Joaquim R. R. A. Martins

Joaquim R. R. A. Martins
University of Michigan | U-M · Department of Aerospace Engineering

PhD

About

364
Publications
301,451
Reads
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13,735
Citations
Citations since 2016
213 Research Items
11121 Citations
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201620172018201920202021202205001,0001,5002,000
201620172018201920202021202205001,0001,5002,000
Additional affiliations
September 2009 - August 2015
University of Michigan
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
November 2002 - August 2009
University of Toronto
Position
  • Associate Professor, Canada Research Chair in MDO (Tier 2)
September 1997 - October 2002
Stanford University
Position
  • Research Assistant
Education
September 1991 - June 1995
Imperial College London
Field of study
  • Aeronautical Engineering

Publications

Publications (364)
Article
Full-text available
Multidisciplinary design optimization is a field of research that studies the application of numerical optimization techniques to the design of engineering systems involving multiple disciplines or components. Since the inception of multidisciplinary design optimization, various methods (architectures) have been developed and applied to solve multi...
Article
Full-text available
Multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) is concerned with solving design problems involving coupled numerical models of complex engineering systems. While various MDO software frameworks exist, none of them take full advantage of state-of-the-art algorithms to solve coupled models efficiently. Furthermore, there is a need to facilitate the comp...
Book
Full-text available
Based on course-tested material, this rigorous yet accessible graduate textbook covers both fundamental and advanced optimization theory and algorithms. It covers a wide range of numerical methods and topics, including both gradient-based and gradient-free algorithms, multidisciplinary design optimization, and uncertainty, with instruction on how t...
Article
Full-text available
The adjoint method is used for high-fidelity aerodynamic shape optimization and is an efficient approach for computing the derivatives of a function of interest with respect to a large number of design variables. Over the past few decades, various approaches have been used to implement the adjoint method in computational fluid dynamics solvers. How...
Article
Full-text available
Despite considerable research on aerodynamic shape optimization, there is no standard benchmark problem allowing researchers to compare results. This work addresses this issue by solving a series of aerodynamic shape optimization problems based on the Common Research Model wing benchmark case defined by the Aerodynamic Design Optimization Discussio...
Article
We propose a scalable framework for the learning of high-dimensional parametric maps via adaptively constructed residual network (ResNet) maps between reduced bases of the inputs and outputs. When just few training data are available, it is beneficial to have a compact parametrization in order to ameliorate the ill-posedness of the neural network t...
Article
Full-text available
Dynamical systems often exhibit limit cycle oscillations (LCOs), self-sustaining oscillations of limited amplitude. LCOs can be supercritical or subcritical. The supercritical response is benign, while the subcritical response can be bi-stable and exhibit a hysteretic response. Subcritical responses can be avoided in design optimization by enforcin...
Conference Paper
This paper introduces a control co-design (CCD) framework to simultaneously explore the physical parameters and control spaces for a hydro-kinetic turbine (HKT) rotor optimization. The optimization formulation incorporates a coupled dynamic-hydrodynamic model to maximize the rotor power efficiency for various time-variant flow profiles. The open-lo...
Article
Full-text available
High-fidelity multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) promises rigorous balancing of the multidisciplinary trade-offs inherent to aircraft wings. However, collaborations between academia and industry rarely put MDO to the test on practical design problems. In this work, MDO is applied to the design of a regional jet wing to minimize fuel burn....
Article
Full-text available
Machine learning (ML) has been increasingly used to aid aerodynamic shape optimization (ASO), thanks to the availability of aerodynamic data and continued developments in deep learning. We review the applications of ML in ASO to date and provide a perspective on the state-of-the-art and future directions. We first introduce conventional ASO and cur...
