxic tumor promoter in the liver. One mechanism by which PB may exert its tumor promoting activity is by inducing oxidative stress. We previously found that PB administration increased hepatic NF-kappaB DNA binding activity. In this study we examined the hypothesis that the effects of PB on cell proliferation and apo...
Article
PCBs are organic pollutants that persist and bioaccumulate in the environment. These chemicals induce and promote liver tumors in rodents. Previous studies have shown that they increase oxidative stress in the liver, including lipid peroxidation, oxidative DNA damage, and NF-κB activation. The objective of these studies was to determine if the prom...
Article
Full-text available
In this review, the role of NF-kappaB in the induction of hepatocarcinogenesis by peroxisome proliferators is examined. The administration of peroxisome proliferators for more than a three-day period leads to the activation of NF-kappaB in the livers of rats and mice. On the other hand, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-alpha (PPARalpha) a...
Article
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitious lipophilic environmental pollutants. Some of the PCB congeners and mixtures of congeners have tumor promoting activity in rat liver. The mechanism of their activity is not fully understood and is likely to be multifactorial. The aim of this study was to investigate if the resident liver macrophages,...
Article
Full-text available
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous environmental toxicants which act as liver tumor promoters in rodents and can be classified as either dioxin-like or non-dioxin (phenobarbital [PB])–like inducers of cytochrome P-450. Since we have previously shown that tumor promotion by PB leads to clonal outgrowth of β-catenin (Catnb)–mutated but n...
Article
Full-text available
Wy-14,643 (WY) is a hypolipidemic drug that induces hepatic peroxisome proliferation and tumors in rodents. We previously showed that peroxisome proliferators increase NF-kappaB DNA binding activity in rats, mice, and hepatoma cell lines, and that mice deficient in the p50 subunit of NF-kappaB had much lower cell proliferation in response to the pe...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, the effect of dietary vitamin E on the hepatic tumor-promoting activity of PCB-77 and PCB-153 in female Sprague-Dawley rats (175-200 g) was investigated. One week after diethylnitrosamine injection, rats were fed purified diets containing 10, 50, or 250 mg/kg vitamin E in the form of alpha-tocopheryl acetate. Starting 1 wk later, we...
Article
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We previously showed that the peroxisome proliferator ciprofibrate increases hepatic NF-kappaB DNA binding activity in rats, mice, and hepatoma cell lines. Here, we analyzed the response to ciprofibrate in mice that lack the NF-kappaB p50 gene (p50-/-). Wild-type and p50-/- mice were fed a diet with or without 0.01% ciprofibrate for 10 days. NF-kap...
Article
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are environmental pollutants that, because of their persistence and biomagnification, raise concerns about the health consequences of long-term exposure. PCB mixtures induce hepatocellular carcinomas in rodents, but the mechanism of their promoting activity is not clear. Previous studies have shown that oxidative st...
Article
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are environmental pollutants that are complete carcinogens and tumor promoters in the liver. The mechanisms of their promoting activities are not clear, but one possible mechanism is the induction of oxidative stress. In the present study we evaluated the ability of two PCB congeners to activate the oxidative stress...
Article
Full-text available
Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) is an oxidative stress-activated transcription factor involved in the regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis. We found previously that the peroxisome proliferator ciprofibrate activates NF-kappaB in the livers of rats and mice. These species are sensitive to the hepatocarcinogenic effects of peroxisome prol...
Article
Peroxisome proliferators are a class of hepatic carcinogens in rodents and have been proposed to act in part by increasing oxidative stress. Fatty acyl CoA oxidase (FAO), which is highly induced by peroxisome proliferators, is the hydrogen peroxide-generating enzyme of the peroxisomal beta-oxidation pathway. We previously showed that the treatment...

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