Article
Full-text available
Hydrodynamic lifting surfaces usually include junctions. High-fidelity simulations are necessary to capture critical physics near these regions, such as separation, junction vortices, and cavitation. We present RANS-based hydrodynamic optimizations of a T-shaped hydrofoil, including changes in the junction geometry. The optimized hydrofoils avoid s...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Electric and hybrid-electric propulsion systems are key technologies for sustainable aviation. Electric propulsion systems introduce many design possibilities, which must be considered in the conceptual design stage to take full advantage of electrification. This makes for a challenging conceptual design problem. Architecture optimization can be ap...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
As the computational resources available to aerodynamicists increase, so does the number of tools with which they can analyze their designs. The key skill of a good engineer is understanding when each tool produces realistic results. Even if no available tool can capture all relevant physical phenomena, this knowledge allows engineers to alter thei...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
High-fidelity aerostructural aircraft optimizations have become more widespread in recent years, especially when combined with the efficiencies offered by the adjoint method and gradient-based optimizers. However, it is still computationally expensive to perform such optimizations with hundreds of design variables and multiple flight conditions. In...
Article
Full-text available
Discrete multi-load truss sizing optimization (MTSO) problems are challenging to solve due to their combinatorial, nonlinear, and non-convex nature. This study highlights two important characteristics of the feasible set of MTSO problems considered here, in which force balance equations, Hooke’s law, yield stress, bound constraints on displacements...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Advances in aeropropulsive design optimization provide new capabilities for the study of tightly integrated propulsion systems. New techniques that couple CFD solvers to thermodynamic cycle analyses showed increased robustness and proved the viability of a fully coupled approach using gradient-based optimization. However, existing work in this area...
Article
Full-text available
Derivatives of eigenvalues and eigenvectors with respect to design variables are required for gradient-based optimization in many engineering design problems. However, for the generalized and standard eigenvalue problems with general complex and non-Hermitian coefficient matrices, no method can accurately compute the eigenvalue and eigenvec-tor der...
Article
Full-text available
Predicting and controlling the steady and dynamic hydroelastic performance is a crucial challenge in marine composite lifting surface design. Excessive flow-induced vibrations and accelerated fatigue can be severe issues if not considered in the initial design. Most design optimizations only consider steady performance and neglect critical dynamic...
Article
As racing vehicles become more complex, optimising the interaction between subsystems becomes critical for racing performance. In this work, we incorporate two such subsystems into a vehicle model. We investigate the performance benefits of a four-wheel-drive vehicle with independent control over its in-hub motors and active control on the rear win...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The aerodynamic design of aircraft often involves evaluating flow conditions that span low subsonic to transonic, or even supersonic Mach numbers. Compressible flow solvers are a natural choice for such design problems, but these solvers encounter reduced accuracy and efficiency at low Mach numbers. In addition, simulations with supersonic conditio...
Presentation
Full-text available
Presentation from Aviation 2022 about our working applying CFD-based shape optimization methods to a plate-fin heat exchanger. The conference paper associated with this work can be found at https://doi.org/10.2514/6.2022-3930 .
Conference Paper
Full-text available
View Video Presentation: https://doi.org/10.2514/6.2022-3357.vid The next-generation aircraft are trending towards more flexible wings that make them more prone to flutter, or more general, limit cycle oscillation (LCO). Thus, when conducting a multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) using the gradient-based method, computing the LCO derivative...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Aerodynamic shape optimization has become a well-established process, with designers routinely performing wing and full aircraft optimizations with hundreds of geometric design variables. However, with increased geometric design freedom comes increased optimization difficulty. These optimizations tend to converge very slowly, often taking many hund...
Conference Paper
View Video Presentation: https://doi.org/10.2514/6.2022-3930.vid The plate-fin heat exchanger is common in aerospace applications because of its small size and lightweight. Heat exchangers are vital to aircraft applications such as jet engines, environmental control systems, and thermal management systems for electric components. The thermal manage...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
View Video Presentation: https://doi.org/10.2514/6.2022-3384.vid This paper presents the results of the optimisation of aerofoils designed for the blades of a vertical axis wind turbine. The aerofoils are symmetrical and have thickness values of 27%, 33% and 50\%, with respect to the chord length. The aerofoils are optimised using ADflow, an open-s...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
When designing aircraft, avoiding dynamic aeroelastic instabilities such as flutter is a key requirement. One way to meet this requirement is to use a multidisciplinary design optimization subject to a flutter constraint. To date, flutter-constrained design optimizations have used geometrically linear models, that do not accurately predict flutter...
Article
Full-text available
Aerodynamic shape optimization based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) requires three steps: updating the geometry based on the design variables, updating the CFD surface mesh for the new geometry, and updating the CFD volume mesh based on the new surface mesh. While there are many tools available for the first and third steps, the methods avai...
Article
Full-text available
Electrified aircraft benefit from the versatile ways electric motors can be integrated with an airframe. However, thermal management is needed to move waste heat out of the motors because the heat is not expelled with the exhaust as in a conventional engine. Plate-fin, fin, and surface heat exchangers are incorporated as air-side heat exchangers fo...
Article
Full-text available
Transonic buffet is undesirable because it causes vibration, and constraining buffet is crucial in transonic wing design. However, there is still a lack of accurate and efficient buffet formulation to impose the constraint. This work proposes a physics-based data-driven buffet analysis model generalizable for airfoil and wing shapes. The model is t...
Article
Full-text available
Electrified aircraft propulsion enables new aircraft designs with fewer emissions. One challenge of electrified architectures is handling the electrical components’ waste heat. This is because batteries and other electrical components are sensitive to high temperatures and accumulate heat within their structure. In this work, we investigate using a...
Preprint
Full-text available
This paper introduces a control co-design (CCD) framework to simultaneously explore the physical parameters and control spaces for a hydro-kinetic turbine (HKT) rotor optimization. The optimization formulation incorporates a coupled dynamic-hydrodynamic model to maximize the rotor power efficiency for various time-variant flow profiles. The open-lo...
Article
Full-text available
Multifidelity design optimization is a strategy that can reduce the high computational cost in cases where the high-fidelity model is too expensive to use directly in optimization. However, current multifidelity approaches cannot handle the high-dimensional problems commonly encountered in industrial settings. Furthermore, they cannot accommodate a...
Article
Full-text available
Ensuring the safe operation of new supersonic transport aircraft requires understanding their stability during takeoff and landing. These phases involve flying at subsonic speeds and high angles of attack, where the aerodynamics are characterized by unsteady vortical flow. This work assesses the accuracy of Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) an...
Article
Antony Jameson pioneered CFD-based aerodynamic design optimization in the late 1980s. In addition to developing the fundamental theory, Jameson implemented that theory in codes that were practical enough to be used in industry. As a result of Jameson’s seminal efforts, a research community has been established in aerodynamic design optimization. Th...
Preprint
Full-text available
Machine learning (ML) has been increasingly used to aid aerodynamic shape optimization (ASO), thanks to the availability of aerodynamic data and continued developments in deep learning. We review the applications of ML in ASO to date and provide a perspective on the state-of-the-art and future directions. We first introduce conventional ASO and cur...
Article
Full-text available
The inclusion of transition to turbulence effects in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations makes it possible to design laminar flow airframes. It also increases the level of physical representations for simulations of standard airframes because laminar flow regions may be present in parts of the aircraft in multiple flight conditions. Modi...
Preprint
Full-text available
Limit cycle oscillations (LCO) can be supercritical or subcritical. The supercritical response is benign, while the subcritical response can be destructive. It is desirable to avoid subcritical responses by enforcing LCO stability through design optimization constraints. However, there is a need for a computational approach that can model this inst...
Article
Full-text available
Boundary-layer ingestion (BLI) offers the potential for significant fuel burn reduction by exploiting tightly coupled aeropropulsive effects. NASA’s Single-aisle Turboelectric Aircraft with Aft Boundary-Layer propulsion (STARC-ABL) concept employs BLI on an electrically powered tail cone thruster to take advantage of the technology on what is other...
Article
Full-text available
Eigenvalue and eigenvectors are essential metrics to characterize dynamic system behavior and stability. When performing gradient-based design optimization, derivatives of these metrics are required. Analytic forward algorithmic differentiation (FAD) for a self-adjoint generalized eigenproblem has been a useful technique. However, reverse algorithm...
Article
Full-text available
Imperfectly scaled models are commonplace in aerodynamics and hydrodynamics because few facilities can meet all the flow and structural scaling requirements. The objectives of this work are to (1) derive and numerically validate scaling relations for the steady-state and dynamic hydroelastic response and stability of hydrodynamic composite lifting...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The decarbonization of the electric grid is a fundamental technological and socio-economical challenge to address the looming threat of climate change. The reduction of the levelized cost of energy is a critical step to expand the application of carbon-free technologies that rely on high-potential, renewable energy sources such as wind power. Advan...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Designing supersonic transport aircraft requires accounting for performance and stability and high-speed and low-speed conditions. Previous work demonstrated that there is a trade-off between high-speed performance and low-speed stability. Numerical optimization presents the opportunity to obtain the best high-speed performance while enforcing stab...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
View Video Presentation: https://doi.org/10.2514/6.2022-1290.vid As demand grows for wind turbines with larger blades, the design of future wind turbines must account for multi-physical interactions and an ever-increasing number of design load conditions. One aspect, aerostructural coupling, calls for design tools that are both accurate and computa...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
View Video Presentation: https://doi.org/10.2514/6.2022-1503.vid The conceptual design process of aircraft starts by deciding the representative mission requirements, followed by optimization of design variables to satisfy the given requirements. However, selecting appropriate mission requirements is not an obvious task, particularly when designing...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In the past, aerostructural optimizations have used a single or small number of analyses in cruise to roughly estimate mission performance. This is accurate enough for long missions where the majority of time is spent near a single flight condition in cruise. But for regional and narrowbody aircraft, the fuel burn in climb is a substantial portion...
Conference Paper
View Video Presentation: https://doi.org/10.2514/6.2022-1867.vid Computational fluid dynamics solvers that use structured meshes are faster per degree of freedom and often more efficient than unstructured solvers. For applications such as aerodynamic shape optimization, where hundreds of flow solution are required, structured solvers are generally...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Higher-aspect-ratio lightweight wings can make aircraft more energy efficient thanks to induced drag reduction. Because such wings exhibit large deflections, affecting the flutter onset, design optimization using linear flutter analysis is inadequate. To address this issue, we develop a framework for including a geometrically nonlinear flutter cons...
Preprint
Full-text available
We present a parsimonious surrogate framework for learning high dimensional parametric maps from limited training data. The need for parametric surrogates arises in many applications that require repeated queries of complex computational models. These applications include such "outer-loop" problems as Bayesian inverse problems, optimal experimental...
Article
Full-text available
This paper is written to honor Raphael T. Haftka’s seminal contributions to multidisciplinary design optimization. We focus on those contributions that directly impacted our research, namely: the adjoint method for computing derivatives, wing aerostructural design optimization, and architectures for multidisciplinary design optimization. For each o...
Article
Full-text available
Discrete variable topology optimization problems are usually solved by using solid isotropic material with penalization (SIMP), genetic algorithms (GA), or mixed-integer nonlinear optimization (MINLO). In this paper, we propose formulating discrete ply-angle and thickness topology optimization problems as a mixed-integer second-order cone optimizat...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
View Video Presentation: https://doi.org/10.2514/6.2021-3051.vid The proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) based reduced-order model (ROM) has been an effective tool for flow field prediction in the engineering industry. The sample selection in the design space for POD basis construction affects the ROM performance sensitively. Adaptive sampling ca...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Urban air mobility vehicles have taken form as advanced rotorcraft with sets of wings, rotors, canards, and other appendages. Noise generation is an important technical barrier that must be addressed to prevent these vehicles from causing excessive disturbance to the communities they are intended to service. There is a need for efficient and low-fi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
View Video Presentation: https://doi.org/10.2514/6.2021-2612.vid Ensuring the safe operation of new supersonic transport aircraft requires understanding their stability during takeoff and landing. These phases involve flying at subsonic speeds and high angles of attack, where the aerodynamics are characterized by unsteady vortical flow. In this wor...